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Online assignment


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Online assignment

  1. 1. ONLINE ASSIGNMENT DEFINITION OF NATURAL RESOURCES  A natural resource is anything that people can use which comes from nature. People do not make natural resources, but gather them from the earth.  Examples of natural resources are air, water, wood, oil, wind energy, iron, and coal.
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Ever since the earth was inhabited, humans and other life forms have depended on things that exist freely in nature to survive. These things include water (seas and fresh water), land, soils, rocks, forests (vegetation), animals (including fish), fossil fuels and minerals. They are called Natural Resources and are the basis of life on earth. Natural resources are resources that exist without actions of humankind. This includes all valued characteristics such as magnetic, gravitational, and electrical properties and forces. Below is a simple illustration of some great things that we get from some natural resources.
  3. 3. TYPES OF NATURAL RESOURCES All Natural Resources fall under two main categories: Renewable and Non- renewable Resources. The table below will help us understand this better.
  4. 4. Renewable Resources Renewable resources are those that are constantly available or can be reasonably replaced or recovered. Examples include sunlight, air, wind, water, etc… Non-Renewable Resources Non-renewable resources are those that cannot easily be replaced once they are destroyed.Examples include fossil fuels, minerals etc… Natural resources are available to sustain the very complex interaction between living things and non-living things. Some important threats to natural resources are as follows:  Over population: land use, forest, fishing, greedy needs of humans etc…  Climate change  Environmental pollution To have an environmentally sustainable secure future where we can still enjoy natural resources, we urgently need to transform the way we use resources, by completely changing the way we produce and consume goods and services. Some important ways to conserve natural resources are given below:-  Education and Public Awareness  Individuals, organizations and nations  Governments and Policy
  5. 5. PONDS  A pond is a body of standing water, either natural or artificial, that is usually smaller than a lake.  Usually they contain shallow water with marsh and aquatic plants and animals.  Ponds are frequently human-constructed. In the countryside farmers and villagers dig a pond in their backyard or increase the depth of an existing pond by removing layers of mud during summer season.  One of the most important features of ponds is the presence of standing water, which provides habitat for wetland plants and animals. Examples include water-lilies, frogs, turtles and herons etc…
  6. 6. TYPES OF PONDS There are different types of ponds in many kinds and sizes. Each of them has its unique characteristics. Few are listed below:-  Biological pond  Fish pond  Mini pond  Mirror pond  Natural pond  Ornamental pond  Plant pond  Swimming pond  Terrace pond  Wildlife pond ECOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF PONDS  Water conservation  Less mowing, fewer pollutants  Fewer pesticides and fertilizers  Supports local wildlife  Creates environmental awareness IMAGES OF PONDS
  7. 7. LAKE
  8. 8.  A lake is a large body of water (larger and deeper than a pond) within a body of land. As a lake is separated from the ocean, it is not a sea  Most lakes on the surface of the Earth are fresh water and most are in the Northern Hemisphere. More than 60% of the lakes of the world are in Canada. Finland is known as The Land of the Thousand Lakes  Many lakes are artificial and are constructed for industrial or agricultural use, for hydro-electric power generation or domestic water supply, or for aesthetic or recreational purposes or even for other activities.  Lakes can be also categorized on the basis of their richness in nutrients, which typically affect plant growth.  Nutrient-poor lakes are said to be oligotrophic lakes and are generally clear, having a low concentration of plant life.  Mesotrophic lakes have good clarity and an average level of nutrients.  Eutrophic lakes are enriched with nutrients, resulting in good plant growth and possible algal blooms. ECOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF LAKES  Lakes as a Water Sources  Lakes for Fishing  Lakes as Tourist and Recreation Locations  Lakes as Biodiversity Conservation Areas  Lakes as Natural Balance Preserving Reservoirs
  9. 9. IMAGES OF LAKES RIVER  A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river.  River flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of water.
  10. 10.  Small rivers can be referred to using names such as stream, creek, brook, rivulet, and rill.  Rivers are part of the hydrological cycle. Water generally collects in a river from precipitation through a drainage basin from surface runoff and other sources such as groundwater recharge, springs, and the release of stored water in natural ice and snowpacks.  Potamology is the scientific study of rivers  Rivers can flow down mountains, through valleys (depressions) or along plains, and can create canyons or gorges.  A river begins at a source (or more often several sources), follows a path called a course, and ends at a mouth or mouths. ECOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF RIVERS  Rivers have been used as a source of water, for obtaining food, for transport, as a defensive measure, as a source of hydropower to drive machinery, for bathing, and as a means of disposing of waste.  River are often a rich source of fish and other edible aquatic life, and are a major source of fresh water, which can be used for drinking and irrigation.  Fast flowing rivers and waterfalls are widely used as sources of energy, via watermills and hydroelectric plants.  The coarse sediments, gravel, and sand, generated and moved by rivers are extensively used in construction.  Rivers have been important in determining political boundaries and defending countries.
  11. 11. IMAGES OF RIVERS SEA  A sea is a large body of salt water that is surrounded in whole or in part by land.  The sea moderates Earth's climate and has important roles in the water cycle, carbon cycle, and nitrogen cycle..  oceanography is the modern scientific study of the sea
  12. 12.  Seawater is invariably salty and, although its degree of saltiness (salinity) can vary, about 90% of the water in the ocean has 34–35 g (1.2 oz.) of dissolved solids per liter, producing a salinity between 3.4 and 3.5%.  The amount of light that penetrates the sea depends on the angle of the sun, the local weather, and the sea's turbidity.  The amount of oxygen present in seawater depends primarily upon its temperature and the photosynthetic organisms living in it, particularly algae, phytoplankton, and plants such as sea grass.  Seawater is slightly alkaline and had a preindustrial pH of about 8.2. ECOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF SEA  Regulate the earth system.  Supply the living and non-living resources.  Provide social and economic goods and services.  Provide rich source of fish and other edible aquatic life.
  13. 13. IMAGES OF SEA FOREST  A forest is a large area dominated by trees.  Forests are the dominant terrestrial ecosystem of Earth, and are distributed across the globe.  Forests account for 75% of the gross primary productivity of the Earth's biosphere, and contain 80% of the Earth's plant biomass.  Forests are often home to many animal and plant species, and biomass per unit area is high compared to other vegetation communities.
  14. 14.  The woody component of a forest contains lignin, which is relatively slow to decompose compared with other organic materials such as cellulose or carbohydrate.  The three major forest biomes are coniferous forests, deciduous forests, and tropical rain forests.  Human society and forests influence each other in both positive and negative ways. Forests provide ecosystem services to humans and serve as tourist attractions. Forests can also affect people's health. Human activities, including harvesting forest resources, can negatively affect forest ecosystems.  The management of forests is often referred to as forestry.  There are also many natural factors that can cause changes in forests over time including forest fires, insects, diseases, weather, competition between species, etc.  Losing forest diversity means missing opportunities for medicines, food, raw materials and employment opportunities, in one word: welfare. ECOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF FORESTS  Forests provide a diversity of ecosystem services including converting carbon dioxide into oxygen and biomass  Forests also serve as a source of lumber and as recreational areas.  Forests act as a carbon sink, aiding in regulating climate, purifying water, mitigating natural hazards such as floods, and serving as a genetic reserve.
  15. 15. IMAGES OF FORESTS WETLAND  A patch of land that develops pools of water after a rain storm would not be considered a "wetland", even though the land is wet.  A wetland is a land area that is saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally, such that it takes on the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem.  Wetlands play a number of roles in the environment, principally water purification, flood control, carbon sink and shoreline stability.
  16. 16.  Wetlands are also considered the most biologically diverse of all ecosystems, serving as home to a wide range of plant and animal life.  The water found in wetlands can be freshwater, brackish, or saltwater.  The main wetland types include swamps, marshes, bogs, and fens.  Constructed wetlands can be used to treat municipal and industrial wastewater as well as storm water runoff. They may also play a role in water-sensitive urban design.  Wetlands have also been described as ecotones, providing a transition between dry land and water bodies.  Wetlands have unique characteristics: they are generally distinguished from other water bodies or landforms based on their water level and on the types of plants that live within them. ECOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF WETLANDS  Flood control  Groundwater replenishment  Shoreline stabilization and storm protection  Water purification  Reservoirs of biodiversity  Wetland products  Cultural values  Recreation and tourism  Climate change mitigation and adaptation
  17. 17. IMAGES OF WETLANDS Sacred grove  A sacred grove or sacred woods are any grove of trees that are of special religious importance to a particular culture.  Sacred groves of India are forest fragments of varying sizes, which are communally protected, and which usually have a significant religious connotation for the protecting community.
  18. 18.  Hunting and logging are usually strictly prohibited within these patches.  Other forms of forest usage like honey collection and deadwood collection are sometimes allowed on a sustainable basis.  Indian sacred groves are sometimes associated with temples / monasteries / shrines or with burial grounds.  Sacred groves are scattered all over the country, and are referred to by different names in different parts of India.  Groves were associated with religious rites, festivals and recreation.  In the villages, Panchavati, or a cluster of five trees that represented the forests, were maintained. These trees represented the five elements of Earth, Water, Fire, Air and Space. ECOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF SACRED GROVES  They also play an important role in the conservation of flora and fauna.  Sacred groves are the good source of a variety of medicinal plants, fruits, fodder, fuel wood, spices, etc.
  19. 19. IMAGES OF SACRED GROVES Checked and corrected by, Reshma tulsi T L Assistant professor in Natural science Fmtc mylapore Submitted by, Keerthana R Nath Natural science Fmtc mylapore
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