GEORGIA Georgia is rich with water resources. There are 26 060 rivers in Georgia. There are a lot of thermal and mineral water springs in the country. There are many natural and mechanic water reservoirs. Important supplies of ground water are in limestone horizons on the territory of Caucasus. There are about 860 lakes in Georgia. Most of them are very small so their water surface area is about 170 km2. 43 reservoirs serve to hydroelectric stations and irrigation system. 35 ones among them are in East Georgia. Water reservoirs are very important in economics of Georgia. Nowadays in Georgia more than 75% of electric energy is generated in hydroelectric stations. The biggest river of Georgia is Mtkvari.
GEORGIAN - MTKVARITURKISH – KURAAZERBAIJAN - KÜR
LOCATION Mtkvari river is the biggest river in South Caucasus region. Mtkvari river starting in northeastern Turkey, it flows through Turkey to Georgia, then to Azerbaijan, it receives the Aras river as a right tributary, and enters the Caspian Sea. The total length of the river is 1,515 kilometres. Kura river length in Georgia is 400 kilometres, in Azerbaijan is 906 kilimetres and in Turkey 209 kilometres.
HISTORY OF KURAPeople have lived on the Kura for at least 7,000 years. The firstirrigation agriculture began about 4,500 years ago in the easternAzerbaijan lowlands.Even though irrigation agriculture had been well established forthousands of years, until the 1920s, humans did not have asignificant effect on the ecology or hydrology of the Kura Riverwatershed. Since the logging and agriculture began to have asevere outcome on the water availability of the basin. Manyforested areas in the mountains have been replaced by thingrassland because of logging. These habitat changes have beendetrimental to the ecology of the Kura basin. After the1920s, wetlands were drained and reservoirs were created tofacilitate development of irrigation in the lower Kura valley.
CITIES WHERE KURA RIVER FLOWS In Georgia - Borjomi; Gori; Mtskheta; Tbilisi; Rustavi; In Azerbaijan – Mingechauri; Evlakhi; Sabirabad; Ali-Baramli; Saliani.Mtkvari river divides Tbilisi in two parts.
ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF MTKVARI The first ecological problem of river Mtkvari in Georgia is the canalization - communal used waters with focal waste goes to the river without any filtrations. Biological cleaning of water is not available in any towns. Primary mechanic cleaning is implemented only on Tbilisi-Rustavi regional cleaning structure. As a result, there is important pollution on water objects. River Mtkvari is polluted by the municipal waste, population growth increases the pollution of the river. River Mtkvari is polluted by the factories, by the major industrial cities, like Tbilisi and Rustavi.
WHAT IS THE RESULT? Biodiversity loss – Almost 60 species of fish inhabit the Kura River and its tributaries. Among rivers of the Caucasus, the Kura has the largest number of endemic species. Poison of our neighbors – river Kura goes from Georgia to Azerbaijan, it means that the pollution will go to Azerbaijan. Canalization pollution will grow diseases such is : Botkin’s disease (viral hepatitis type A) and Dithyramb.
PROJECT “BESHIK HAYA” A hydroelectric project in Turkey’s northeastern Ardahan district will change the flow of the Mtkvari River, the biggest water artery in the South Caucasus. A planned dam in northeastern Turkey, the Beshik Haya cascade reservoirs, will divert most of the Mtkvari River from the Caspian Sea to the Black Sea. If it changes the flow of the Mtkvari River, the dam will also cause water levels to fall in the portion of the river that runs through Georgia. The Ministry of Environment of Georgia, with the cooperation of NGO’s from Georgia and Azerbaijan had a deal with Turkish side and according to the information what they have informed to the media Turkish side won’t implement this project in near future.
EXPECTATIONS BY “BESHIK HAYA” Environmental Losses in Georgia and Azerbaijan; Economic damage for Georgia and Azerbaijan; Environmental catastrophes; Agricultural losses; Losses of South Caucasian cultural inheritances. Political conflicts in this region.
HELSINKI CONVENTION The Parties to the Convention undertake to take all appropriate measures to prevent, control and reduce any trans-boundary impact. This means they must: ensure that trans-boundary waters are managed in a rational, environment-friendly manner; ensure that trans-boundary waters are used in a reasonable and equitable way; ensure conservation and restoration of ecosystems.Georgia and Turkey aren’t members ofHelsinki convention, Turkish side isn’t controlledabout water.
WORLD EXPERIENCE Some industrial facilities generate ordinary domesticsewage that can be treated by municipal facilities.Industries that generate wastewater with highconcentrations of conventional pollutants (e.g. oil andgrease), toxic pollutants (e.g. heavy metals, volatileorganic compounds) or other nonconventional pollutantssuch as ammonia, need specialized treatment systems.Some of these facilities can install a pre-treatment systemto remove the toxic components, and then send thepartially treated wastewater to the municipal system.Industries generating large volumes of wastewatertypically operate their own complete on-site treatmentsystems.
Some industries have been successful at redesigning their manufacturing processes to reduce or eliminate pollutants, through a process called pollution prevention. Heated water generated by power plants or manufacturing plants may be controlled with: cooling ponds, man-made bodies of water designed for cooling by evaporation, convection, and radiation cooling towers, which transfer waste heat to the atmosphere through evaporation and/or heat transfer cogeneration, a process where waste heat is recycled for domestic and/or industrial heating purposes.
THANK YOU FOR ATTENTION! TSIALA ABESADZE THE GREENS MOVEMENT OF GEORGIA/ FOE-GEORGIA