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Introduction to Turkmenistan

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  1. 1. 1. Basic Information 2. Short History 3. Politics 4. Economy 5. Culture
  2. 2. Turkmen Flag
  4. 4. • Capital: Ashgabat • Official Language: Turkmen • Inter-Ethnic Language: Russian
  5. 5. • Turkmenistan is bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the northeast and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.
  6. 6. • Present-day Turkmenistan covers territory that has been at the crossroads of civilizations for centuries. • In medieval times Merv (today known as Mary) was one of the great cities of the Islamic world, and an important stop on the Silk Road, a large road used for trade between China and Europe until the mid- 15th century.
  7. 7. History • Turkmenistan passed under Arab domination in the 8th century • In the 11th century, region of Turkmenistan was ruled by the Seljuk Turks • Jenghiz Khan conquered the region in the 13th century, as did Timur (Tamerlane) in the 14th century • After the breakup (late 15th cent.) of the empire of Timur’s successors, Turkmenistan came under Uzbek control
  8. 8. • In 1869, Russian military forces founded Krasnovodsk (Turkmen Province) and began to conquer Turkmens • In 1881, with the conquest of the Gok-Depe (Tepe) fortress, the Russians established the Transcaspian Region, which in 1899 became part of the government general of Russian Turkistan. • During the Russian civil war, fighting flared between the Transcaspian provincial government and Bolshevik troops. • The Red Army took Ashgabat (the Capital) in July, 1919, and Krasnovodsk in Feb., 1920
  9. 9. • Turkmenistan formally became a Soviet republic in 1925 • Large numbers of Turkmens still live in Iran and Afghanistan.
  10. 10. • A referendum for independence from the Soviet Union was passed in October, 1991 • Turkmenistan became a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States in December, 1991 • Saparmurat Niyazov became the first president of Turkmenistan
  11. 11. P o l i t i c s
  12. 12. • The Constitution of Turkmenistan, adopted on 18 May 1992, is the supreme of Turkmenistan • According to the constitution, Turkmenistan is a secular democratic and presidential republic • The government has three branches: Executive — President and the Council of Ministers Legislative — Mejlis (Parliament), Judicial — Supreme Court. • Turkmenistan became the first Central Asian republic to join NATO’s Partnership for Peace program • Turkmenistan’s declaration of “permanent neutrality” was formally recognized by the United Nations in 1995.
  13. 13. • President for Life Saparmurat Niyazov was a former bureaucrat of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union • He became head of the Communist Party of the Turkmen SSR in 1985 and governed Turkmenistan until his death in 2006
  14. 14. S.A.Niyazov • After the independence of Turkmenistan, Niyazov changed the name of Communist Party of the Turkmen SSR as Democratic Party of Turkmenistan.
  15. 15. • Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow • has served as the President since 2006 • a dentist by profession • served in the government under President Saparmurat Niyazov as Minister of Health beginning in 1997 and as Deputy Prime Minister beginning in 2001.
  16. 16. G. Berdimuhamedow • In the February 2012 presidential election, he was re-elected with 97% of the vote. He uses the honorific title Arkadag, meaning "Patron".
  17. 17. ECONOMY Natural Resources• According to the decree of the Peoples' Council of 14 August 2003 electricity natural gas water salt will be subsidized for citizens up to 2030. • Car drivers are entitled to 120 litres of free petrol a month. • Drivers of buses, lorries and tractors can get 200 litres of fuel and motorcyclists and scooter riders 40 litres free
  18. 18. Natural Gas • On 5 September 2006, after Turkmenistan threatened to cut off supplies to Russia, Russia agreed to raise the price that pays for Turkmen natural gas from $65 to $100 per 1,000 cubic meters. • Two-thirds of Turkmen gas goes through the Russian state-owned Gazprom.
  19. 19. Natural Gas • Gas production is the most dynamic and promising sector of the national economy • China is going to become the largest buyer of gas from Turkmenistan over the coming years as a pipeline linking the two countries, through Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan, reaches full capacity • Turkmenistan is supplying Russia, China and Iran • Ashgabat took concrete measures to accelerate progress in the construction of the Turkmenistan- Afghanistan-Pakistan and India pipeline (TAPI).
  20. 20. Natural Resources • Turkmen president unexpectedly signed a decree stating that companies from Turkmenistan will build an internal East-West gas pipeline allowing the transfer of gas from the biggest deposits in Turkmenistan (Dowlatabad and Yoloten) to the Caspian coast. • • The East-West pipeline is planned to be around 1,000 km long and have a carrying capacity of 30 bn m³ annually • Cost of project is between one and one and a half billion US dollars
  21. 21. Natural Resources Electricity • Turkmenistan is a net exporter of electrical power to Central Asian republics and southern neighbors. • The most important generating installations are the Hindukush Hydroelectric Station, which has a rated capacity of 350 megawatts, and the Mary Thermoelectric Power Station, which has a rated capacity of 1,370 megawatts.
  22. 22. Agriculture • Half of the country's irrigated land is planted with cotton, making the country the world's ninth- largest cotton producer. • The country traditionally exports raw cotton to Russia, Iran, South Korea, Britain, China, Indonesia, Turkey, Ukraine, Singapore and the Baltic nations
  23. 23. Turkmen Carpets
  24. 24. Turkmen Horses Ahal- teke
  25. 25. Traditional foods
  26. 26. Traditional Turkmen Dresses
  27. 27. Traditional Turkmen Dresses
  28. 28. Turkey-Turkmenistan Relations • Turkey is one of Turkmenistan's largest trading partners with over 600 Turkish companies registered in the country operating in the sphere of trade investments construction energy transport communication textile and processing industry
  29. 29. • Gul said: "Turkmenistan has achieved a distinguished and influential position in the international community with its neutrality policy. Taking into consideration its rich energy resources, Turkmenistan's role in regional development and stability is of critical importance,". • Turkey is the first country to have recognized Turkmenistan as an independent state • Turkey was the first to support Turkmenistan's neutral status in 1995
  30. 30. • Gül said the projects undertaken by Turkish companies in Turkmenistan had been worth almost $50 billion • Gül attached great importance to the relations between the two countries sharing common language, faith, history and culture
  31. 31. Thank You If You have any question, please ask