SPECTROSCOPY Presented by: Ms. V. REVATHI AMBIKA, Lecturer in Physics
SPECTROSCOP Y Color can be related to spectroscopy. It is the study of the interaction between matter and radiated energy. It is the study of visible light dispersed according to its wavelenth or frequency.
ELECTROMAGNETICSPECTRUM Examples: X rays, microwaves, radio waves, visible light, IR, and UV. Chapter 12 Frequency and wavelength are inversely proportional. c = λν , where c is the speed of light. Energy per photon = hν, where h is Planck’s constant. 4
VARIETIES OF SPECTROSCOPY Optical spectroscopy, Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, FT-NIRS), Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) and Mass spectrometry and Electron spin resonance spectroscopy
FOURIER TRANSFORMSPECTROSCOPY Has better sensitivity. Less energy is needed from source. Completes a scan in 1-2 seconds. Takes several scans and averagesthem. Has a laser beam that keeps the instrument accurately calibrated
HOW DO UV SPECTROMETERS WORK?Rotates, to achieve scan Matched quartz cuvettes Sample in solution at ca. 10-5 M. System protects PM tube from stray light D2 lamp-UV Tungsten lamp-Vis Double Beam makes it a Two photomultiplier difference technique inputs, differential voltage drives amplifier.
USE OF IR SPECTRA Identification of functional groups Spectral matching - by computer software and library spectra Quantitative analysis
ANALYTICAL ATOMIC SPECTROMETRY• Aim:• To identify Elements and Quantify their Concentrations,• Inductively Coupled Plasma- Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) is one of Several techniques available in analytical atomic spectroscopy.
SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE (SEM)• It is a type of electron microscope that images a sample by scanning it with a high-energy beam of electrons in a raster scan pattern.• The electrons interact with the atoms• The sample producing signals• Contain information about topography, composition, and electrical conductivity.
TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY(TEM) It is a microscopy technique, A beam of electrons is transmitted, An image is formed from the interaction, The image is magnified and focused onto an imaging device, such as: a fluorescent screen, on a layer of photographic film, or to be detected by a sensor such as a CCD camera.
• Study of the toxicity of nanomaterials.• Quantum size effects and large surface area to volume ratio, nanomaterials have unique properties compared with their larger counterparts.• Nanomaterials, even when made of inert elements like gold, become highly active at nanometer dimensions.• Sub-specialty of particle toxicology.• Nanoparticles (particles <100 nm diameter) which appear to have toxicity effects that are unusual and not seen with larger particles.
• It is the process in whichGERMINATION a plant or fungus emerges from a seed or spore, respectively, and begins growth. • The most common example of germination is the sprouting of a seedling from a seed of an angiosperm or gymnosperm.
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND SEEDGERMINATION Water, Light, Temperature, Oxygen, Smoke
FACTORS AFFECTING SEEDGERMINATION• Various plants require different variables• It depends on the individual seed variety• It is closely linked to the ecological conditions of a plants natural habitat.• Future germination is affected by environmental conditions during seed formation; most often these responses are types of seed dormancy.
EDIBLE PLANTS PROTEIN STUDY• Plants are one of the major sources of proteins. Potentially, plants provide a cheap source of industrial enzymes, and biopharmaceuticals.• Proteins have considerable technological importance since they affect the stability and sensory quality of plant foods.• Research on bioactive peptide/proteins has been increasing including work on the development of pathogen resistant and antimicrobial compounds• The plants Arum maculatum, Portulaca oleracia Semicarpus anacardium, Carissa karandus, Cordia myxa, Solanum indicum and Chlorophytum comosum are widely available in the wild in many regions of Iran. These are consumed as fruits and vegetables.
EFFECTS OF LIGHT ON SEEDGERMINATION Light can promote or inhibit germination. Sensitivity to light is important to seed banks and other ecological responses, providing a mechanism for optimal timing of seedling establishment. The photoreceptor for most types of seed responses is phytochrome
HIGH PROTEIN IN NUTS & SEEDS Peanut butter, 2 Tablespoons - 8 grams protein Almonds, ¼ cup – 8 grams Peanuts, ¼ cup – 9 grams Cashews, ¼ cup – 5 grams Pecans, ¼ cup – 2.5 grams Sunflower seeds, ¼ cup – 6 grams Pumpkin seeds, ¼ cup – 8 grams seeds – ¼ cup – 8 gram
Heavy metal contamination of soils is the major global environmental problem. It has increased considerably in last several years and a part is responsible for limiting the crop production.
Essential (Co and Ni) and non-essential (Pb, Cd and Cr). Cd and Pb are considered as the most toxic metals. Plants are affected by the increasing levels of these metals in the soil environment.
OUR AIM The aim of this present study is to assess the tolerance of pollutant elements (Co, Ni, Cd, Cr and Pb) on visible foliar symptoms, tissue concentration and some biochemical parameters in sunflower or groundnut plants.