ECOTOURISM and other
Related Tourism Forms
Ecotourism is related to NATURE, CULTURE,
FARM, WILDLIFE and ADVENTURE tourism, and
cam be described as a sub-category of nature
and culture tourism, a tourism form that can
be practiced on farms or in wildlife, and
consists of an adventurous nature.
Ecotourism is a sub-category of sustainable
tourism and thereby contributes to sustainable
development and sustainability. (Higham,
Travel to participate in outdoor activities utilizing
the natural resources of an area.
Travel to areas where culture can be studied or
Travel to participate on a working farm.
Travel to areas where wildlife can be watched
Travel that involve risk, danger and adrenalin; a
tourism that may require physical stamina
Nature Tourism is defined as 'tourism focused
principally on natural resources such as
relatively undisturbed parks and natural areas,
wetlands, wildlife reserves, and other areas of
protected flora, fauna, and habitats'.
NATURE TOURISM encompasses all forms of
tourism – mass tourism, adventure tourism,
low-impact, ecotourism – which use natural
resources in a wild or undeveloped form –
including species, habitat, landscape, scenery
and salt and fresh – water features. Nature
tourism is travel for the purpose of enjoying
undeveloped natural areas or wildlife (Fennell,
Tourism based on encounters with nondomesticated (non-human) animals
This includes wildlife watching tourism, captive
wildlife tourism in man-made confinements,
and hunting and fishing tourism.
Wildlife Tourism product is placed
into seven categories
1.Nature-based tourism and wildlife component,
where wildlife is an incidental part of the
overall NBT product.
2.Locations with good wildlife viewing
opportunities, includes accomodation units
that are located in wildlife-rich habitat and may
attract wildlife through the provision of food.
3. Artificial attractions based on wildlife, which
include, for example, human-made attractions
where animals are kept in captivity.
4. Specialist animal watching, for special-interest
groups like birders.
5. Habitat specific tours, which focus on areas or
regions rich in animal life.
6. Thrill-offering tours, where dangerous animals
are enticed to engage in spectacular bahavior
for the viewing pleasure of tourists.
7. Hunting/fishing tours, in natural, semi-captive
or farmed environments where animals are
killed or released back into the wild (Fennell,
Outdoor leisure activity that takes
place in an unusual exotic, remote or
wilderness destination, involves
some form of unconventional means
of transportation, and tends to be
associated with low or high levels of
activity (Fennell, 2008)
Soft Adventure activities are pursued by those
interested in a perceived risk and adventure
with little actual risk.
Hard Adventure activities are known by both
the tourist and service provider to have high
level of risk.