Diabetes mellitus

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Diabetes mellitus

  1. 1. Diabetes MellitusMADE EASYMarnelle Joy S. Pulmano, BSN, RN
  2. 2. Definition• A chronic metabolic disorder marked by hyperglycemia• Type 1 DM – Results from a primary failure of the beta cells of the pancreas to produce enough insulin
  3. 3. • Type 2 DM – Results from the development of insulin resistance in body cells, with initial increased insulin secretion to maintain metabolism, followed by eventual inability of the pancreas to secrete enough insulin to sustain normal metabolism
  4. 4. TYPE-1 DIABETES
  5. 5. • Incidence: – Accounts for about 5-10% of diagnosed diabetes• Onset: – Develops most often in children and young adults – The disorder can appear at any age
  6. 6. • Etiology: – Develops when immune cells attack and destroy insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas, resulting in loss of insulin production.
  7. 7. • Clinical Findings: – Weight loss – Muscle wasting – Loss of subcutaneous fat – olyuria – olydipsia – olyphagia – Ketoacidosis
  8. 8. TYPE-2 DIABETES
  9. 9. • Incidence: – Most common form of diabetes – 90-95% of diagnosed diabetes• Onset: – Gradual – Early on the pancreas is usually producing enough insulin, but for unknown reasons, the body cells lose their ability to respond to the insulin effectively
  10. 10. – Eventually, insulin production decreases or ceases altogether• Etiology: – Associated with older age, obesity, family history of diabetes, previous history of gestational diabetes, physical inactivity, ethnicity – About 80% of type-2 diabetics are overweight – Increasingly being seen in children, adolescents, young adults
  11. 11. • Clinical Findings: – olyuria – olydipsia – ruritus – eripheral neuropathy – Frequent infections – Delayed healing of wounds or sores
  12. 12. Nursing Focus• Routine assessment for hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia and their associated s/s• Monitor blood glucose as ordered and document response to prescribed therapies• Assess body systems for complications associated with the effects of diabetes
  13. 13. Patient Teaching• Provide patient with literature on managing diabetes• Encourage necessary lifestyle changes – Weight reduction, if overweight – Dietary modifications – Exercise
  14. 14. • Explain the purpose, dosage, route, and side effects of insulin and/or hypoglycemic agents• If self-administered insulin is prescribed, ensure pateints ability to demonstrate appropriate preparation and administration
  15. 15. Thank you!

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