SAP ABAP data dictionary

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SAP ABAP data dictionary

  1. 1. Day 2 Data Dictionary
  2. 2. We will learn about… • What is Data Dictionary • Data Dictionary Objects • System Fields • Creating custom table • Internal Tables • Foreign Keys & Cardinality • Structures • Views
  3. 3. What is Data Dictionary • is a system independent interface to the database • is a virtual database ( data about data) • provides data for data manipulation and data processing • Also called as DDIC and ABAP Dictionary
  4. 4. Data Dictionary Objects • Data Element • Domain • Tables • Structures • Views SE16
  5. 5. Elementary Data Types Type Explanation C Text (Character) N Numeric text D Date (DDMMYYYY) T Time (HHMMSS) X Hexadecimal I Integer P Packed Number F Floating point number
  6. 6. Domain • A Domain describes the technical structure of a field that is its size and its data types. • Domains are attached to Data Elements • Fields which refer to the same domain (with the assigned data elements), are also changed when the domain is changed. This ensures that the fields are consistent • Defines a value range which describes the valid data values for all the fields which refer to this domain Table MARA CLNT 9 MATNR Data Element Domain
  7. 7. Creating a Domain Enter a description (short text) Enter data type and length
  8. 8. Creating a domain (contd.) Enter fixed value and description. Value table may be entered
  9. 9. Data Element • A data element gives the description of the field of the Table • Examples of predefined data elements in SAP – LIFNR – KUNNR – MATNR – CLNT
  10. 10. Creating a Data Element Enter a description (short text) Enter domain name
  11. 11. Creating a Data Element Maintain field labels and column headers.
  12. 12. Difference between Domain & Data Element Defines Technical Attributes such as data type, length, allowed values, etc. Defines semantic attributes such as display length, short text, long text, etc A domain can be part of several data elements A Data Element can point to only one domain Used to define data elements, restrict values (using value range, value table, etc) Used to define fields of tables and screens
  13. 13. A Holistic view Table A Table B Table C Data element Data element Domain
  14. 14. Tables • Tables are containers which stores data in the form of record • They are a central component of the SAP R/3 Application • One or more fields form a data record (also known as tupel) • A number of data records of the same type form a table • Examples of few SAP defined tables – MARA : Material Master
  15. 15. Tables Contd… The table definition contains the following components Table fields: defines the field names and data types of the fields contained in the table. Foreign Keys: defines the relationships between the table and other tables. Technical Settings: control how the table should be created on the database. Indexes: speed up the selection of data from the table.
  16. 16. Tables Contd… • Types of Tables Transparent ABAP Dictionary Cluster Pool ABAP Program Internal
  17. 17. Tables Contd…
  18. 18. Enter the Name of the table (should begin with “Z” or “Y”) Press the Create Button Creating a Transparent Table – Step 1 of 6 Enter the Name of the table (should begin with “Z” or “Y”) Press the Create Button
  19. 19. After making all entries, Press the “Fields” Tab Creating a Transparent Table – Step 2 of 6 Enter a description (short text) After making all entries, Press the “Fields” Tab Maintain delivery class Table maintenance attribute
  20. 20. After making all entries, Press the “Technical Settings” Button Creating a Transparent Table – Step 3 of 6 After making all entries, Press the “Technical Settings” Button Maintain field attributes Maintain data elements
  21. 21. After making all entries, Press the Save Button. Once Technical Settings are save, Press the “Back” Button (F3) Creating a Transparent Table – Step 4 of 6 After making all entries, Press the Save Button. Once Technical Settings are save, Press the “Back” Button (F3)
  22. 22. Save, Check and Activate the Table. After that Press the “Indexes” Button on the Application Toolbar Creating a Transparent Table – Step 5 of 6 Save, Check and Activate the Table. After that Press the “Indexes” Button on the Application Toolbar
  23. 23. After entering the Index Fields and other parameters, save and activate the index, Z01 Creating a Transparent Table – Step 6 of 6 Steps to create an index After entering the Index Fields and other parameters, save and activate the index, Z01
  24. 24. SAP Transparent Tables • Example of few SAP Transparent Tables – MARA : General Material Data – VBAK : Sales Document: Header Data – KNA1 : General Data in Customer Master • Example of SAP Cluster Table – BSEG : Accounting Document Segment
  25. 25. Tables Contd… • Foreign Keys – Uses • Maintain data integrity • Provide help texts • Create aggregate dictionary objects – Prerequisites • The foreign key text field and primary key of the check table must share the same domain • A value table must exist for that domain
  26. 26. Tables Contd… • Cardinality – Cardinality defines the type of relationship between two tables – The cardinality of a foreign key indicates how many dependent records a record in a check table may have Cardinality Types 1 : 1 1 : C 1 : N 1 : CN
  27. 27. System fields • SAP has a system table named syst. It stores all the system related data • Examples of few fields in this table are – Sy-datum : System Date – Sy-langu : System Language – Sy-subrc : System check – Sy-uzeit : System time
  28. 28. SAP Data Master Data Transaction Data • G/L Accounts • Vendors • Materials • Stock Locations • Sales Orders • Purchase Orders • Journal Entries • Goods Receipts System Data Configuration Data • Metadata • Programs • Documentation • System Settings • Currency Codes • Order Types • Payment Terms • Field Status Codes
  29. 29. Structures • A structure is defined like a table in the ABAP Dictionary and can then be accessed from within ABAP programs • Contain data temporarily during program runtime • The same data elements and domains can be used in structures as in tables
  30. 30. Views • A view combines the data distributed in several tables • Views allow to gather information from fields of different tables and present it to the users in form they require when working in the R/3 system

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