Spectroscopy

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introduction of spectra, sedimentation, sunflower spectral result, spectroscopy result, green chemistry applications

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Spectroscopy

  1. 1. SPECTROSCOPY Presented by: Ms. V. REVATHI AMBIKA, Lecturer in Physics
  2. 2. SPECTROSCOP Y Color can be related to spectroscopy. It is the study of the interaction between matter and radiated energy. It is the study of visible light dispersed according to its wavelenth or frequency.
  3. 3. ELECTROMAGNETICSPECTRUM  Examples: X rays, microwaves, radio waves, visible light, IR, and UV. Chapter 12  Frequency and wavelength are inversely proportional.  c = λν , where c is the speed of light.  Energy per photon = hν, where h is Planck’s constant. 4
  4. 4. VARIETIES OFSPECTROSCOPYUV XRD RAMAN
  5. 5. VARIETIES OF SPECTROSCOPY Optical spectroscopy, Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, FT-NIRS), Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) and Mass spectrometry and Electron spin resonance spectroscopy
  6. 6. SPECTROSCOPY
  7. 7. FOURIER TRANSFORMSPECTROSCOPY Has better sensitivity. Less energy is needed from source. Completes a scan in 1-2 seconds. Takes several scans and averagesthem. Has a laser beam that keeps the instrument accurately calibrated
  8. 8. X-RAY SCATTERING TECHNIQUES
  9. 9. HOW DO UV SPECTROMETERS WORK?Rotates, to achieve scan Matched quartz cuvettes Sample in solution at ca. 10-5 M. System protects PM tube from stray light D2 lamp-UV Tungsten lamp-Vis Double Beam makes it a Two photomultiplier difference technique inputs, differential voltage drives amplifier.
  10. 10. USE OF IR SPECTRA Identification of functional groups Spectral matching - by computer software and library spectra Quantitative analysis
  11. 11. ANALYTICAL ATOMIC SPECTROMETRY• Aim:• To identify Elements and Quantify their Concentrations,• Inductively Coupled Plasma- Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) is one of Several techniques available in analytical atomic spectroscopy.
  12. 12. SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE (SEM)• It is a type of electron microscope that images a sample by scanning it with a high-energy beam of electrons in a raster scan pattern.• The electrons interact with the atoms• The sample producing signals• Contain information about topography, composition, and electrical conductivity.
  13. 13. TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY(TEM)  It is a microscopy technique,  A beam of electrons is transmitted,  An image is formed from the interaction,  The image is magnified and focused onto an imaging device, such as:  a fluorescent screen,  on a layer of photographic film, or  to be detected by a sensor such as a CCD camera.
  14. 14. TOXICITY
  15. 15. HEAVY METAL - INTRODUCTION
  16. 16. PROPERTIES OF HEAVY METALS
  17. 17. • Study of the toxicity of nanomaterials.• Quantum size effects and large surface area to volume ratio, nanomaterials have unique properties compared with their larger counterparts.• Nanomaterials, even when made of inert elements like gold, become highly active at nanometer dimensions.• Sub-specialty of particle toxicology.• Nanoparticles (particles <100 nm diameter) which appear to have toxicity effects that are unusual and not seen with larger particles.
  18. 18. • It is the process in whichGERMINATION a plant or fungus emerges from a seed or spore, respectively, and begins growth. • The most common example of germination is the sprouting of a seedling from a seed of an angiosperm or gymnosperm.
  19. 19. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND SEEDGERMINATION Water, Light, Temperature, Oxygen, Smoke
  20. 20. SEED GERMINATION
  21. 21. FACTORS AFFECTING SEEDGERMINATION• Various plants require different variables• It depends on the individual seed variety• It is closely linked to the ecological conditions of a plants natural habitat.• Future germination is affected by environmental conditions during seed formation; most often these responses are types of seed dormancy.
  22. 22. EDIBLE PLANTS
  23. 23. EDIBLE PLANTS PROTEIN STUDY• Plants are one of the major sources of proteins. Potentially, plants provide a cheap source of industrial enzymes, and biopharmaceuticals.• Proteins have considerable technological importance since they affect the stability and sensory quality of plant foods.• Research on bioactive peptide/proteins has been increasing including work on the development of pathogen resistant and antimicrobial compounds• The plants Arum maculatum, Portulaca oleracia Semicarpus anacardium, Carissa karandus, Cordia myxa, Solanum indicum and Chlorophytum comosum are widely available in the wild in many regions of Iran. These are consumed as fruits and vegetables.
  24. 24. EFFECTS OF LIGHT ON SEEDGERMINATION Light can promote or inhibit germination. Sensitivity to light is important to seed banks and other ecological responses, providing a mechanism for optimal timing of seedling establishment. The photoreceptor for most types of seed responses is phytochrome
  25. 25. HIGH PROTEIN IN NUTS & SEEDS Peanut butter, 2 Tablespoons - 8 grams protein Almonds, ¼ cup – 8 grams Peanuts, ¼ cup – 9 grams Cashews, ¼ cup – 5 grams Pecans, ¼ cup – 2.5 grams Sunflower seeds, ¼ cup – 6 grams Pumpkin seeds, ¼ cup – 8 grams seeds – ¼ cup – 8 gram
  26. 26.  Heavy metal contamination of soils is the major global environmental problem. It has increased considerably in last several years and a part is responsible for limiting the crop production.
  27. 27.  Essential (Co and Ni) and non-essential (Pb, Cd and Cr). Cd and Pb are considered as the most toxic metals. Plants are affected by the increasing levels of these metals in the soil environment.
  28. 28. OUR AIM The aim of this present study is to assess the tolerance of pollutant elements (Co, Ni, Cd, Cr and Pb) on visible foliar symptoms, tissue concentration and some biochemical parameters in sunflower or groundnut plants.

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