The Basics of AutismSpectrum Disorders p Training Series Regional Autism Advisory Council of Southwest Ohio (RAAC SWO) (RAAC-SWO) Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders Task Force
Adult Training Series g ModulesModule One: Autism Defined, Autism Prevalenceand Primary CharacteristicsModule Two: Physical Characteristics of AutismModule Three: Cognition and Learning in AutismModule Four: Autism and Sensory DifferencesModule Five: Communication and Autism
Adult Training Series g ModulesModule Six: Behavior Challenges and AutismModule Seven: Understanding Behavior in Persons gwith AutismModule Eight: Functional Behavior Assessment gModule Nine: Autism and Leisure Skills to TeachModule TM d l Ten: Special Issues of Ad l S i lI f Adolescence and dAdulthoodModule Eleven: S f t and A tiM d l El Safety d Autism
Big Idea We must be like a detective in order tofind out the reason for a behavior and follow the f clues.
Remember….. RememberBehaviorsBehavi rs are a way of c pin with what is happening f coping happeninaround us.Behaviors are learned through trial and error error.Behaviors that are reinforced are likely to continue.If a behavior continues to occur or it is increasing, it isbeing reinforced in some way.To change the person’s behavior, we must change whatwe are doing.
Functional Behavior AssessmentA Functional Behavior Assessment(FBA) will h l you to discover the ill help di hreasons behind a behavior. You canthen d idth decide on a plan for how to l f h tchange it.
Functional Behavior Assessment The ABCs f Behavior Th ABC of B h iA B C Antecedent: Wh t h A t d t What happens before the behavior? b f th b h i ? Behavior: What is the behavior? Consequence: What happens after the behavior occurs?
Functional Behavior Assessment: Finding the Reason for the BehaviorMedical (physical iM di l ( h i l pain or discomfort) di f t)Attention (verbal or physical)Escape (getting away from something that I donot want to do or from a place that I do not want tobe in)b i )Tangible (getting something that I want)Automatic (something my body seeks, such assomething sensory, i.e. rocking)
Medical StrategiesIf this is a new behavior, check out medical reasonsffirst.Keep track of medical symptoms (when and what).Go to the doctor or dentist.
Strategies for Attention Behaviors B h iTeach the person better ways to get attention. p y gFocus on the behavior that you want to see moreof – and ignore the behavior that you want tochange. hAvoid using negative words (“don’t”, “no”).Use positive words about the behavior that youwant them to do instead (“do”……).Use a neutral tone. Show no over-reaction, eitherwords or facial expressions, to the behavior thatyou want them to change.
Strategies for Escape Behaviors g p Mix up activities that they like to do with activities that are harder for them or that they are not interested in doing. Have a beginning and end to the activity (i.e. your chore is done when you pick up all the clothes from the bedroom floor). floor) Sometimes it helps to break a task down into smaller steps, doing one at a time time. Make sure that you “reinforce” when the task is completed. This might have to happen after each small step (i.e. drinking glasses put away, reinforce with praise, plates put away, reinforce with praise, spoons put away, reinforce with praise, pots put away break, etc.). away, break etc )
More Escape Behavior Strateg es Behav or Strategies Keep things moving on schedule. Too much time doing any one thing might cause a problem behavior. Start with something that the person with ASD does well and then move to something that is either less preferred or difficult for them. Think about the skills needed, the sensory problems the person may have. Consider the importance or the necessity of the activity or task. When they complete an activity they do not like to do, remember to use positive reinforcement.
Strategies for Tangible BehaviorsIf waiting is difficult then you may have to teach theperson how to wait. At first, you may have to use alot of reinforcement after just a second or two oftheir waiting and then slowly work to extend theamount of time they can wait.Consider using an audible or a visual timer, like acooking timer, when teaching “wait”. timer wait .
Strategies for Tangible Behaviors B hTeach “first and then” (i fi t you pick up yourT h “fi t d th ” (i.e. first i kclothes from the floor, then you take a televisionbreak). A visual schedule can help. ) pRemember to use a neutral tone when you areredirecting them.
Strategies for Automatic BehaviorAutomatic Behavior is usually something that the body seeks seeks, such as something sensory (i.e. rocking) Replace the unwanted behavior with an activity that provides p y p a similar experience (i.e. using a hand fan instead of finger flicking). Find time and place th t th b h i i okay t do (i.e. Fi d a ti d l that the behavior is k to d (i sitting in a rocking chair when watching TV). Limit “down time by keeping the schedule moving down time” moving.
Big IdeaChanging something that we are doing is often easier or better than trying to change h h something the other person is m g p doing.