MAKING LEARNING DESIGNSIN LAYERS: THE CADMOSAPPROACH Mary Katsamani (marykatsamani@gmail.com)       Symeon Retalis (retal@...
The presentation in brief …   This presentation is about a model-driven learning design    process, called CADMOS-D(esign...
Learning Design (LD)   LD is a planning and ordering of learning activities that take place in    a unit of learning (Cur...
The learning design challenge   Teachers as designers do not have to be    experts in technical skills   Teachers as des...
Learning Design Languages vs Visual LearningDesign Tools   Learning design languages and visual learning    design tools ...
Learning Design Languages   A design language:   is a mental tool,   offers a specific notation style for creating a de...
Classifying Learning Design Languages   User Skills: novice, medium, expertise   Stratification: flat or layered. Is the...
Learning Design Languages        User        Formaliz   Stratifica   Elaborati   Perspecti Notation        skills      ati...
Visual Learning Design Tools   Visual learning design tools offer a structured    environment that teachers may use to de...
Visual Learning Design Tools                                                       Exports                                ...
CADMOS-D: A blend… Separation of   concerns                              LD                             Tools             ...
Main Idea of CADMOS   Is the Separation of Concerns (SoC), an    Established Concept in    Architecture/Software/Web Engi...
Separation of Concerns in CADMOS   Two design views /models:       Conceptual Model or learning activity design view    ...
Conceptual Model - Learning Activity design view
Flow Model/Learning Activity Flow Design Viewwithout rules
Flow Model/Learning Activity Flow Design Viewwith rules
CADMOS-D: Advantages   One can change a resource in the conceptual    model without changing anything else at the flow   ...
CADMOS: Interoperability                      CADMOS                           ConceptualCADMOS models                Mode...
Case Study 1/2   36 MSc students in the Department of Digital    Systems   25 of them were teachers (20 of them were    ...
Case Study 2/2   Was completed in two phases:       Phase 1: presentation of the tool in the laboratory,        the stud...
Case Study – Evaluation of CADMOS 1/2   70% claimed that were satisfied from both the    approach and the tool   69% of ...
Case Study – Evaluation of CADMOS 2/2   All of the participants mentioned that any    teacher, with no specific knowledge...
In conclusion CADMOS:   Can be used by practitioners with basic technical    skills   It has a visual notation   It off...
Future plans   CADMOS version 1.6       http://cosy.ds.unipi.gr/cadmos/   To distribute CADMOS tool version 1.7       ...
Questions?             Thank you!
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CadmosLearningDesignTool_Iadis2011

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This presentation shows the philosophy of the CADMOS learning desing tool which has a graphical user interface and exports designs in IMS LD format.It This presentation was made at Iadis2011 conference in Rome.

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  • Good morning My name is Mary Katsamani, I am from the University of Piraeus in Greece and I will present you our work “Making Learning Designs in layers: The CADMOS approach”.
  • This presentation is about a learning design approach named CADMOS Design and the graphical editor that supports this method.Our ambition is to make a simple LD editor that will be used by practitioners.The innovation to this method is that it is model driven and uses the notion of separation of concerns from software/web engineering field.It is supported by a tool and it produces reusable learning designs that conform to IMS LD level A/B specification.
  • Learning Design is a planning and ordering of learning activities that take place in a unit of learning, as Kopper says. It is a digital lesson plan but not simply a narrative description, it can “do” something. A teacher may create a learning design for a simple activity, for a course lasting one or a few hours, for a course lasting a few weeks or even months or for a curriculum. Basically he has to specify the learning activities, the orchestration of these, for example the order, any condition or rules and the learning objects that are related to these activities.
  • So which is the learning design challenge?Teachers that design a unit of learning do not have to be expert in technical skillsTeachers usually tend to use tools that guide them and are error proneAny ld created should be shared with other designers and re-usedAll the designers must use a common, formal and rich design language
  • Today exist ld languages and ld tools that aid teachers to design a unit of learning. Both languages and tools have advantages and disadvantages.We chose to study some LD tools and languages in order to outline their characteristics.We had these characteristics in mind when designing our tool.
  • A ld language is actually a mental tool, that offers a specific notation to create a design, but there is not a ld tool.So teachers face problems.We studied 4 popular languages according to the criteria that Botturi suggested in its paper .
  • User skills: if a language can be used by a novice, medium or expertise at technologyStratification: if a language is flat or layered - are described different objects?Formalization: does a language has a strict syntax or not?Elaboration: in how much detail are described the objectsPerspective: are there different views of the same entities?Notation system: the language has a visual notation system or not?
  • Visual ld tools offer a structured environment that teachers may use to design.This graphical interface facilitates teachers to create their lessons.We compared ….according to the following criteria:
  • The main idea of CADMOS is the separation of concerns, a concept from the field of software/web engineering and architecture.It is a divide and conquer approach of a complex problem. We divide a complex problem into smaller ones and then we solve each of the smaller and easier problems in order to solve the big and difficult one.
  • Here we can see the notion of soc in architecture. It is a step wise design approach that allows to focus on a specific view as well as reuse design views.
  • Now in CADMOS we apply soc by having two design views or models:Conceptual Model or learning activity design viewFlow Model or learning activity flow design view. The Learning Activity Design View defines the learning activities and the resources/services that correspond to these activities.The Learning Activity Flow Design View captures the orchestration of the learning activities
  • So the advantages of this method are:One can change a resource in the conceptual model without changing anything else at the flow modelOne can create several flow views keeping the same learning activities in the conceptual modelThe Learning Design can be opened and edited again The Learning Design may be exported to IMS-LD (A/B) xml manifestAn IMS-LD may be imported into the tool
  • Here we can see the interoperability of the tool. For the present time CADMOS can export IMS-LD Level A/B, which then can be played from an IMS-LD player like RELOAD. Also it can import an IMS-LD level A manifest file.Our ambition is that in the future any design made by CADMOS could be imported into moodle and automatically be translated into moodle lessons.
  • We organized a case study in the Department of Digital Systems, with 36 MSc students. 25 of them were teachers (20 of them were high school teachers and 5 of them were elementary school teachers)5 of them did not have experience in learning design and the rest of them had used at least one Learning Design Tool
  • The case study was completed in two phases:In phase 1 we presented the tool in the laboratory and we gave to the students a prescribed ld to create it with CADMOSIn phase 2 we asked the students to create two designs in CADMOS in the duration of a week: a prescribed learning design and a learning design from their own practiceIn the end of this homework everyone had to complete a on-line questionnaire of 25 questions.
  • Some of the conclusions that came up from the aforementioned questionnaire were:70% claimed that were satisfied from both the approach and the toolAll of them said that the use of CADMOS was simple and that were able to complete the learning design easily and quickly 69% of them stated that were highly satisfied with the guidance that was provided to themAll of them said that the design approach via the two models was very helpful
  • All of the participants mentioned that CADMOS is a useful and easy-to-learn approach and that any teacher, with no specific knowledge in learning design and with basic computer skills, can apply itThe 86% of the participants claimed that the presence of ready-to-use design templates would have helped them 83% of them stated that they appreciated the fact that they could reuse existing learning designs
  • Can use it practitioners with basic technical skills It has a visual notationIt offers guidance to the designerIt is layered  it describes different objects (such as activities, resources, rules)It is multiple-perspective  activities are described from different views (conceptual/flow model)It can convert its own learning design, to an IMS-LD level A/B manifest fileIt can import an IMS-LD level A manifest file and convert it to its own notation system
  • CADMOS v.1.6 is distributed freely in this site for anyone who want to download it and test it. In the future in version 1.7 we want to enrich the conditions/rules in the flow modelmake CADMOS compatible with IMS LD level Cadd templates And finally we try to make our tool to interoperate with moodle
  • Thank you very much for your attention. Any questions please?
  • CadmosLearningDesignTool_Iadis2011

    1. 1. MAKING LEARNING DESIGNSIN LAYERS: THE CADMOSAPPROACH Mary Katsamani (marykatsamani@gmail.com) Symeon Retalis (retal@unipi.gr) University of Piraeus Department of Digital Systems Computer Supported Learning Engineering Laboratory http://cosy.ds.unipi.gr
    2. 2. The presentation in brief … This presentation is about a model-driven learning design process, called CADMOS-D(esign) supported by a graphical LD editor.  Ambition: CADMOS-D should be simple enough to be used by practitioners  Innovation: This process accords to the principles of software/web engineering  It is model driven  It advocates the notion of “separation of concerns” in learning design  Technological support: It is being supported by a graphical design tool  It tries to produce reusable learning designs (forward & backward engineering) that conform to the IMS LD specification
    3. 3. Learning Design (LD) LD is a planning and ordering of learning activities that take place in a unit of learning (Current research in learning design, Rob Kopper)  A “digital lesson plan”  But not simply a narrative description – rather, it can “do” something A teacher may create a learning design for a simple activity, for a course lasting one or a few hours, for a course lasting a few weeks or even months or for a curriculum, meaning a whole year teaching programme [Britain, 2004; Goodyear, 2005] A teacher has to specify for the LD:  Learning Activities  Orchestration of these activities (order, conditions, rules)  Learning Objects related to these activities
    4. 4. The learning design challenge Teachers as designers do not have to be experts in technical skills Teachers as designers want to use tools that would guide them and will be error prone A Learning Design should be shared and re- used It must be used a common, formal and “rich” design language
    5. 5. Learning Design Languages vs Visual LearningDesign Tools Learning design languages and visual learning design tools have been proposed to aid teachers during the learning design task Both languages and tools have advantages and disadvantages We have studied LD tools and languages and drew some conclusions about their characteristics These design characteristics had been followed when creating the CADMOS LD tool
    6. 6. Learning Design Languages A design language: is a mental tool, offers a specific notation style for creating a design without the support of a specialized learning design tool So….often teachers face problems We studied 4 popular languages according the following criteria suggested by Luca Botturi et al. (A Classification Framework for Educational Modeling Languages in Instructional Design, 2006)
    7. 7. Classifying Learning Design Languages User Skills: novice, medium, expertise Stratification: flat or layered. Is there unique representation or are there several "tools" to describe various objects like in coUML ? Formalization: between formal or informal. E.g. UML and XML- based vocabularies are both formal languages. Elaboration: conceptual, specification or implementation. These levels are based on the UML model (Fowler, 2003): the conceptual level allows to gain a global view of a design and its rationale, the specification includes all the details, and the implementation level includes sufficient precision to create executive code. Perspective: singular or multiple. Is there a same view or different views to describe different entities? E2ML for instance allows to model both structural and temporal relations between activities. Notation system: none, textual, visual. If there is a notation system, it can be either visual or textual. Botturi, Derntl,Boot & Figl (2006)
    8. 8. Learning Design Languages User Formaliz Stratifica Elaborati Perspecti Notation skills ation tion on veE2ML Novice Semi- Flat Conceptu Multiple Visual formal alPCeL Medium Semi- Layered Conceptu Single Visual formal alcoUML Medium Semi- Layered Conceptu Multiple Visual formal alPOEML Expertise Formal Layered Implemen Multiple Visual tation 8
    9. 9. Visual Learning Design Tools Visual learning design tools offer a structured environment that teachers may use to design There is a graphical interface that facilitates teachers to create their lessons We compared COMPENDIUM, MOT+, LAMS, OPENGLM and COLLAGE, according to the following criteria:
    10. 10. Visual Learning Design Tools Exports Templates/De Edits IMS-LD User skills Guidance IMS-LD sign Patterns A,B,C A,B,CComplendium medium - + - - IMS-LD MOT+ expertise - - - level A IMS-LD Collage medium + + - level A IMS-LD Lams medium - - - level A Openglm medium + + + + 10
    11. 11. CADMOS-D: A blend… Separation of concerns LD Tools LD Languages CADMOS-D method & tool
    12. 12. Main Idea of CADMOS Is the Separation of Concerns (SoC), an Established Concept in Architecture/Software/Web Engineering Objectives of SoC  Use of Divide-and-Conquer Approach for addressing complexity of a problem  Ease of handling these smaller problems in relative isolation  Ease of solving these relatively isolated simpler problemsThe term separation of concerns was probably coined by Edsger W. Dijkstra inhis 1974 paper "On the role of scientific thought" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Separation_of_concerns
    13. 13. Separation of Concerns in CADMOS Two design views /models:  Conceptual Model or learning activity design view  Flow Model or learning activity flow design view. The Learning Activity Design View defines the learning activities and the resources/services that correspond to these activities. The Learning Activity Flow Design View captures the orchestration of the learning activities
    14. 14. Conceptual Model - Learning Activity design view
    15. 15. Flow Model/Learning Activity Flow Design Viewwithout rules
    16. 16. Flow Model/Learning Activity Flow Design Viewwith rules
    17. 17. CADMOS-D: Advantages One can change a resource in the conceptual model without changing anything else at the flow model One can create several flow views keeping the same learning activities in the conceptual model The Learning Design can be opened and edited again The Learning Design may be exported to IMS- LD (A/B) xml manifest An IMS-LD may be imported into the tool
    18. 18. CADMOS: Interoperability CADMOS ConceptualCADMOS models Model CADMOS models IMS LD models IMS LD models Flow Model Moodle Currently, CADMOS-D conforms to IMS LD Level A/B, LD player
    19. 19. Case Study 1/2 36 MSc students in the Department of Digital Systems 25 of them were teachers (20 of them were high school teachers and 5 of them were elementary school teachers) 5 of them did not have experience in learning design and the rest of them had used at least one Learning Design Tool
    20. 20. Case Study 2/2 Was completed in two phases:  Phase 1: presentation of the tool in the laboratory, the students made in CADMOS a prescribed learning design  3 hours  Phase 2: the students made in CADMOS a prescribed learning design that were given from us and a learning design from their own teaching practice  1 week  Finally they completed an on-line questionnaire of 25 questions
    21. 21. Case Study – Evaluation of CADMOS 1/2 70% claimed that were satisfied from both the approach and the tool 69% of them stated that were highly satisfied with the guidance that was provided to them All of them said that the design approach via the two models was very helpful All of them said that the use of CADMOS was simple and that were able to complete the learning design easily and quickly
    22. 22. Case Study – Evaluation of CADMOS 2/2 All of the participants mentioned that any teacher, with no specific knowledge in learning design and with basic computer skills, can apply it The 86% of the participants claimed that the presence of ready-to-use design templates would have helped them 83% of them stated that they appreciated the fact that they could reuse existing learning designs
    23. 23. In conclusion CADMOS: Can be used by practitioners with basic technical skills It has a visual notation It offers guidance to the designer It is layered  it describes different objects (such as activities, resources, rules) It is multiple-perspective  activities are described from different views (conceptual/flow model) It can convert its own learning design, to an IMS-LD level A/B manifest file It can import an IMS-LD level A manifest file and convert it to its own notation system
    24. 24. Future plans CADMOS version 1.6  http://cosy.ds.unipi.gr/cadmos/ To distribute CADMOS tool version 1.7  To enrich the conditions in the flow model  Compatibility with IMS LD Level C  To add in CADMOS tool design patterns as templates  To interoperate with Moodle
    25. 25. Questions? Thank you!

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