Multiple sclerosis

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Multiple sclerosis

  1. 1. Multiple SclerosisMarnelle Joy S. Pulmano, BSN, RN
  2. 2. OVERVIEW OF MS
  3. 3. Definition• A chronic and progressive disorder of the brain and spinal cord• Caused by damage to the myelin sheath (white matter)• Destruction of the myelin sheath leads to scarring (sclerosis), which decreases and eventually blocks nerve conduction
  4. 4. Incidence• Affects 1 out of 1000 people• Occurs more often in women
  5. 5. Onset• Most commonly between 20 and 40 years old
  6. 6. Etiology• Unknown• Possibly an autoimmune disorder or exposure to a virus
  7. 7. Clinical Findings• Weakness• Paresis or paralysis of one or more limbs• Myoclonus – Involuntary muscle jerks• Impaired or double vision• Eye and facial pain
  8. 8. Clinical Findings• Fatigue• Dizziness• Decreased coordination• Loss of balance
  9. 9. NURSING FOCUS
  10. 10. • Goal of Therapy: – To control symptoms – Preserve function – Maximize quality of life
  11. 11. • Perform or arrange for ROM exercises to be done 2x a day• Assess skin for breakdown• Perform routine skin care
  12. 12. PATIENT TEACHING
  13. 13. • Provide patient and family with literature on MS• Encourage a healthy lifestyle: – Exercise to maintain good muscle tone – Good nutrition – Plenty of rest and relaxation
  14. 14. • Stress the importance of avoiding stress and fatigue• Depending on progression of MS, arrange for occupational, physical, and speech therapy
  15. 15. • Explain the actions, dosages, side effects, and adverse reaction of all meds – Steroids – Immunosuppressant therapy – Antiviral agents – Muscle relaxants – Antidepressants

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