Participatory Research


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Participatory Research

  1. 1. Philippine Normal University COLLEGE OF EDUCATION Taft Avenue, Manila 2nd Semester, SY 2012-2013 ED 503: Research Methods and Scientific Writing 2:00 – 5:00 PM, Saturdays, CED 203 Prof. Lolita H. Nava, Ph.D. PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH AND PARTICIPATORY ACTION RESEARCH Reynante S. Tagum M.A. in Education major in Guidance & Counseling
  2. 2. PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH A collaborative process of research, education and action (Hall 1981) explicitly oriented towards social transformation (McTaggart 1997).
  3. 3. Involves researchers and participants working together to examine a problematic situation or action to change it for the better (Wadsworth 1998).
  4. 4. Participatory research has three key elements: people, power and praxis (Finn, 1994).
  5. 5. It is people-centered (Brown, 1985) in the sense that the process of critical inquiry is informed by and responds to the experiences and needs of people involved.
  6. 6. Participatory research is about power. Power is crucial to the construction of reality, language, meanings and rituals of truth; power functions in all knowledge and in every definition. Power is knowledge and knowledge creates truth and therefore power (Foucault, 1980).
  7. 7. Participatory research is also about praxis. It recognizes the inseparability of theory and practice and critical awareness of the personal-political dialectic.
  8. 8. PARTICIPATORY ACTION RESEARCH Participatory action research is a form of action research in which professional social researchers operate as full collaborators with members of organizations in studying and transforming those organizations.
  9. 9. It is an ongoing organizational learning process, a research approach that emphasizes co- learning, participation and organizational transformation (Greenwood et al, 1993).
  10. 10. Is an attribute of action research in which the problem is determined by the people who believe and feel that the problem is really a problem in the local setting and the solution to the problem is within the same setting without intention of generalizing its results.
  11. 11. Characteristics of Participatory Action Researched 1. People-oriented 2. Community involvement 3. Group-research 4. Big crowd 5. Political involvement
  12. 12. Participatory and conventional research: a comparison of process Participatory research Conventional research What is the research for? Action Understanding with perhaps action later Who is the research for? Local people Institution, personal and professional interest Whose knowledge counts? Local people's Scientists' Topic choice influenced by? Local priorities Funding priorities, institutional agendas, professional interest Methodology chosen for? Empowerment, mutual learning Disciplinary conventions. 'objectivity' and 'truth' Who takes part in the stages of research process? Problem identification Local people Researcher Data collection Local people Researcher Interpretation Local concepts and frameworks Disciplinary concepts and frameworks Analysis Local people Researcher Presentation of findings Locally accessible and useful By researcher to other academics or funding body Action on findings Integral to the process Separate and may not happen Who takes action? Local people, with/without external support External agencies Who owns the results? Shared The researcher What is emphasized Process Outcomes
  13. 13. Cyclical mode of PAR
  14. 14. Framework of Participatory Action Research 1. Identification of the problem and community 2. Statement of the goals/objectives 3. Identification of participant 4. Organization of the research team 5. Establishment of timetable 6. Conduct of the participatory action research project
  15. 15. Framework of Participatory Action Research 6. Conduct of the participatory action research project 7. Evaluation of results 8. Interpretation of the findings 9. Implications / recommendations 10. Implementation
  16. 16. Advantages of Participatory Action Research
  17. 17. Advantages of PAR 1. Research participants increases their knowledge and ideas as well as valid analysis of social reality, thus, more relevant solutions are achieved.
  18. 18. Advantages of PAR 2. Both researchers and subjects of the study gain more from the research process when the researchers attain greater sensitivity and self-awareness of the problems.
  19. 19. Advantages of PAR 3. The subject of the study gain trust and self-confidence at their own rate and resources to improve their conditions.
  20. 20. Advantages of PAR 4. Good relationship can be developed among the research team, research participants, and people in the community.
  21. 21. Advantages of PAR 5. Humanistic approach is enhanced through involvement of everyone in solving social problems.
  22. 22. Disadvantages of Participatory Action Research
  23. 23. Disadvantages of PAR 1. It is time consuming because it takes time to involve many people in conducting research.
  24. 24. Disadvantages of PAR 2. It is difficult to gather people and manage to attend the general assembly due to large number of people involved.
  25. 25. Disadvantages of PAR 3. When the research team back-out while the research process is going on, a new team is created therefore you have to start all over again.
  26. 26. Disadvantages of PAR 4. The research team may use their power to personal needs and most of the benefits go to them.
  27. 27. Disadvantages of PAR 5. Politicians who get involved in the research process may use traditional techniques and the said technique may prevail.
  28. 28. Disadvantages of PAR 6. Abuse of discretion by research team may be practiced due to too much trust and confidence by the research participants and subjects of the study to them and they do not check and balance their activities.
  29. 29. Disadvantages of PAR 7. With full people's participation, factors such as experiences, educational qualifications, socio- economic status , knowledge, abilities and skills will affect the benefit of the participants. The less experiences, knowledge, abilities and skills one has in participating, the less one benefits from the system.
  30. 30. Reference Calmorin, Laurentina P. & Calmorin Melchor A. (2007). Research Methods and Thesis Writing. Rex Bookstore, Inc. Manila. Kindon, S. L., Pain, R., & Kesby, M. (2007). Participatory action research approaches and methods: connecting people, participation and place. Routledge studies in human geography, 22. London: Routledge. Sevilla, Consuelo G. et al. (1992). Research Methods. Rex Book Store, Inc. Quezon City. Sommer R. & Sommer B. (2002). A Practical Guide to Behavioral Research. (5th edition) Oxford University Press.
  31. 31. Website Action Research and Participation. Available at (accessed January 23, 2013). Community Based Participatory Research. Available at (accessed January 31, 2013). Participatory Action Research and Organizational Change. Available at (accessed January 23, 2013). Participatory Research Methods: A Methodological Approach in Motion. Available at (accessed January 23, 2013). Participatory Research Approaches. Available at approaches.html (accessed January 31, 2013). What is participatory research? Available at (accessed January 23, 2013).
  32. 32. Philippine Normal University COLLEGE OF EDUCATION Taft Avenue, Manila 2nd Semester, SY 2012-2013 ED 503: Research Methods and Scientific Writing 2:00 – 5:00 PM, Saturdays, CED 203 Prof. Lolita H. Nava, Ph.D. PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH AND PARTICIPATORY ACTION RESEARCH Reynante S. Tagum M.A. in Education major in Guidance & Counseling