• Herbert spencer : “life is the continuous
adjustment of the internal to the external
• A person adapts himself to environment , to
overcome frustration through adjustment.
• It starts from birth of the child and continues
till his death.
• It is modified and affected by individual’s
experienceslearning play a significant role in
Meaning & definition
• Symonds  : adjustment is a satisfactory
relation of an organisation to its environment.
• Ruth Strong  : a process and not a state.
• James Drever  : the modification to
compensate for special conditions.
• Coleman and James C  : the outcome of
individual attempts to deal with stress and meet his
needs, also his effort to maintain harmonious
relationship with the environment.
• Shaffer, L.S.  : a process by which a living
organism maintain a balance between its needs
and the circumstances that influence the
satisfaction of these needs.
• Arkoff  : is the interaction between a
person and his environment. An individual is
adjusted if he is adjusted to himself and to his
• Geuner , B.Vonhaller : we can think of
adjustment as psychological survival in much ;
the same way as biologist uses the term to
describe physiological survival.
• Helps to keep balance b/w our needs and
capacity to meet these needs.
• It implies changes in our thinking and way of
life to the demands of the situation.
• Gives us the ability and strength to bring
desirable changes in the state of our
• It is physiological as well as psychological.
• It is multidimensional.
• Brings us happiness and contentment.
Nature of balanced adjustment
• Good physical health.
• Emotionally balanced, free from conflicts and
• Wors efficiency or full use of one’s
• Socially acceptable behaviour.
• Competence in interpersonal relations.
• School adjustment.
Characteristics of a well adjusted
• Adequate philosophy of life.
• Awareness of one’s assets and limitations.
• Balanced level of aspiration – neither too high nor too
• Satisfaction of basic needs.
• Rational and appreciative aptitude.
• Flexible behaviour.
• Strong will to face challenges.
• Realistic perception of life.
• Respect for oneself and others.
• Homely feeling with the environment.
Adjustment as a Psychological
• As a process – is major interest to
psychologist, to understand a person & his
• The way one tries to adjust himself to his
external environment @ any time depends
on interaction b/w biological factors in growth
& social experiece.
• “the degree of disharmony b/w the individual
& the environment.
• Results from frustration caused by non-
satisfaction of the needs.
• When we are unable to provide situations in
school which enable the child to satisfy his
needs – leads to maladjustment.
• Herbert sorenson : “ A person is not in
harmony with his work if it is too hard or too
if it is too hard or if the student has too
little capacity excessive failure is experienced.
if it is too easy or if the student had too
high ability for his work the work is dull and
Committee on Maladjusted Children [U.K.] 1955 : reported;
A. Nervous disorders
• Fear: anxiety,phobias,timidity,oversensityvity.
• Apathy etc.,
B. Habit disorders
• Speech : stammering,speech defect.
• Sleep : sleep walking or talking
• Movements : nail biting,rocking
• Feeding : vomiting,indiscriminate eating
• Nervous pains & paralysis : headache
• Physical symptoms : asthma & other allergic conditions
C. Behaviour disorders
• Unmanagable : dis obedience, refusal to go to
• Aggressiveness : cruelty
D. Organic disorders
• Head injuries,central tumour,epilepsy & cholera.
E. Educational and Vocational difficulties
• Unusual response to school discipline
• Inability to concentrate
• Inability to keep jobs
• Essential of Educational Psychology –
J.C.Agarwal ; 1994.
• Educational Psychology – Dr. G. Aruna Mohan;