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Simple english grammar

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Simple english grammar

  1. 1. 1 Simple English Grammar for Students at Faculty of Engineering Semarang State University Arranged by: LELU DINA APRISTIA 2012
  2. 2. 2 Chapter 1 Numbers 1.1 Types of Numbers 1.1.1 Cardinal Number It involves a lot of numbers. ZERO, ONE, TWO, THREE, FOUR, FIVE, SIX, SEVEN, EIGHT, NINE, TEN, ELEVEN, TWELVE, THIRTEEN, FOURTEEN, FIFTEEN, SIXTEEN, SEVENTEEN, EIGHTEEN, NINETEEN, TWENTY, TWENTY-ONE, TWENTY-TWO, TWENTY-THREE, TWENTY-FOUR, TWENTY-FIVE, TWENTY-SIX, TWENTY-SEVEN, TWENTY-EIGHT, TWENTY-NINE, THIRTY, FORTY, FIFTY, SIXTY, SEVENTY, EIGHTY, NINETY, HUNDRED, THOUSAND, MILLION, BILLION, TRILLION, ETC. 1.1.2 Ordinal Number It consists of a lot of numbers . Pertama FIRST 1st Kedua SECOND 2nd Ketiga THIRD 3rd Keempat FOURTH 4th Kelimat FIFTH 5th Keenam SIXTH 6th Ketujuh SEVENTH 7th Kedelapan EIGHTH 8th Kesembilan NINTH 9th kesepuluh TENTH 10th Kesebelas ELEVENTH 11th Keduabelas TWELFTH 12th Ketigabelas THIRTEENTH 13th Keempatbelas FOURTEENTH 14th Kelimabelas FIFTEENTH 15th Keenambelas SIXTEENTH 16th Ketujuhbelas SEVENTEENTH 17th Kedelapanbelas EIGHTEENTH 18th Kesembilanbelas NINETEENTH 19th Keduapuluh TWENTIETH 20th Keduapuluhsatu TWENTY-FIRST 21st Keduapuluhdua TWENTY-SECOND 22nd Keduapuluhtiga TWENTY-THIRD 23rd keduapuluhempat TWENTY-FOURTH 24th ketigapuluhsatu THIRTY-FIRST 31st ketigapuluhdua THIRTY-SECOND 32nd ketigapuluhtiga THIRTY-THIRD 33rd Keempatpuluhsatu, dst FORTY-FIRST 41st 1.2 Function of Numbers 1.2.1 Cardinal Number Its functions are: - To tell year Example: I was born in 1986 1986 dibaca: Nineteen (dua digit pertama: 19) Eighty-Six (dua digit terakhir: 86). Secara lengkap: I was born in nineteen eighty-six (1986) - To tell age Example: I am 25 years old. Or I am twenty-five years old. - To tell number of house, or others in connection with address. Example : I live at Jl. Mujahir No. 14 or I live at Jl. Mujahir number fourteen. - To tell cellhone/phone numbers Example: A : What’s your cellphone number? B : It’s 081223224567 or It’s Zero Eight One Double Two Three Double Two Four Five Six Seven - To tell price
  3. 3. 3 Example: A : What’s the price of this T-Shirt? B : It’s Rp125.000 or It’s one hundred and twenty-five thousand rupiahs. - To tell types of goods, for example: type of cellphone such as N70 Example: A : What’s the type of your Nokia cellphone? B : It’s N70 or It’s N Seventy - To tell amount of goods Example: A : How many cars do you have? B : I have 5 cars or I have five cars. - To tell increase, decrease, multiplication, and division mathematically Example of increase: 1+23 = 24 One plus twenty-three is twenty four. Example of decrease: 45-35=10 Forty-five minus thirty-five is ten. Example of multiplication: 3x4=12 Three times four is twelve. Example of division: 20:4=5 Twenty divided into four is five. - To tell time Example: A : What time is it? B : It’s 13.56 or It’s thirteen fifty-six. 1.2.2 Ordinal Number Its functions are: - To tell date of birth Example: A : When were you born? B : I was born on March 17th, 1977. Or I was born on March the seventeenth, nineteen seventy-seven. - To tell date A : What is the date of today? B : Today is September 2nd, 2012. Or Today is September the second, two thousand and twelve. - To tell the order of something or someone Examples: 1. A : Are you the first child in your family? B : No, I am not. I am the fourth child in my family. 2. A : Which one is the second novel you have? B : Here it is. Chapter 2
  4. 4. 4 Introduction and Greeting 2.1 Introduction Memperkenalkandiri ataumemperkenalkanseseorang pada oranglainnya merupakan aktivitas yang situasional dan kondisional. Artinya, aspek-aspek dalam perkenalan itu bergantung pada situasi dan kondisi. Aspek-aspek perkenalan meliputi:nama lengkap, nama panggilan, tempat tanggal lahir, umur, alamat, asal, status, latar belakang pendidikan, informasi mengenai keluarga, pekerjaan (termasuk pengalaman kerja), agama, prinsip hidup, karakteristik, dan lain-lain. Ketika dipertemukandenganseseorang dalam sebuah perjalanan di dalam kereta api, tentu saja Anda akan mempertimbangkan aspek-aspekapa yang perluAnda kemukakan, karena Anda memiliki privasi yang mana Anda tidakberkenanmembaginya dengan orang lain. Sebaliknya, ketika dihadapkan pada forum formal misal nya wawancara kerja atauwawancara untuk memperoleh beasiswa, maka Anda disarankanmengikuti ‘aturan main’ dari si pewawancara berkenaan dengan perkenalan ini. Berikut ini merupakan dialog tentang perkenalan dalam versi terperinci. Mr. Rama : Good morning, how are you doing? Irene : I am fine, Sir. Thanks. And you? Mr. Rama : Very well, thanks. Anyway, I want to know more about you. What’s your full name? Irene : My full name is Irene Rachel. Mr. Rama : How should I call you? Irene or Rachel? Irene : Just call me Irene. Mr. Rama : When and where were you born, Irene? Irene : I was born on the ninth (9th) of May 1987 in Surabaya. Mr. Rama : How old are you? Irene : I am 24 years old. Mr. Rama : Where do you live here in Jakarta? Irene : I live at Jl. Raya Kemang No. 77 Jakarta, Sir. Mr. Rama : Do you live in your family house, rental house, or boarding house? Irene : That’s my aunt’s house. Mr. Rama : Oh, I think you have your own house. Are you single? Irene : Yes, I am, Sir. Mr. Rama : What about your parents, brothers or sisters? Irene : I am the onlyone childin myfamily. So, I have no brother or sister. Myparents are still in Surabaya. They are making their own jobs up there. Mr. Rama : Could you please explain about your education? Irene : I spent mytime for kindergarten, elementaryschool and junior high school in Surabaya. Then, my parents wantedme to continue mysenior highschool inJakarta. But actuallynot only that, I continued my college time at a private university in Jakarta. It was Trisakti University. I took accounting at Faculty of Economy. Mr. Rama : I see. I cansee from your certificate here before myeyes. Next, have you ever worked in any other company before? Irene : No, I haven’t, Sir. I’ve just graduated from my college. Therefore, it’s my first job interview. Mr. Rama : Tell me about yourself in five words. Irene : smart, diligent, professional, ambitious and energetic. Mr. Rama : What will you dofor this companywith your achievement and characteristics while you have no working experience? Irene : I will contribute myenergyto energize thiscompanyto be creative andstrong in competitive world. Mr. Rama : Just energize? Irene : Energize and work hard energetically for this company, Sir. Mr. Rama : (smiling) now I believe that you’re smart. Anyway, what’s your religion, Irene? Irene : I am a Moslem, Sir. Mr. Rama : Do you think God is important now? Irene : Sure. ThoughI amsmart as you said, I still can’t answer manywonderful things or events inthe world with my logic or ratio. That’s why I belive in God. I am just a human. Mr. Rama : Well then, I like your point of view, Irene. Just wait for the result ofthis interviewtomorrow morning. Nice to meet you, Irene. Irene : I look forward to hearing from you, Sir. Nice to meet you, too. 2.2 Greeting There are some greeting phrases in English. Such as: - Good morning (pukul 00.00 hingga pukul 12.00 siang) - Good afternoon (pukul 12.00 siang hingga pukul 17.00/17.30) - Good day (tengah hari) - Good evening (pukul 17.00/17.30 hingga pukul 00.00)
  5. 5. 5 - Good night (sebelum berpisah dengan seseorang di siang atau sore hari atau ketika berpamitan tidur) - Good bye (sebelum berpisah) - Bye (sebelum berpisah) - See you later (sebelum berpisah) - See you next time (sebelum berpisah) - See ya (sebelum berpisah) - See you tomorrow (sebelum berpisah dan bertemu lagi besok) Anda juga bisa memerhatikan materi ini lebih lanjut pada tabel di bawah ini. Apa kabar? Kabar berelemen Positif Kabar berelemen Negatif How do you do? How do you do? How are you? I am fine. Thanks. I am very well. Very well. Thanks. And you? I am great. I am good. Etc. So-so Not too bad. Not so good. Life sucks. I am sick. Etc. How are you doing? I’m doing fine. I’m doing well. I’m doing good. (sama saja seperti jawabandi atas) (sama saja seperti jawabandi atas) Ada apa? Answers (just examples) What’s up? I am makingup myfinal report for in the end of this month I have to give it to my lecturer. What are you up to? I am lookingfor a job. It is really hard to find it now. Chapter 3 Part of Speech and Gerund
  6. 6. 6 3.1 Part of Speech 3.1.1 Noun Secara harfiah, noun ialah kata benda. Kata benda berfungsi sebagai subjek dan objek atau pelengkap (complementer). Silakan pelajari contoh berikut. 1. Monalisa loves him. (Monalisa dalam kalimat ini berperan sebagai Subjek) 2. Marco loves Monalisa. (Monalisa dalam kalimat ini berfungsi sebagai Objek) 3. The fiance of Marco is Monalisa. (Monalisa dalam kalimat ini berperan sebagai Pelengkap) Berkenaandengan noun, Anda diharapkan pula memahami singular and plural noun (regular plural noun dan irregular plural noun) dan countable and uncountable noun. a. Singular and plural noun Singular noun merupakankata benda yangjumlahnya tunggal. Biasanya ciri khas yang menanda i bahwa kata benda ituberjumlahtunggalialaheksistensidari article a, each, every, one, this, that, etc. Sebaliknya, plural noun ialah kata benda yangjumlahnya lebih dari satu(>1) yang dikenal pula dengan sebutan jamak atau plural. Ciri khas yang menempelpada kata benda ini ialahunsur numerik yang menunjukkan jumlah jamak misalnya two, three, etc. dan article yangsecara otomatis menandai pluralitas misalnya a few, some, many, a lot of, plenty of, these, those, etc. Plural noun terbagi lagi menjadi regular plural noun dan irregular plural noun. Regular plural noun merupakan jenis plural noun yang mana suffix atauakhiran pada kata benda itubersifat regular, yakni akhiran –s, -es, -ies, dan – ves. Silakan perhatikan tabel berikut ini. Akhiran Ketentuan Contoh -s Sebagian besar kata benda yang berakhirandenganhurufmana pun Singular: a helmet Plural: some helmets Singular: a clock Plural: many clocks Singular: a car Plural: two cars -es Kata benda berakhiran –ch, -sh, -ss, -x Singular: a watch Plural: these watches Singular: a brush Plural: some brushes Singular: a glass Plural: twelve glasses Singular: a box Plural: some boxes -ies Kata benda berakhiran -y Singular: a fly Plural: three flies -ves Kata benda berakhiran –f, - fe Singular: a leaf Plural: a lot of leaves Singular: a knife Plural: many knives Sementara itu, yang termasukdalamranahirregular plural noun ialah kata-kata benda pada tabel berikut. Singular Form Plural Form Example child children those children man men four men woman women five women tooth teeth a lot of teeth foot feet two feet mouse mice some mice b. Countable and Uncountable Noun
  7. 7. 7 Countable noun merupakankata benda yangbisa ataumasuk akal dihitung jumlahnya. Secara logis, singular and plural noun merupakanbagiandari ranahcountable noun. Sementara itu, uncountable noun merupakan kata benda yang tidak bisa dihitung jumlahnya. Silakan cermati tabel berikut. Whole Groups Made Up of Similar Items Fluids Solids Gases Particles Abstractions Languages Fields of Study Recreation General Activities baggage clothing equipment food fruit furniture garbage hardware jewelry junk luggage machinery mail makeup money/ cash/ change postage scenery traffic excitement water coffee tea milk oil soap gasoline blood, etc. ice bread butter cheese meat gold iron silver glass paper cotton wood wool, etc. steam air oxygen nitrogen smoke smog pollution, etc. rice chalk corn dirt dust flour grass hair pepper salt sand sugar wheat, etc. beauty confidence courage education enjoyment fun happiness health help honesty hospitality importance intelligence justice knowledge laughter luck music patience peace pride progress recreation significance sleep truth violence wealth advice information news evidence proof time space energy homework work grammar slang vocabulary arabic chinese english spanish deutch, etc. chemistry engineering history literature mathematics phychology, etc. baseball soccer tennis chess bridge poker, etc. driving studying swimming traveling walking, (and other gerunds) Jenis-jenis dari natural phenomena juga masukdalam ranah uncountable noun. Jenis -jenis tersebut antara lain: weather, dew, fog, hail, heat, humidity, lighting, rain, sleet, snow, thunder, wind, darkness, light, sunshine, electricity, fire, gravity 3.1.2 Verb a. Special verbs Dikatakan special verbs karena memang tiga kata kerja berikut memiliki variasi paling banyak apabila dikomparasikandengankata kerja lainnya. Variasiini terkait erat dengantenses yang digunakandalam suatu diskursus. Ironisnya, variasi ini kerap kali luput dari perhatian mere ka yang baru belajar bahasa Inggris. Special verbs tersebut ialah verb BE, DO, dan HAVE.
  8. 8. 8 SPECIAL VERB VARIATION TENSE SUBJECT BE IS PRESENT TENSES SHE, HE, IT AM I ARE THEY, WE, I, YOU WAS PAST TENSES I, SHE, HE, IT WERE THEY, WE, YOU BEEN PRESENT PERFECT, PAST PERFECT, PASSIVE ALL SUBJECTS BEING PRESENT CONTINUOUS, PAST CONTINUOUS, PASSIVE ALL SUBJECTS HAVE HAS PRESENT SIMPLE, PRESENT CONTINUOUS, PRESENT PERFECT SHE, HE, IT HAVE THEY, WE, I, YOU HAD PRESENT PERFECT, PAST PERFECT, PAST PERFECT, PASSIVE ALL SUBJECTS HAVING PRESENT CONTINUOUS, PAST CONTINUOUS, PASSIVE ALL SUBJECTS DO DOES PRESENT SIMPLE SHE, HE, IT DO PRESENT SIMPLE THEY, WE, I, YOU DID PAST SIMPLE ALL SUBJECTS DONE PRESENT PERFECT, PAST PERFECT, PASSIVE ALL SUBJECTS DOING PRESENT CONTINUOUS, PAST CONTINUOUS, PASSIVE ALL SUBJECTS b. General verbs Dikatakan general verbs karena kata-kata kerja yang termasuk dalam ranah ini tidak begitu ruwet dalam penggunaannya, karena tidak menjadi bagianutama dari pola dasar suatu tense. Di bawah ini, Anda dapat mempelajari sejumlah contoh general verbs yang kerap muncul dalam kehidupa n sehari-hari. V1 (SIMPLE FORM) V2 (SIMPLE PAST) V3 (PAST PARTICIPLE) Meaning read read read membaca write wrote written menulis listen listened listened mendengarkan hear heard heard mendengarkan present presented presented mempresentasikan show showed showed/shown menunjukkan draw drew drawn menggambar design designed designed mendesign browse browsed browsed mencari operate operated operated mengoperasikan do did done mengerjakan discuss discussed discussed berdiskusi make made made membuat finish finished finished menyelesaikan obey obeyed obeyed mematuhi ignore ignored ignored mengabaikan skip skipped skipped bolos/melewati cheat cheated cheated menyontek/selingkuh study studied studied belajar learn learned learned/learnt belajar get got got/gotten memperoleh have had had memiliki/mempunyai open opened opened membuka close closed closed menutup agree agreed agreed menyetujui disagree disagreed disagreed tidakmenyetujui
  9. 9. 9 analyse analysed analysed menganalisis tell told told memberitahukan talk talked talked berbincang speak spoke spoken berbicara say said said mengatakan describe described described menggambarkan explain explained explained menjelaskan inform informed informed menginformasikan watch watched watched menonton/menyaksikan notice noticed noticed memperhatikan insist insisted insisted memaksa push pushed pushed memaksa/mendorong force forced forced memaksa forget forgot forgotten melupakan remember remembered remembered mengingat memorize memorized memorized menghafalkan think thought thought memikirkan understand understood understood mengerti feel felt felt merasakan taste tasted tasted mencicipi eat ate eaten makan drink drank drunk minum whisper whispered whispered membisikkan sing sang sung menyanyi call called called memanggil/menghubungi send sent sent mengirim imagine imagined imagined membayangkan concentrate concentrated concentrated berkonsentrasi focus focused focused fokus look for lookedfor lookedfor mencari wait waited waited menunggu bring brought brought membawa buy bought bought membeli sell sold sold menjual pass passed passed melewati/lulus cross crossed crossed menyeberang walk walked walked berjalan run ran run berlari jump jumped jumped meloncat climb climbed climbed memanjat sour poured poured menuang add added added menambahkan stir stirred stirred mengaduk fry fried fried menggoreng boil boiled boiled merebus slice sliced sliced mengiris chop chopped chopped merajang cut cut cut memotong meet met met bertemu know knew known mengetahui hold held held mengadakan/memegang long longed longed merindukan miss missed missed melewatkan/kangen come came come datang arrive arrived arrived tiba visit visited visited mengunjungi keep kept kept menjaga wear wore worn mengenakan tear tore torn merobek sleep slept slept tidur
  10. 10. 10 worry worried worried mengkawatirkan choose chose chosen memilih pick picked picked menjemput/memetik lean leaned leaned bersandar wake woke waken bangun/membangunkan sit sat sat duduk stand stood stood berdiri move moved moved bergerak/pindah let let let membiarkan express expressed expressed mengungkapkan create created created menciptakan realize realize realize menyadari recognize recognized recognized mengenal/mengakui quarantee quaranteed quaranteed menjamin apply applied applied mengaplikasikan practice practiced practiced mempraktikkan continue continued continued melanjutkan try tried tried mencoba repeat repeated repeated mengulangi reject rejected rejected menolak accept accepted accepted menerima invite invited invited mengundang ask asked asked bertanya/meminta answer answered answered menjawab mention mentioned mentioned menyebutkan find found found menemukan set set set menata solve solved solved memecahkan masalah open opened opened membuka close closed closed menutup kick kicked kicked menendang/menghajar throw threw thrown membuang pull pulled pulled menarik c. Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs merupakankata kerja bantu. Mengapa dikatakanbantu?Karena pada umumnya fungsinya ialah untuk mengubahtatananpola kalimat positif menjadi kalimat negatif dan kalimat interrogatif (kalimat tanya). Silogisme yang muncul ialahbahwa auxiliaryverbs hanya muncul dalam kalimat negatif dan kalimat tanya. Hal ini berlaku untuk auxiliaryverbs DOES, DOESN’T, DO, DON’T, DID, danDIDN’T. Lainhalnya denganauxiliary HAS, HASN’T, HAVE, HAVEN’T, HAD, HADN’T, sebab auxiliaryverbs ini muncul dalamkalimat positif, negatifatau interrogatif untuk menunjukkan sudah, belum, ataubertanya sudahkah. Anda tentu ingin mengetahui apa saja contoh dari auxiliary verbs. DOES : Auxiliary verb (Kata Kerja Bantu)yangmuncul dalamkalimat negatif dankalimat interrogatif yang menggunakan tense present simple with general verb untuk subjek SHE, HE, IT Contoh: Does she really know computer? DOESN’T : Kependekan dari DOES NOT Contoh: She doesn’t really know computer. DO : Auxiliary verb (Kata Kerja Bantu)yangmuncul dalamkalimat negatif dankalimat interrogatif yang menggunakan tense present simple with general verb untuk subjek THEY, WE, I, YOU Contoh: Do we stay at this hotel for some nights? DON’T : Kependekan dari DO NOT Contoh: We don’t stay at this hotel for some nights. DID : Auxiliary verb (Kata Kerja Bantu)yangmuncul dalamkalimat negatif dankalimat interrogatif yang menggunakan tense past simple with general verb untuk semua subjek Contoh: Did you forget to bring your tablet yesterday? DIDN’T : kependekan dari DID NOT Contoh: You didn’t forget to bring your tablet yesterday. HAS : Auxiliary verb (Kata Kerja Bantu)yangmuncul dalamkalimat positifdankalimat interrogatif yang menggunakan tense present perfect with be and with general verb untuk subjek SHE, HE, IT Contoh:He has done the jobsince half anhour ago(+) atau Hashe done the job since half an hour ago?
  11. 11. 11 HASN’T : Auxilirayverb yang muncul dalam kalimat negatif dan merupakan kependekan dari HAS NOT Contoh: He hasn’t done the job since half an hour ago. HAVE : Auxiliary verb (Kata Kerja Bantu)yangmuncul dalamkalimat positifdankalimat interrogatif yang menggunakan tense present perfect with be and with general verb untuk subjek THEY, WE, I, YOU Contoh: They have lived here for 7 years (+) atau Have they lived here for 7 years? HAVEN’T : Auxiliaryverb yangmuncul dalamkalimat negatif danmerupakan kependekan dari HAVE NOT Contoh: They haven’t lived here for 7 years. HAD : Auxiliary verb (Kata Kerja Bantu)yangmuncul dalamkalimat positifdankalimat interrogatif yang menggunakan tense past perfect with be and with general verb Contoh:I had finishedmyjob whenshe asked me to hang out this morning(+) or HadI finishedmyjob when she asked me to hang out this morning? HADN’T : Auxiliary verb yang muncul dalam kalimat negatif dan merupakan kependekan dari HAD NOT Contoh: I hadn’t finished my job when she asked me to hang out this morning. 3.1.3 Adjective Adjective merupakankata sifat, yakni kata yangmenunjukkan kualitas sesuatuatau seseorang. Kualitas itusendiri dapat berunsur positifmaupun negatif. Perlu diingat, positifitasmaupun negativitas dalam hal ini bersifat relatif. Berikut ini merupakan beberapa contoh dari kata sifat. Adjective Positif and the meaning Adjective Negatif and the meaning smart (cerdas) dull (tolol) clever (pintar) stupid (bodoh) beautiful (cantik) ugly (jelek) handsome (ganteng) diligent (rajin) lazy (malas) full (kenyang) hungry (lapar) rich (kaya) poor (miskin) bright (terang) dark (gelap) happy (bahagia) sad (sedih) strong (kuat) weak (lemah) clean (bersih) dirty (kotor) good (bagus) bad (buruk) healthy (sehat) sick (sakit) generous (dermawan) stingy (pelit) careful (hati-hati/teliti) careless (tidak peduli/sembarangan) arrogant (sombong) friendly (ramah) 3.1.4 Adverb a. Adverb of Time Adverb of time merupakan kata yang menerangkan tentang waktu terjadinya suatu peristiwa. Days Months Past Present Future Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday January February March April May June July August September October November December Yesterday This morning This afternoon Last week Last Friday night An hour ago A year ago Last century today Tonight At the moment At present Now Nowadays Recently Along day Tomorrow Next day A day after tomorrow Next three days Next Thursday The following week Next week Next year Musim juga merupakanbagiandari keteranganwaktu, yakni DRY SEASONdanWET (RAINY) SEASON di Indonesia serta WINTER, SPRING, SUMMER, dan AUTUMN di negara barat. b. Adverb of Place
  12. 12. 12 Adverb of place merupakankata yangmemberikaninformasi mengenai tempat terjadinya suatu peristiwa. Keterangantempat dapat denganmudahdideteksi, yakni dengan mencari preposisi (kata depan) misalnya di, pada, dari danseterusnya. Negara, kota, kabupaten, kecamatan, desa, tempat akademis, tempat kuliner, tempat hedonistik, tempat konsumsifdanjenis tempat lainnya merupakanbagianinherendari keterangan tempat apabila mereka disertai denganpreposisi (kata depan), sebabapabila tidakdidahului kata depan, maka mereka merupakan bagian dari Noun. Silakan bandingkan: 1. Jakarta is the capital city of Indonesia. 2. She lives in Jakarta. Kata Jakarta pada kalimat 1 merupakanNoun. Sementara kata Jakarta pada kalimat 2 menjadi satu kesatuan dengan preposisi in dan berperan sebagai keterangan tempat. c. Adverb of Manner Adverb of manner merupakankata yang menunjukkaninformasi tentangcara sesuatu berlangsung atau cara seseorang melakukan sesuatu. Biasanya ciri khasdari kata yang merupakanketerangancara berakhirandenganhuruf – ly. Misalnya: carefully, diligently, well, quickly, etc. d. Adverb of Frequency Adverb of frequency merupakankata yang menerangkan seberapa sering sesuatu berlangsung atau seberapa sering seseorang melakukan sesuatu. Keterangan Frekuensi biasanya muncul dalam kalimat-kalimat yang menggunakantense present simplewith general verb. Keterangantersebut antara lain always, usually, often, seldom, sometimes, rarely, never, every day, every Sunday, every week, every month, every year, once a day, twice a day, three times a day, four times a day, etc. 3.1.5 Article a. a, an and the Artikel a digunakanuntukmenunjukkan bahwa sesuatu atauseseorangituberjumlah tunggal saja. Artikel ini digunakan untuk noun yang berawalan dengan huruf konsonan. Sementara itu, artikel an dengan fungsi yang sama dengana disandingkandengannounyang berawalan dengan hurufvokal. Adapun, artikel the digunakan untuk noun berawalanhuruf apa saja. Artikel ini disandingkan dengan noun yangtelahdisinggung atau disebutkan sebelumnya. Jadi, artikel the berfungsiuntuk menyatakan bahwa sesuatu atauseseorangitusudahjelas, sudahteridentifikasi, sudah diperkenalkan, danspesifik. Artikel ini juga selaluhadir di sebelah noun yang khas, spesifikdan hanya berjumlah satu. Misalnya matahari (the sun), bulan (the moon), bumi (the earth) dan lain-lain. b. that, this, those, these That merupakan artikel yang diletakkanbersebelahandengannounyang jumlahnya hanya satu dan jaraknya agak jauh dari speaker. Those merupakan artikel yang fungsinya hampir sama dengan that, hanya saja those ditempatkandi sebelah nounyangjumlahnya lebihdari satu. Adapun, this merupakan artikel yang diletakkan di sebelah noun yang jumlahnya hanya satu, tetapi jaraknya dekat dengan speaker. Demikianjuga halnya dengan these. These merupakan artikel yang fungsinya sama dengan this, hanya saja this ditempatkan di sebelah noun yang jumlahnya lebih dari satu. c. a few, a little, many, much, some, any, a lot of a few dan a little sama-sama memiliki makna sedikit. Namun, a few ditempatkan sebelum kata benda yang countable, sedangkana little ditempatkan sebelum kata benda yang uncountable. Hal yang penting untuk diingat, meskipun berarti sedikit, kata benda yang bersebelahan dengan a fewtetapmemperoleh akhiran –s, -es, -ies, atau –ves (lihat pembahasan tentanplural noun baik regular plural nounmaupunirregular pluralnoun). Manydan much sama -sama bermakna banyak. Akantetapi, manydigunakanuntukcountable noun dan much digunakanuntukuncountable noun. Some bermakna beberapa. Artikel ini dapat disandingkandengankata kerja countable atau uncountable. Apabila diletakkan sebelum kata kerja countable, maka kata kerja tersebut berakhiran –s, -es, -ies, atau –ves (lihat pembahasan tentanplural nounbaikregular pluralnounmaupun irregular plural noun). Sementara itu, apabila ditempatkan sebelum kata kerja uncountable, maka kata kerja tersebut tidak perlu penambahanartikel apa pun. Misalnya: some homework. Begitu pula halnya dengan a lot of yangberarti banyak. Artikel ini dapat disandingkan dengan countable atau uncountable noun. 3.1.6 Preposition Preposition yang acapkali muncul dalam kehidupansehari-hari ialah TO, FOR, FROM, IN, ON, INTO, AT, BELOW, UNDER, BENEATH, UP, DOWN, BY, WITH, WITHOUT, SINCE. TO berarti ke, kepada, atau untuk. Misalnya: They give the invitation to all their friends. For juga memiliki arti yang sama. Namun, FOR dapat bermakna selama jika muncul dalamkonteks kalimat yang menggunakan present perfect tense sebagaimana SINCE yang juga muncul dalam kalimat present perfect tense dan bermakna sejak. Misalnya:
  13. 13. 13 - I’ve learned English for 15 years. - I’ve learned English since I was in Junior High School. FOR dapat pula berperan sebagai konjungsi apabila maknanya karena. Misalnya: I love you for you are really sweet (aku mencintaimu karena kamu sangat manis). FROM berarti dari. Misalnya: I get the invitation from both of them. In berarti di, di dalam atau pada. Biasanya muncul sebelum tahun, nama bulan, nama kota, nama tempat secara general misalnya:in a class, atau sebelum V-ing, misalnya: I try hard in grasping the meaning. Contoh lain: - I am in Bandung. - We are in the class. - Paulo was born in 1978. ON berarti pada atau di atas. Biasanya muncul sebelum kata benda yang letaknya memang di atas benda yang lain, sebelum nama hari, sebelum tanggal, dan lain-lain. Misalnya: My netbook is on the table. INTO berarti ke dalam. Pahami sendiri makna spesifiknya dari kalimat-kalimat berikut. - I am pouring the water into the glass. - You break this glass into pieces. AT berarti di ataupada. Biasanya muncul sebelumtempat yang menjadi bagian dari kehidupan sehari -hari, misalnya at home, at campus, at school, at night, sebelumjammisalnya at 10.00 p.m., atau sebelumtempat yang spesifik misalnya at Semarang State University. BELOW, UNDER, BENEATH bermakna di bawah. Silakan perhatikan contoh di bawah ini. - Look at the example below, please. - I’ve got you under my skin. - I think there’s something spooky beneath my bathtub. UP berarti di atas. Kemunculannya berfungsi sebagai penegas bahwa sesuatuitu berada di atas atau bangun. Misalnya: - I want to go upstairs. - She wake up. - You lift me up. - He makes up his mind. Bahkan ada pula yang menunjukkan sifat mengawang-ngawang misalnya: - I feel like I’m up in the air. - He doesn’t care about what’s happening up there. DOWN berarti di bawah. Kemunculannya ialahsebagai penegas bahwa sesuatu itu memang berada di area bawah. Misalnya: - Deep down in Fiona’s heart, she’s still anxious. - They are down since the proposal is rejected by the boss. BY berarti oleh atau dengan. Misalnya: - Deddy is accepted to be a new employee by the manager. - By giving the best, we deserve to get the best. WITH berarti dengan. Contoh: - I can live and get everything in this world with you. - You will master this material with listening to the lecturer. WITHOUT berarti tanpa. Contoh: - I can live and get everything in this world without you. - Without listening to the lecturer, you can’t master the material. 3.1.7 Conjunction Conjunction berarti kata penghubung yang merangkai satukalimat dengankalimat lain. Berikut ini merupakan beberapa contoh dari kata penghubung. Conjunction Meaning Example And dan Me and you like surfing the internet. But tetapi I browse some good translations on Google Translate, but I can’t find them out. Yet tetapi He tries, yet he fails to win the game. However Akan tetapi/Bagaimana punjuga They plan to stay. However,
  14. 14. 14 they are already asked to go back home. Or Atau You leave him, or I’m goint to leave you. while Sementara itu We figure out this problem, while she doesn’t care at all. Meanwhile Sementara itu We figure out this problem. Meanwhile, she doesn’t care at all. Hence Oleh karena itu You love English. Hence, you learn much about it from many sources. Therefore You love English. Therefore, you learn much about it from many sources. So Jadi You love English. So, you learn much about it from many sources. Because karena Dave is angry because they don’t obey the rules. For Dave is angry for they don’t obey the rules. Since Dave is angry since they don’t obey the rules. Before Sebelum Before I go to campus, I put the books into my bag. After setelah After I put the books into my bag, I go to campus. Later on kemudian I’ll pray. Later on, I go to sleep. Besides Selain itu Mom is gentle. Besides, she is tough. Next Selanjutnya I’ll switch on the computer. Next, I’ll install some new programs. 3.1.8 Pronoun Pronoun merupakan kata ganti untuk menghindari repetisi yangkurang penting. Secara umum, pronoun terbagi menjadi empat tipe, yakni subject pronoun, object pronoun, possessive adjective dan possessive pronoun. Subject pronoun digunakanuntuk menggantikan kata-kata yang berperan sebagai subjek dalam kalimat. Object pronoun diaplikasikanuntuk menggantikan kata -kata yang berperan sebagai objek dalam kalimat. Possessive adjective merupakan kata ganti yangmenunjukkan kepunyaandanditulispersis di sebelahkata benda yang dimiliki. Misalnya: my eyes, my room, my body, etc. Sementara itu, possessive pronoun merupakan kata ganti yang menunjukkan kepunyaan, tetapi ditulisterpisahdari benda yang dimiliki. Biasanya possessive pronoun ini berpisah dari noun-nya karena verb. Misalnya: - Those files are mine. These are yours. - The files on your table are not yours. You took mine. Subject Pronoun Object Pronoun Possessive Adjective Possesive Pronoun SHE HER HER HERS HE HIM HIS HIS IT IT ITS - THEY THEM THEIR THEIRS WE US OUR OURS I ME MY MINE YOU YOU YOUR YOURS 3.2 Gerund Gerund merupakan noundenganformula V1+-ing (Ving), berperan sebagaisubjek, objekataupelengkap dalam kalimat. Contoh: - Sleeping is very important for health. (Sleepingdalam kalimat ini merupakan gerund dan berperan sebagai subjek) - John loves sleeping. (sleeping dalam kalimat ini merupakan gerund dan berfungsi sebagai objek.)
  15. 15. 15 - His hobby is sleeping. (Sleeping dalam kalimat ini merupakan gerund dan berperan seba gai pelengkap.)
  16. 16. 16 Chapter 4 Tenses 4.1 The Structure of Sentences in Past and Present Present Tense Past Tense Present Simple with be (+) S + is/am/are + N/Adj/Adv (-) S + is/am/are + NOT + N/Adj/Adv (?) Is/am/are + S + N/Adj/Adv? Past Simple with be (+) S + was/were + N/Adj/Adv. (-) S + was/were + NOT + N/Adj/Adv (?) Was/were + S +N/Adj/Adv? Present Simple with general verbs (+) S + V1 + N/Adj/Adv (-) S + doesn’t/don’t + V1 + N/Adj/Adv (?) Does/Do + S + V1 + N/Adj/Adv? Past Simple with general verbs (+) S + V2 + N/Adj/Adv. (-) S + didn’t + V1 + N/Adj/Adv. (?) Did + S + V1 + N/Adj/Adv? Present Continuous (+) S + is/am/are + Ving + N/Adj/Adv. (-) S + is/am/are + NOT + Ving + N/Adj/Adv. (?) Is/am/are + S + Ving + N/Adj/Adv? Past Continuous (+) S + was/were + Ving + N/Adj/Adv. (-) S + was/were + NOT + Ving + N/Adj/Adv. (?) Was/were + S +Ving + N/Adj/Adv? Present Perfect with be (+) S + has/have + been + N/Adj/Adv. (-) S + has/have + NOT + been + N/Adj/Adv. (?) Has/Have + S + been + N/Adj/Adv? Past Perfect with be (+) S + had + been + N/Adj/Adv. (-) S + had + NOT + been + N/Adj/Adv. (?) Had + S + been + N/Adj/Adv? Present Perfect with general verbs (+) S + has/have + V3 + N/Adj/Adv. (-) S + has/have + NOT + V3 + N/Adj/Adv. (?) Has/Have + S + V3 + N/Adj/Adv? Past Perfect with general verbs (+) S + had + V3 + N/Adj/Adv. (-) S + had + NOT + V3 + N/Adj/Adv. (?) Had + S + V3 + N/Adj/Adv? 4.2 The Function of Each Tense 4.2.1 Present Simple with Be Berikut ini merupakan fungsi -fungsi dari tense yang (paling familiar) ini. - untuk menyebutkan nama - untuk menyebutkan asal - untuk menyebutkan kebangsaan - untuk menyebutkan pekerjaan - untuk menyebutkan status - untuk menyebutkan agama - untuk menyebutkan mood - untuk menyebutkan kondisi sesuatu - untuk menyebutkan posisi atautempat - untuk menjelaskan sifat seseorang - untuk menyebutkan benda atausesuatu 4.2.2 Present Simple with General Verbs Fungsi dari tense ini ialah: - Untuk menyatakankebiasaan, rutinitas, atausuatukegiatan atauaktivitasyang bersifat repetitif (diulang-ulang). Biasanya akan muncul keterangan frekwensi (adverbs of frequency) seperti: Always (selalu), usually(biasanya), often (sering), seldom (jarang), rarely(hampir tidak pernah), sometimes (kadang- kadang), never (tidakpernah), everyday(setiaphari), everytime (setiap saat), once a week(seminggu sekali), twice a week (dua kali seminggu), three times a day (tiga kali dalam sehari), etc. - Untuk menyatakan kebenaran umum atau sesuatu yang general. 4.2.3 Present Continuous Fungsinya ialah: - Untuk menyatakan suatu aktivitas atau kejadian yang BERLANGSUNG KETIKA SPEAKER BERBICARA. Contoh: Look at that! The baby is trying to stand up. - Untuk menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang SEDANG DALAM PROSES PENGGARAPAN ATAU PENYELESAIAN. Contoh: I am reading the latest Harry Potter book. If I have finished, I will lend you. - Untuk menerangkan RENCANA DI MASA YANG AKAN DATANG atau yang akan segera dilakukan. Contoh: I am building a new house for my family.
  17. 17. 17 4.2.4 Present Perfect with Be Fungsinya hampir sama seperti fungsi-fungsi present simplewith be. Hanya saja, penggunaantense ini menunjukkan makna TELAH/SUDAH. Contoh: I have been full. (Aku sudah kenyang). 4.2.5 Present Perfect with General Verbs Berikut ini merupakan fungsi -fungsinya. - Untuk menyatakan suatu aktivitas TELAH SELESAI atau BELUM SELESAI dilakukan. Misalnya: You have proven that your research is right scientifically. - Untuk menunjukkansuatuaktivitasyangdimulai di masa lalu, tetapi hingga kini masih berlangsung (biasanya menggunakankata SINCE atau FOR). Sesuatuterbentuk di masa lalu, tetapi hingga kini efeknya masih terasa. Misalnya: They have waited for you there for two hours. - Untuk menyatakan bahwa seseorang PERNAH atau TIDAK PERNAH melakukan sesuatu. Contoh: I have ever joined the movement. I have never gone to China. - Untuk menyatakan bahwa suatu kejadian baru saja terjadi (biasanya ada kata JUST) Contoh: She has just arrived at home. - Untuk menyatakanbahwa suatukejadiantelahterjadi/telah selesai di luar dugaanatau di luar prediksi(biasanya ada kata ALREADY) Contoh: He has already posted the letter before you ask. 4.2.6 Past Simple with Be Fungsinya hampir sama seperti fungsi-fungsi present simplewith be. Hanya saja, penggunaantense ini menunjukkan arti IALAH/ADALAH/MERUPAKAN di masa lalu. Contoh: I was so thirsty an hour ago. (Aku sangat haus sejam yang lalu) He was sad minutes ago. (Dia sedih beberapa menit yang lalu) 4.2.7 Past Simple with General Verbs Fungsinya ialah untuk menyatakansuatu kegiatan, aktivitas atau peristiwa yang terjadi di masa lalu dan tidak diketahui apakah aktivitas tersebut tuntas atau belum. Selainitu, aktivitas itutidakada lagi hubungannya dengan masa kini. Contoh: They kept a puppy three years ago. We kicked them out because they were so rude. 4.2.8 Past Continuous Fungsinya ialah sebagai berikut. - Untuk menyatakansuatu kegiatanatau kejadian yang sedang berlangsung pada suatu waktu di suatu tempat tertentu di masa lalu (keterangan waktu dan tempat terperinci) Contoh: Nicky was connecting the cable to the plug-in at 07.15 a.m. this morning. - Untuk menjelaskanbahwa ada dua kejadianyang terjadi dalamkurun waktu yang HAMPIR BERSAMAAN. Kejadian yang lebihdahuluterjadi menggunakan past continuous, adapunaktivitasyangmenyusul kemudian menggunakan past simple with general verbs. Misalnya: I was doing my thesis when Charlize texted me yesterday. While Charlize was focusing herself to the research, Juan tried to make her relax. - Untuk menerangkan bahwa terdapat dua kejadianyang terjadi BERSAMAAN di masa lalu. Kedua kejadiandipaparkan dengan menggunakan past continuous dan kata penghubung WHILE. Contoh: Dave was looking for his wallet, while Dereck was making his bed. 4.2.9 Past Perfect with Be Fungsinya hampir sama seperti fungsi-fungsi present simplewith be. Hanya saja, penggunaantense ini menunjukkan makna TELAH/SUDAH di masa lalu. Contoh:
  18. 18. 18 They had been bored before you performed four days ago. (Mereka telah bosan sebelum kamu tampil empat hari yang lalu) 4.2.10 Past Perfect with General Verbs Fungsinya ialah untuk menyatakanbahwa terdapat dua kejadiandi masa laluyang mana salah satu kejadian telah selesai atau tuntas sebelum kejadian lain menyusul. Contoh: I listened to the music from 01.00 p.m. until 03.00 p.m. Vicky picked me up at 03.15 p.m. Jadi kalimat untuk menyatukan dua kalimat di atas menggunakan past perfect with general verbs menjadi: I had listened to the music before Vicky picked me up.
  19. 19. 19 Chapter Passive Sentences 5.1 What is Passive Sentence? Sebelummemusatkan perhatian pada pola-pola kalimat pasif, Anda sebaiknya mengetahui dan kemudian mengingat bahwa kalimat pasif terbentukkarena ada kalimat aktifyang mengandung Noun yang berperan sebagai Objek dan tentusaja kalimat yangmengandungVerbselainBe (atausering saya istilahkan dengan General Verbs). Sebagaimana yang Anda ketahui dalambanyak contohkalimat, Nounberfungsisebagai Subjek danjuga Objek. Silakan perhatikan contoh-contoh kalimat di bawah ini. Contoh: 1. You may change the layout of this magazine. (Kalimat aktif) You merupakan subject pronoun. Sebagaiinfo untuk mengingatkan Anda, Subject pronouns (she, he, it, they, we, I, you) dan object pronouns (her, him, it, them, us, me, you) merupakan turunan dari Noun. The layout of this magazine merupakan noun phrase dan berperan sebagai Objek dalam kalimat di atas. Karena mengandungNounyang berfungsi sebagai Objek, maka kalimat di atas dapat diubahmenjadi kalimat pasif menjadi: The layout of this magazine maybe changedbyyou. (Kalimat pasif) 2. Frente has installed the new program in her notebook. (Kalimat aktif) Frente merupakan subject;berupa Nounkarena nama tersebut menunjukkan eksistensi seorang manusia. Frente dapat disubstitusi dengan subject pronoun She. Sementara itu, the new program merupakan frase kata benda (noun phrase) yang berperan sebagai objek. Dengan demikian, kalimat di atas dapat diubah menjadi kalimat pasif berikut ini. The new program has been installed by Frente in her notebook. (kalimat pasif) 5.2 The Structure of Passive Sentence Kalimat Aktif Kalimat Pasif Present Simple with General Verbs S (berupa Subject pronoun) + V1 + N/Adj/Adv Contoh: She spills a cup of tea on the floor. Present Simple with General Verbs N + Be Present (is/am/are) + V3 + by+ S (yang berubahmenjadi Object Pronoun) Contoh: A cup of tea is spilled by her on the floor. Past Simple with general verbs S (berupa Subject Pronoun) + V2 + N/Adj/Adv Contoh: He put his shoes on the sofa yesterday. Past Simple with general verbs N + Be Past (was/were) + V3 + by + S (yang berubah menjadi Object Pronoun) Contoh: His shoes were put by him on the sofa yesterday. Present Continuous S (berupa Subject Pronoun) + is/am/are + Ving + N/Adj/Adv. Contoh: Wulan is picking her brother in a kindergarten. Present Continuous N + Be Present (is/am/are) + being + V3 + by+ S (yang berubahmenjadi Object Pronoun) Contoh: Wulan’s brother is beingpicked up by Wulan/her in a kindergarten. Past Continuous S (berupa Subject Pronoun) + was/were + Ving + N/Adj/Adv Contoh: Hanny was peeling the oranges at 7 a.m. this morning. Past Continuous N + Be Past (was/were)+ being + V3 + by + S (yang berubah menjadi Object Pronoun) Contoh: The oranges were being peeled by Hanny at 7 a.m. this morning. Present Perfect with General Verb S (berupa Subject Pronoun) + has/have + V3 + N/Adj/Adv Contoh: Gerard has noticed her signs of love for a month. Present Perfect with General Verb N + has/have + been + V3 + by + S (yang berubah menjadi Object Pronoun) Contoh: Her signs of love have been noticed by Gerard/him for a month. Past Perfect with General Verb S (berupa Subject Pronoun) + had + V3 + N/Adj/Adv Contoh: Prima had summarizedthe journals before his mom knocked the door. Past Perfect with General Verb N + had + been+ V3 + by + S (yang berubah menjadi Object Pronoun) Contoh: The journals had been summarized by Prima/him before his mom knocked the door.
  20. 20. 20 Chapter 6 Modals 6.1 What is it? Modals merupakan istilahlain dari auxiliaryverb (yang mana selama ini Anda familiar denganbentuk-bentuknya seperti do, don’t, does, doesn’t, did, didn’t, has, hasn’t, have, haven’t, had, hadn’t, dll.). Fungsi dari modals juga sebelas dua belas (baca:kuranglebihsama)dengan auxiliaryverb, yakni membantu main verb dalam hal penekanan waktu terjadinya suatu aktivitas, penekanan makna dan sebagainya. Silakan perhatikan kalimat di bawah ini. My cousins may visit me on Saturday night. (Sepupu-sepupuku boleh mengunjungiku pada malam minggu) My cousins = Subject May = Modal Visit = Verb (main verb) Me = Noun (object pronoun) On Saturday night = Adverb of time Dengandemikian, keberadaanmodal dapat dikatakansekadar penunjangatauberada dalam tataran sekunder dibandingkandengan main verb. Namun, eksistensinya toh cukup fungsional untuk menimbulkan efek tertentu, khususnya dalam hal makna. 6.2 The Structure of Active Sentences Present (Saat Ini) Past (Saat yang telah lewat) Can (dapat) S + can + V1 + N/Adv/Adj Could (dapat) S + could + V1 + N/Adv/Adj Be present (is/am/are) able to (mampu) S + is/am/are + able to + V1 Be past (was/were) able to (mampu) S + was/were + able to + V1 Must (harus) S + must + V1 + N/Adv/Adj Had to (harus) S + had to + V1 + N/Adv/Adj Has to/have to (harus) S + has to/have to + V1 + N/Adv/Adj Had to (harus) S + had to + V1 + N/Adv/Adj Should (sebaiknya) S + should + V1 + N/Adv/Adj Should (sebaiknya) S + should + V1 + N/Adv/Adj May (boleh/mungkin) S + may + V1 + N/Adv/Adj Might (boleh/mungkin) S + might + V1 + N/Adv/Adj Will (akan) S + will + V1 + N/Adv/Adj Would (akan) S + would + V1 + N/Adv/Adj 6.3 The Structure of Passive Sentences Present (Saat Ini) Past (Saat yang telah lewat) Can (dapat) N + can + be + V3 + by + S (yang berubah menjadi Object Pronoun) Could (dapat) N + could + be + V3 + by + S (yang berubah menjadi Object Pronoun) Be present (is/am/are) able to (mampu) N + is/am/are + able to + be + V3 + by+ S (yang berubah menjadi Object Pronoun) Be past (was/were) able to (mampu) N + was/were + able to + be + V3 + by + S (yang berubahmenjadi Object Pronoun) Must (harus) N + must + be + V3 + by + S (yang berubah menjadi Object Pronoun) Had to (harus) N + had to + be + V3 + by + S (yang berubah menjadi Object Pronoun) Has to/have to (harus) N + has to/have to + be + V3 + by + S (yang berubah menjadi Object Pronoun) Had to (harus) N + had to + be + V3 + by + S (yang berubah menjadi Object Pronoun) Should (sebaiknya) N + should + be + V3 + by + S (yang berubah menjadi Object Pronoun) Should (sebaiknya) N + should + be + V3 + by + S (yang berubah menjadi Object Pronoun) May (boleh/mungkin) N + may + be + V3 + by + S (yang berubah menjadi Object Pronoun) Might (boleh/mungkin) N + might + be + V3 + by + S (yang berubah menjadi Object Pronoun) Will (akan) N + will + be + V3 + by + S (yang berubah menjadi Object Pronoun) Would (akan) N + would + be + V3 + by + S (yang berubah menjadi Object Pronoun)
  21. 21. 21 Chapter 7 Expression 7.1 Expressions of Guessing, Right Guessing, Wrong Guessing, and Ihaven’t A Clue Expressions of Guessing: - ...I’d say... - Could it be... - Perhaps it’s ... - I think it is ... - It looks like ... - It’s difficult to saybut I’dguess... Expressions of Right Guessing: - That’s right. - Right. - Yes, you’re right. - Exactly Expressions of Wrong Guessing: - No, I’m afraid not. - Not quite. - You’re close. - I don’t thinkso. Expressions of I haven’t a clue - I’m afraid I don’t know ... - I’m sorryI don’t know. - I haven’t anyclue. - I’m not sure. - I’ve forgotten the English word for ... - I can’t remember the Englishof ... 7.2 Expressing Warning Do this: - Please queue other side. - Keep right. Don’t do this: - No smoking. - No littering. - No parking. - No exit. - Don’t lean out the window. - Please do not disturb. - Please do not feed the animals. - Keep off the grass. - Silence. Examination is in progress. - Don’t leave bags unattended. Watch Out: - Watch your head. - Fragile (Be careful, thiswill breakeasily). - Watch your step. - Beware of pickpockets. - Beware of fierce dog.
  22. 22. 22 - Wtch out. The trainis coming. - Look out behindyou. Advice: - Take goodcare of yourself. - Be careful. - Take care, please. 7.3 Expressions of Asking and Offering Advice Asking for Advice: - Do you thinkI ought to callthe police? - What do you thinkI should buyhim for his birthday? - Do you have anyideas about howI cansell mycar? - Should I tryto talkwith himabout this matter again? - If you were me, what would youtell her? - If you were in mysituation, wouldyou forgive him? - Do youhave anyadvice for me? - Can you give me some advice? - Do yoyu have anyrecommendations about a goodhotel inParis? - Can you recommenda suitable wine for dinner? Offering advice? - I think you’d better start looking for a new job. - If I were you, I’d stop writing her. - It wouldprobablybe a goodideato send this mail byexpress mail. - Whydon’t you trycalling her tonight? - How about takingthe bus insteadof driving? - Try ignoring her for a while. - I’d saythat you’dbeter qut the teamnow. - I advise youto talkwith your lawyer. - My advice is to be careful doingbusiness withthem. - I suggest that we go out for dinner tonight. - Let me suggest that we buya new copier. - I recommendthat you cancelyour appointment. - My recommendationis that we beginthe salesprograminMay. 7.4 Expressions of Asking Permission, Giving Permission, and Denying Permission Asking permission: - Can I close the window, please? - Please let me have the car tonight. - MayI close the door, please? - Do you mindifI smoke? - Wouldyou mindif I went with her? - MayI have your permission to marryyour daughter? Giving permission: - Sure, go ahead. - It’s okaywith me. - No, I don’t mind. - Whynot? - You have mypermission. - I won’t stopyou. - Certainly. Denying permission: - No, you maynot. - You can’t. - Yes, I do mind. - I don’t thinkso. - I will not permit you to. - I absolutelyforbidyou. 7.5 Expressions of Relief - Uh, that’s a relief. - Thank goodness for that. - Thank heavens! - Oh, good!
  23. 23. 23 - Oh, marvelous! - Oh, what a relief! - That’s alright, then. - Phew! - Thank God for that. - I’m veryrelievedto hear that. - I’m extremelyglad to hear that. - What a relief! - Good for you. - I’m glad it’s done. - I’m glad everything is runningwell. - Ifeel sorelieved. - This ointment relieves mypain. - It’s veryrelaxing. 7.6 Expressions of Pain - Ouch! It hurts me so much. - Ouch! Stop pinching me. - Oh! What shall I do if he’s alreadymarried? - Ooh! My headaches! And myback hurts! - Ah! What is it? - Ouch! That hurts. - Aw! The painhurts me verymuch. - It’s verypainful. I can’t standit. - I can’t stand it. The painis gettingworse and worse. 7.7 Expressing Pleasure/Pleased - I’m verypleasedwiththis room. - Oh, how marvelous! - Oh, it’s wonderful! - It’s goodnews. - I’m verydelighted. - It gives me great pleasure. - I can’t sayhowpleasedI am. - Great! - Smashing! - Terrific! - Fantastic! - Super! - I’m glad you like it. - This is great, isn’t it? - I can’t sayhowdelighted I am. 7.8 Expressing scared - I’m scared. - You scare me. - It’s frightening. - It’s horrible. - The sight terrifiedme somuch. - I can’t forget that terrible experience. - The fear is creeping into myheart. 7.9 Expressing opinions Asking other people’s opinions: - What do you thinkof ... - Is that right (true) that ... - Do you thinkit’s going ... - Whydo theybehave like that? - Do you have anyidea? - How do you like ...? - Please give me your frankopinion. - What’s your opinion? -
  24. 24. 24 Expressing opinions: - In myopinion... - I personallybelieve ... - I personallythink ... - I personallyfeel... - Not everyone will agree with me, but ... - To my mind ... - From mypoint of view ... - As I see it ... - I think ... - I believe ... - I feel ... - I am certain/sure/positive/convinced. - I agree. - I disagree. - It seems that ... - Well, personally... - If I had myway, I would... - What I’m more concernedwith is ... - In mycase ... - Absolutely. 7.10 Expressing agreement and disagreement Saying that you agree: - Yes, I agree withyou. - I’m sure you’re right. - That’s right (quite true). - I think sotoo. - I absolutelyagree. - That’s exactlywhat I think. - Yes, I suppose so. - I don’t have anyobjections. Saying that you don’t agree: - We wil never agree. - Not at all/Not really. - I disagree. - I think that’s nonsense. Saying that you don’t agree politely: - I see your point, but ... - Yes, maybe, but ... - I don’t entirelyagree with... - You maybe right, but ... - Do you thinkso? - I see what you mean, but ... - To some extent, yes but ... - I don’t thinkso. - I don’t agree withyou. - I’m not sure I agree withyou. - I don’t like the idea. Making conclusion: - In conclusion, we state that ... - Therefore, we state that ... - To conclude, we state that ... - On the whole, we state that ... - From the statement we canconclude ... - From the facts above we canconclude ... - On this basis, we agree that ... 7.11 Expressing satisfaction and dissatisfaction Asking abut satisfaction/dissatisfaction: - How do you like your room? - Is everythingOK?
  25. 25. 25 - Is everythingsatisfactory? - Are you satisfied? - Did you findour service satisfactory? - Did you want to complainabout something? - Was somethingnot to your satisfaction? - Are you dissatisfiedwithsomething? Expressing Satisfaction: - I reallylike mynew haircut - I’m completelysatisfiedwitheverything you’ve done for me. - It was satisfactory. - Everything is fine,thankyou. - Everything was just perfect. - I’m happyenoughwithit. - It was okay. Not too bad. - Good enough. Expressing Dissatisfaction - I am a little dissatisfied with the service here. - I am a bit disappointed with the program. - The food was lousy. - I am tired of working here. I don’t like the color. - I have a complaint. - I am very dissatisfied with the condition. - I want to make a complaint. Responding to Dissatisfaction - I see - I’m sorry to hear that. - I’ll look into it. - I’ll see what I can do about it. - I’ll try and take care of it. 7.12 Expressing sorrow - She was overwhelmed byher sorrow. - My heart is so burdened. - I can’t tell mypain and sorrow in words. - It brought me a lot of misery. - I’m so sadto hear it. - I regret having to dothis. - I’m feelingbad at thistime. 7.13 Expressing attention: - Oh, really? - It’s amazing. - Is he?(didhe? Wasshe? Etc.) - Oh poor creature! - What a poor girl she is! - Whynot? - What about her step-mother? - How luckyhe is. - Well, go on. - What happened then? 7.14 Expressing embarrassment and anger Expressing embarrassment: - It reallymakes me ashamed. - I was so ashamed. - I was veryembarrassed. - How embarrassing. - Tell me it never happened. - Tell me it didn’t happen. - I was so embarrassed.
  26. 26. 26 Asking if someone is angry - What’s the matter? - What happened? - What do you looksoinsultedabout? - Whyare you acting soinsulted? - Did I insult you? - Are you angryabout something? - Are you angrywithme? - What are you soangryabout? Expressing anger: - Well, I’ve never beensoinsulted in mylife. - Who are you to saysucha thing to me? - Aren’t you the pot callingthe kettle black? - What do you meanI dida terrible job? - Are you trying to tell me I’m not good enoughfor you? - Oh, hell! - You turkey! - You’re getting me angry. - I’m starting to get angry... 1 ... 2 ... 3 - Are you trying to make me angry? - You burn me up. Calming someone down: - Relax. - Take it slow. - Take it easy. - Calm down. - Control yourself. - Don’t be sucha worrywart. - Don’t trouble yourself. - Don’t let it bother you. - Maybe you’re a little too sensitive about. - Don’t be so touchy. - Don’t be angrywithme. - Temper, temper. - Let’s tryto hold our temper. - Don’t get hot under the collar. - Gettingangrywon’t help. 7.15 Expressions for telling a story: - To beginwith... - First of all, ... - One day, ... - The next day, ... - So, ... - But ... - And you know what? - After that ... - At the end... - Finally... 7.16 Finishing your story - To make a long storyshort ... - So, in the end... - So, in short ... - At the end... - Finally... 7.17 Expressing Attitudes Expressing justification: - That’s why... - Besides ... - Because ... - What I meanis ...
  27. 27. 27 - You see ... - To be honest ... - The reasonwhy... - What I’m sayingis ... - So ... 7.18 Expressing thinking expressions - Now, let me think... - It’s difficult to sayexactly, but ... - That’s aninteresting question. - I’ll have to thinkabout that. - The best wayI cananswer this is .. - Let me see ... 7.19 Expressing Speculation - Maybe ... - I guess ... - I suppose ... - Perhaps ... - It’s quite possible that ... Expressing agreement: - I agree. - I know what you mean. - I think so, too. - That’s for sure. - Right. - Certainly. - OK. with me. - Fine tihme. - I agree to do so. Expressing Disagreement: - I’m against this idea. - I don’t agree. - I don’t thinkso. - I’m not so sure. - I find I can’t agree withyou. - I can’t agree to that. - I refuse. - No way. - No deal. 7.20 Expressing Annoyance Expressing Annoyance: - I needa break. - I’m losing mymind. - I’m a bundle ofnerves. - I can’t take it anymore. - Gosh ... What is this? - I’m so scared. - I was terrified. - You frightenedme. - I’m frightened. - Oh, no! - Oh dear! - What a nuisance. - How irritating. - I’m veryannoyed. - It reallymakes me angry. - It annoys me. - It irritates me. - I reallyhate ...
  28. 28. 28 - What an idiot. - I’m fed up with... Reducing someone’s annoyance: - Relax. - Take it slow. - Take it easy. - Calm down. - Control yourself. - Don’t be sucha worrywart. - Don’t be scared. - Don’t trouble yourself. - Don’t be frightened. 7.21 Expressing something in chronological order To illustrate time sequence at the beginniing of your story you can use: - In the beginning - At first - At the start - First of all In the middle of your story you can use: - Next - After that - Then - Second, third andso on - Following - Subsequently - Afterwards - Meanwhile At the end of your story you can use: - Eventually - At last - In conclusion - Finally - To sum up - As has beennoted To illustrate time relationships (how one event relates to another in terms of time): - At the same time - During - When - While - As - As soonas - Before - Until - After - Afterwards 7.22 Expressing Complaint - I want to complainabout these shoes - Well, this is the most unsatisfactory. I bookedthe roommyself a weekago. - I’m afraid ... It’s just not goodenough. - What can youdo about these rooms? - Somethingmust be done. - I’m sorryto saythis but this roomis verydirty. - I’m afraid I’ve got a complain about ... - Wouldyou mindnot talking tooloudly? - I wishyu didn’t bother us. - I’m not at allsatisfied withyour service. - I must object to your hotel.
  29. 29. 29 7.23 Expressing general wishes Giving someone general wishes - Good luck. - Best of luck. - I wishyou luck. - Good fortune be withyou. - I hope that everythinggoes OKfor you. - I’m sure that everthing will workout just fine. - Mayyou be happyandsuccessful inyour newlife. - Well, we hope that everything will be alright. - I hope youhave a good/pleasant/enjoyable ... - Please give your parents mybest wishes. Responding to General Wishes - Thank you. - Thank youverymuch. - Verymanythanks. - Thank. Youtoo. - Thank youand the same to you. - Thank youand a happyNew Year to you too. 7.24 Expressing Purpose, Reasons, or Plans Asking about purpose/Reasons/Plans: - Whyare holdingit? - What are you tryingto do? - What do you hide the moneyfor? - What’s your purpose inexplaining him that pipeline? - Do you do that onpurpose? - What do you intendto do to us? - Is it your intention to blackmail me? - What are you thinkingof doingwith those pictures? - What are you planning to dotomorrow? Stating Purpose/Reason/Plans: - I helpher because she can help me sometime inthe future. - I give it to the police inorder to keepit safe. - My purpose inexplaining himthat ‘pipeline’ is to make him understand it clearly. - Of course I don’t do it on purpose. - I don’t meanto hit himsobad. - My intentionis to destroythe papers before thayare found. - My plan is to invite him to dinner, get himdrunk and ... Hiding Purpose/Reasons/Plans - I’ve got no particular purpose inmind. - No reasoninparticular. - I’ll never tell. - That’s for me to knowandyou to findout. - You’ll see. - It’s a secret. 7.25 Expression of Warning Informatives Notices: - Out of order - No vacancies - Sold out. - Beware of pickpockets. - Don’t leave the bag unattended. - Please queue - Keep off grass - Please do not disturb. Do this: - Please queue other side. - Keep right. Don’t do this: - No smoking. - No littering.
  30. 30. 30 - No parking. - No exit. - Don’t lean out of the window. - Please do not disturb. - Please do not feed the animals. - Keep off the grass. - Silent. Examination is in progress. - Don’t leave bags unattended. Watch out: - Mind your head. - Fragile (be careful, this will breakeasily) - Mind the step. - Beware of pickpockets. - Beware of fierce dog. - Watch out. The trainis coming. - Look out behindyou. Advice: - Take goodcare of yourself. - Be careful. - Take care, please. 7.26 Expressing Suggestion, Advice, and Recommendation Asking for Suggestion/Advice/Recommendation - Do you think I ought to call the police? - What do you think I should buy him for his birthday? - Do you have any dieas about how I can sell my car? - Should I try to talk with him about his matter again? - If you were me, what would you tell her? - If you were in my situation, would you forgive him? - What do you advise that I pack for the trip? - Do you have any advice for me? - Can you give me some advice about something? - How do you suggest that I fix this broken window? - Are you suggesting that I give up jogging? - What do you recommend I take for a bad headache? - Do you have any recommendations about a good hotel in Paris? - Can you recommend a suitable wine for dinners? Offering Suggestion/Advice/Recommendation - I think you’d better start looking for a new job. - If I were you, I’d stop writing her. - It would probably a good idea to send this mail by Express mail. - Why don’t you try calling her tonight? - How about taking the bus instead of driving? - Try ignoring her for a while. - I’d say that you’d better quit the team now. - I advise you to talk with your lawyer. - My advice is to be careful in doing business with them. - I suggest that we go out for dinners tonight. - Let me suggest that we buy a new-copier. - I recommend that you cancel your appointment. - My recommendation is that we begin the sales program in May. 7.27 Expressing Attitudes Saying you are pleased/excited/like: - Great! - Terrific! - Fantastic! - Super! - Phew! - How wonderful - Hey, that’s terrific. - It’s the best thing... - Interesting
  31. 31. 31 - Exciting - Yippee. Saying you are displeased/angry/disappointed/bored/dislike: - Veryannoyed - How irritating - Reallyisn’t good. - Extremelyunhappy. - It makes me mad. - It isn’t nice. - How infuriating. - I’m afraid ... - How boring - Totallyuninteresting 7.28 Interjection - Aw! Expresses protest, disbelief, disgust or pity. Example: Aw, you poor little dog. - Bah! An exclamation ofcontempt or annoyance. Example: Bah! That’s nonsense! - Bingo!Indicates approval ofsecond speaker’s suddenunderstanding or correct response. Example: Bingo! That’s just what I wanted! - DUH! Expresses annoyance at the dullness or stupidityof a previous comment. Example: Elephants are bigger thanmice. DUH! - Er ...? Hmm ... used to expressor represent a pause, hesitation, uncertainty, etc. Example: His name is er ... Jack, I think. - Oh, my!/Ah!/Oh!/Ooh! Shows pain, surprise, pity, complaint, dislike, joy, etc. Depending onhow it is uttered. Example: Ah! (Oh!) That’s so beautiful! - Oh! is also used to attract the attentionof the person spokento. Example: Oh, John, will youpost this letter for me, please? - Haha! An exclamationor representationof laughter, as inexpressing amusement or disrespect;alsoHawhaw! Example: Haha! That’s so funny! - Huh? Expresses surprise, bewilderment, disbelief, contempt, or interrogation. Example: So he thinks he’s cool, huh? Huh? Prince William is marrying BritneySpears? - Oh-Oh! usedto show surprise or anticipation ofsomething unpleasant. Example: OH-oh! Here comes Miss Fussy. - YO! Used to get someone’s attention, express excitement, greet someone, etc. Example: Yo! Harry! I’m here - WOW! Shows surprise, wonder, pleasure, etc. Example: Wow! Look at that! That’s so beautiful. - Yuck! UCK! Eww!/Yikes! Anexpression ofdisgust or dislike. Example: Yuck! (Ugh!) Not broccoli again! Eww! Yikes! How gross - YUM-YUM!/YUMMY!/MMM! Expressesenjoyment or satisfaction, especiallyin the taste of food. Example: Yummy! Chocolate puddingfor dessert!

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