Participatory Action Research


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Participatory Action Research

  1. 1. Philippine Normal University COLLEGE OF EDUCATION Taft Avenue, Manila 2nd Semester, SY 2012-2013 ED 503: Research Methods and Scientific Writing 2:00 – 5:00 PM, Saturdays, CED 203 Prof. Lolita H. Nava, Ph.D. PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH ANDPARTICIPATORY ACTION RESEARCH Reynante S. Tagum M.A. in Education major in Guidance & Counseling
  2. 2. PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH A collaborative process of research, education and action (Hall 1981) explicitly oriented towards social transformation (McTaggart 1997).
  3. 3. Involves researchers andparticipants working together toexamine a problematic situation oraction to change it for the better(Wadsworth 1998).
  4. 4. Participatory research has three keyelements: people, power andpraxis (Finn, 1994).
  5. 5. It is people-centered (Brown, 1985)in the sense that the process ofcritical inquiry is informed by andresponds to the experiences andneeds of people involved.
  6. 6. Participatory research is aboutpower. Power is crucial to theconstruction of reality, language,meanings and rituals of truth; powerfunctions in all knowledge and inevery definition. Power is knowledgeand knowledge creates truth andtherefore power (Foucault, 1980).
  7. 7. Participatory research is also aboutpraxis. It recognizes theinseparability of theory and practiceand critical awareness of thepersonal-political dialectic.
  8. 8. PARTICIPATORY ACTION RESEARCH Participatory action research is a form of action research in which professional social researchers operate as full collaborators with members of organizations in studying and transforming those organizations.
  9. 9. It is an ongoing organizationallearning process, a researchapproach that emphasizes co-learning, participation andorganizational transformation(Greenwood et al, 1993).
  10. 10. Is an attribute of action research inwhich the problem is determined bythe people who believe and feel thatthe problem is really a problem inthe local setting and the solution tothe problem is within the samesetting without intention ofgeneralizing its results.
  11. 11. Characteristics of Participatory Action Researched1. People-oriented2. Community involvement3. Group-research4. Big crowd5. Political involvement
  12. 12. Participatory and conventional research: a comparison of process Participatory research Conventional research What is the research for? Action Understanding with perhaps action later Who is the research for? Local people Institution, personal and professional interest Whose knowledge counts? Local peoples Scientists Topic choice influenced by? Local priorities Funding priorities, institutional agendas, professional interest Methodology chosen for? Empowerment, mutual learning Disciplinary conventions. objectivity and truth Who takes part in the stages of research process? Problem identification Local people Researcher Data collection Local people Researcher Interpretation Local concepts and frameworks Disciplinary concepts and frameworks Analysis Local people Researcher Presentation of findings Locally accessible and useful By researcher to other academics or funding body Action on findings Integral to the process Separate and may not happen Who takes action? Local people, with/without external support External agencies Who owns the results? Shared The researcher What is emphasized Process Outcomes
  13. 13. Cyclical mode of PAR
  14. 14. Framework of Participatory Action Research1. Identification of the problem andcommunity2. Statement of the goals/objectives3. Identification of participant4. Organization of the research team5. Establishment of timetable6. Conduct of the participatory actionresearch project
  15. 15. Framework of Participatory Action Research6. Conduct of the participatory actionresearch project7. Evaluation of results8. Interpretation of the findings9. Implications / recommendations10. Implementation
  16. 16. Advantages ofParticipatory Action Research
  17. 17. Advantages of PAR1. Research participants increasestheir knowledge and ideas as wellas valid analysis of social reality,thus, more relevant solutions areachieved.
  18. 18. Advantages of PAR2. Both researchers and subjects ofthe study gain more from theresearch process when theresearchers attain greater sensitivityand self-awareness of the problems.
  19. 19. Advantages of PAR3. The subject of the study gain trustand self-confidence at their own rateand resources to improve theirconditions.
  20. 20. Advantages of PAR4. Good relationship can bedeveloped among the researchteam, research participants, andpeople in the community.
  21. 21. Advantages of PAR5. Humanistic approach is enhancedthrough involvement of everyone insolving social problems.
  22. 22. Disadvantages ofParticipatory Action Research
  23. 23. Disadvantages of PAR1. It is time consuming because ittakes time to involve many people inconducting research.
  24. 24. Disadvantages of PAR2. It is difficult to gather people andmanage to attend the generalassembly due to large number ofpeople involved.
  25. 25. Disadvantages of PAR3. When the research team back-outwhile the research process is goingon, a new team is created thereforeyou have to start all over again.
  26. 26. Disadvantages of PAR4. The research team may use theirpower to personal needs and mostof the benefits go to them.
  27. 27. Disadvantages of PAR5. Politicians who get involved in theresearch process may usetraditional techniques and the saidtechnique may prevail.
  28. 28. Disadvantages of PAR6. Abuse of discretion by researchteam may be practiced due to toomuch trust and confidence by theresearch participants and subjectsof the study to them and they do notcheck and balance their activities.
  29. 29. Disadvantages of PAR7. With full peoples participation,factors such as experiences,educational qualifications, socio-economic status , knowledge,abilities and skills will affect thebenefit of the participants. The lessexperiences, knowledge, abilitiesand skills one has in participating,the less one benefits from thesystem.
  30. 30. ReferenceCalmorin, Laurentina P. & Calmorin Melchor A. (2007).Research Methods and Thesis Writing. Rex Bookstore, Inc.Manila.Kindon, S. L., Pain, R., & Kesby, M. (2007). Participatoryaction research approaches and methods: connectingpeople, participation and place. Routledge studies in humangeography, 22. London: Routledge.Sevilla, Consuelo G. et al. (1992). Research Methods. RexBook Store, Inc. Quezon City.Sommer R. & Sommer B. (2002). A Practical Guide toBehavioral Research. (5th edition) Oxford University Press.
  31. 31. WebsiteAction Research and Participation. Available at (accessed January 23, 2013).Community Based Participatory Research. Available at (accessed January 31, 2013).Participatory Action Research and Organizational Change. Available at (accessed January 23,2013).Participatory Research Methods: A Methodological Approach in Motion. Availableat January 23, 2013).Participatory Research Approaches. Available at (accessed January 31, 2013).What is participatory research? Available at (accessed January 23, 2013).
  32. 32. Philippine Normal University COLLEGE OF EDUCATION Taft Avenue, Manila 2nd Semester, SY 2012-2013 ED 503: Research Methods and Scientific Writing 2:00 – 5:00 PM, Saturdays, CED 203 Prof. Lolita H. Nava, Ph.D. PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH ANDPARTICIPATORY ACTION RESEARCH Reynante S. Tagum M.A. in Education major in Guidance & Counseling