Food: Fun? Frightening? Fundamental Paul Rozin University of Pennsylvania NRA, July 10, 2008
 
The risks of eating Frightening
The risks of eating <ul><li>Short-term health </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term health </li></ul><ul><li>World welfare </li></ul>
corn
The risks of NOT eating Fundamental
What is food and what is it for Nutrition Health Social functions (Pleasure)
What consumer? <ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Social Class </li></ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul><ul...
Late 20th Century developed world <ul><li>Epidemiological revolution: longer life and death from degenerative diseases </l...
Innate liking for sweet taste and fatty texture
Sympathetic Magical Thinking Law of similarity: Image = Object General across many animal species
 
Mismatch: Health information and lay ability to interpret it <ul><li>Lack of knowledge of probability and risk-benefit thi...
Negativity dominance <ul><li>Risks psychologically dominate benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Additive: 1% increased risk of X an...
 
 
Risks and benefits <ul><li>Paul Slovic </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation of risks and benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Lay persons <...
Mismatch: Health information and lay ability to interpret it <ul><li>Lack of knowledge of probability and risk-benefit thi...
A diet totally free of salt is healthier than a diet of the same number of calories that includes a pinch of salt every day
A pint of cottage cheese has more calories than one teaspoon of ice cream.
Mismatch: Health information and lay ability to interpret it <ul><li>Lack of knowledge of probability and risk-benefit thi...
 
Medical research Food industry Govern- ment Media Public Non government Organizations (NGOs)
Misinformation: Natural preference <ul><li>Almost everyone prefers a natural food to a commercial/processed food </li></ul...
Specifying that natural and commerical are chemically identical has very little effect on preference
Water: Process vs Content <ul><li>Logic </li></ul><ul><li>Original Natural Form </li></ul><ul><li>Add or remove something ...
natural spring water with no minerals a, b and c are significantly different in each column 82.9 b 62.4 c Remove same mine...
Process vs Content: survey results from representative Americans % reduction in natural: 100 point scale   54% Wild with o...
 
Negativity dominance and “unnatural” additives
Fads and their exploitation <ul><li>Part of human nature </li></ul><ul><li>Over-promoted as part of self-serving </li></ul...
The ethics of helping some by regulating all <ul><li>People are different </li></ul><ul><li>Groups/ cultures are different...
The combination of health and beauty norms
“Concerned about being overweight” <ul><li>% responding “often“ or “almost always” </li></ul><ul><li>57% females,  21% mal...
“I am embarrassed to buy a chocolate bar in the store” <ul><li>American college students from six campuses across the USA ...
 
 
France versus USA <ul><li>Claude Fischler </li></ul><ul><li>Rebecca Bauer, Dana Catanese, Kim Kabnick, Estelle Masson, Eri...
Life expectancy at birth UN Demographic Yearbook (1993 75.1 WGermany 16 76.9 Spain 8 75.4 USA 15 77.0 France 7 75.8 Belgiu...
Overweight: France vs USA <ul><li>% BMI  >= 25 </li></ul><ul><li>France:  39% </li></ul><ul><li>USA:   61%  </li></ul>
Age-standardized annual mortality from CHD and related risk factors   (males 35-64) WHO/MONICA  Renaud & de Logeril, 1992 ...
The obesity “epidemic” <ul><li>Gain of a pound or two a year over the last 20 years in USA </li></ul><ul><li>2 apples a we...
Percent of subjects preferring luxury hotel to gourmet hotel at the same price 71% 83% USA 8% 13% France Male students Fem...
Percent of subjects saying “unhealthy” for choice: Heavy cream: whipped or unhealthy 48% 67% USA 23% 28% France Male stude...
Percent of subjects agreeing that they eat a “healthy diet” 38% 28% USA 72% 76% France Males Females
Metaphor:  Food and the body are like: Representative national samples Fischler, Rozin et al., 2004 10 32 Temple 26 43 Car...
Comforts and joys <ul><li>French more inclined to joys (e.g., new meal or new music from liked source) than Americans </li...
The food environment
Restaurant portion size Rozin, P., Kabnick, K., Pete, E., Fischler, C., & Shields, C.  (2003).  The ecology of eating: Par...
Supermarket food portions
 
Supermarket non-food portions
Social norms and eating
Unit Bias  <ul><li>Norm for eating one entity </li></ul><ul><li>M&Ms free in bowl </li></ul><ul><li>Small spoon or 4X spoo...
 
Preference for multiple varieties: Prefer choice of 10 or 50 ice cream flavors 44 USA 68 France % prefer 10
At a good restaurant, I expect a small number of choices 64 USA 92 France % expect small number
French vs American differences (with Abigail Rosenstein & Claude Fischler) <ul><li>Quality vs quantity </li></ul><ul><li>M...
Pleasure and health <ul><li>Learn from the French: Focus and savoring </li></ul><ul><li>Fix the environment </li></ul><ul>...
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Food: Fun? Frightening? Fundamental

  1. 1. Food: Fun? Frightening? Fundamental Paul Rozin University of Pennsylvania NRA, July 10, 2008
  2. 3. The risks of eating Frightening
  3. 4. The risks of eating <ul><li>Short-term health </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term health </li></ul><ul><li>World welfare </li></ul>
  4. 5. corn
  5. 6. The risks of NOT eating Fundamental
  6. 7. What is food and what is it for Nutrition Health Social functions (Pleasure)
  7. 8. What consumer? <ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Social Class </li></ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Americans and East or South Asians </li></ul><ul><li>Americans and French </li></ul><ul><li>Restaurants </li></ul>
  8. 9. Late 20th Century developed world <ul><li>Epidemiological revolution: longer life and death from degenerative diseases </li></ul><ul><li>food surplus </li></ul><ul><li>Development of super-foods (hi sugar, hi fat) </li></ul><ul><li>Extraordinary variety </li></ul><ul><li>no work needed to attain choices </li></ul><ul><li>Thin body ideal for females </li></ul><ul><li>massive amounts of risk information </li></ul><ul><li>no training in dealing with risks/benefits </li></ul>
  9. 10. Innate liking for sweet taste and fatty texture
  10. 11. Sympathetic Magical Thinking Law of similarity: Image = Object General across many animal species
  11. 13. Mismatch: Health information and lay ability to interpret it <ul><li>Lack of knowledge of probability and risk-benefit thinking </li></ul>
  12. 14. Negativity dominance <ul><li>Risks psychologically dominate benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Additive: 1% increased risk of X and 1% decreased risk of Y: Rejected </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccination: save X lives, kill small % of X: rejected </li></ul>
  13. 17. Risks and benefits <ul><li>Paul Slovic </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation of risks and benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Lay persons </li></ul><ul><li>Experts </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear power </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Risk and catastrophe dominance </li></ul>
  14. 18. Mismatch: Health information and lay ability to interpret it <ul><li>Lack of knowledge of probability and risk-benefit thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Simplifying heuristics: e.g., good and bad foods, single properties-monotonic </li></ul>
  15. 19. A diet totally free of salt is healthier than a diet of the same number of calories that includes a pinch of salt every day
  16. 20. A pint of cottage cheese has more calories than one teaspoon of ice cream.
  17. 21. Mismatch: Health information and lay ability to interpret it <ul><li>Lack of knowledge of probability and risk-benefit thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Simplifying heuristics: e.g., good and bad foods, single properties, monotonic </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of understanding of the scientific enterprise </li></ul>
  18. 23. Medical research Food industry Govern- ment Media Public Non government Organizations (NGOs)
  19. 24. Misinformation: Natural preference <ul><li>Almost everyone prefers a natural food to a commercial/processed food </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Typical answers (instrumental) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Healthier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tastes better </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better for environment </li></ul></ul>
  20. 25. Specifying that natural and commerical are chemically identical has very little effect on preference
  21. 26. Water: Process vs Content <ul><li>Logic </li></ul><ul><li>Original Natural Form </li></ul><ul><li>Add or remove something </li></ul><ul><li>Remove what was added or replace what was removed (with same stuff) </li></ul><ul><li>Rozin, JDM 2006 </li></ul>
  22. 27. natural spring water with no minerals a, b and c are significantly different in each column 82.9 b 62.4 c Remove same minerals 85.7 b 68.8 b Add .1% minerals from other spring water 90.8 a 92.3 a Spring water with no minerals Mean acceptable (0-100) Mean Natural (0-100)
  23. 28. Process vs Content: survey results from representative Americans % reduction in natural: 100 point scale 54% Wild with one gene insert 54% Pig with one gene insert 41% Commercial Strawberry 15% Cocker spaniel 12% Organic Strawberry 12% German shepherd Wild strawberry Wolf
  24. 30. Negativity dominance and “unnatural” additives
  25. 31. Fads and their exploitation <ul><li>Part of human nature </li></ul><ul><li>Over-promoted as part of self-serving </li></ul><ul><li>Sugar </li></ul><ul><li>Cholesterol </li></ul><ul><li>Long term nutrition advice: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderation, diversity (macro-variety) </li></ul></ul>
  26. 32. The ethics of helping some by regulating all <ul><li>People are different </li></ul><ul><li>Groups/ cultures are different </li></ul><ul><li>Adding fat to the diet would help in most parts of Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Cutting sugar </li></ul><ul><li>Cutting salt </li></ul><ul><li>Cutting pleasure in the interests of public health </li></ul><ul><li>Moralization </li></ul><ul><li>Cigarettes: Suing the industry for health costs </li></ul>
  27. 33. The combination of health and beauty norms
  28. 34. “Concerned about being overweight” <ul><li>% responding “often“ or “almost always” </li></ul><ul><li>57% females, 21% males </li></ul><ul><li>US college students from 6 universities across the country </li></ul>Rozin, Bauer & Catanese, 2003
  29. 35. “I am embarrassed to buy a chocolate bar in the store” <ul><li>American college students from six campuses across the USA </li></ul><ul><li>% Females: 13.5 </li></ul><ul><li>% Males: 4 </li></ul>
  30. 38. France versus USA <ul><li>Claude Fischler </li></ul><ul><li>Rebecca Bauer, Dana Catanese, Kim Kabnick, Estelle Masson, Erin Pete, Alison Sarubin, Christy Shields, Amy Wrzesniewski </li></ul>
  31. 39. Life expectancy at birth UN Demographic Yearbook (1993 75.1 WGermany 16 76.9 Spain 8 75.4 USA 15 77.0 France 7 75.8 Belgium 14 77.2 Norway, Netherlands 5/6 76.1 Austria 13 77.4 Australia 4 76.2 U. K. 12 77.8 Switzerland 3 76.4 Canada 11 78.1 Sweden 2 76.8 Israel,Italy 9/10 79.2 Japan 1 years country rank years country u
  32. 40. Overweight: France vs USA <ul><li>% BMI >= 25 </li></ul><ul><li>France: 39% </li></ul><ul><li>USA: 61% </li></ul>
  33. 41. Age-standardized annual mortality from CHD and related risk factors (males 35-64) WHO/MONICA Renaud & de Logeril, 1992 209 182 Stanford, USA 252 105 Lille, France 230 78 Toulouse, France Serum chol- esterol (mg/dl) Mortality / 100,000 Location
  34. 42. The obesity “epidemic” <ul><li>Gain of a pound or two a year over the last 20 years in USA </li></ul><ul><li>2 apples a week </li></ul><ul><li>(James Hill) </li></ul>
  35. 43. Percent of subjects preferring luxury hotel to gourmet hotel at the same price 71% 83% USA 8% 13% France Male students Female students
  36. 44. Percent of subjects saying “unhealthy” for choice: Heavy cream: whipped or unhealthy 48% 67% USA 23% 28% France Male students Female students
  37. 45. Percent of subjects agreeing that they eat a “healthy diet” 38% 28% USA 72% 76% France Males Females
  38. 46. Metaphor: Food and the body are like: Representative national samples Fischler, Rozin et al., 2004 10 32 Temple 26 43 Car or factory 66 26 Tree France USA
  39. 47. Comforts and joys <ul><li>French more inclined to joys (e.g., new meal or new music from liked source) than Americans </li></ul>
  40. 48. The food environment
  41. 49. Restaurant portion size Rozin, P., Kabnick, K., Pete, E., Fischler, C., & Shields, C. (2003). The ecology of eating: Part of the French paradox results from lower food intake in French than Americans, because of smaller portion sizes. Psychological Science, 14 , 450-454.
  42. 50. Supermarket food portions
  43. 52. Supermarket non-food portions
  44. 53. Social norms and eating
  45. 54. Unit Bias <ul><li>Norm for eating one entity </li></ul><ul><li>M&Ms free in bowl </li></ul><ul><li>Small spoon or 4X spoon </li></ul><ul><li>70% more consumed with 4X spoon </li></ul><ul><li>60% more with double vs single pretzels </li></ul><ul><li>Geier, A. B., Rozin, P., & Doros, G. (2006). Unit bias: A new heuristic that helps explain the effect of portion size on food intake. Psychological Science, 17 , 521-525. </li></ul>
  46. 56. Preference for multiple varieties: Prefer choice of 10 or 50 ice cream flavors 44 USA 68 France % prefer 10
  47. 57. At a good restaurant, I expect a small number of choices 64 USA 92 France % expect small number
  48. 58. French vs American differences (with Abigail Rosenstein & Claude Fischler) <ul><li>Quality vs quantity </li></ul><ul><li>Moderation vs abundance </li></ul><ul><li>Collective values vs individualization </li></ul><ul><li>Joys vs comforts </li></ul><ul><li>Food more associated with conviviality </li></ul><ul><li>Environment limits modest amounts of food to mealtimes and smaller portions </li></ul>
  49. 59. Pleasure and health <ul><li>Learn from the French: Focus and savoring </li></ul><ul><li>Fix the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Incremental, below threshold changes </li></ul><ul><li>Macrovariety </li></ul><ul><li>Moderation: Less food, more pleasure </li></ul>
  50. 60. END

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