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Adjustment and maladjustment


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Adjustment and maladjustment

  1. 1. Mahitha G Natural science Adjustment and Maladjustment
  2. 2. Introduction
  3. 3. • Herbert spencer : “life is the continuous adjustment of the internal to the external relations.” • A person adapts himself to environment , to overcome frustration through adjustment. • It starts from birth of the child and continues till his death. • It is modified and affected by individual’s experienceslearning play a significant role in aiding adjustment.
  4. 4. Meaning & definition • Symonds [1933] : adjustment is a satisfactory relation of an organisation to its environment. • Ruth Strong [1949] : a process and not a state. • James Drever [1952] : the modification to compensate for special conditions. • Coleman and James C [1956] : the outcome of individual attempts to deal with stress and meet his needs, also his effort to maintain harmonious relationship with the environment.
  5. 5. • Shaffer, L.S. [1961] : a process by which a living organism maintain a balance between its needs and the circumstances that influence the satisfaction of these needs. • Arkoff [1968] : is the interaction between a person and his environment. An individual is adjusted if he is adjusted to himself and to his environment. • Geuner , B.Vonhaller : we can think of adjustment as psychological survival in much ; the same way as biologist uses the term to describe physiological survival.
  6. 6. Characteristics… • Helps to keep balance b/w our needs and capacity to meet these needs. • It implies changes in our thinking and way of life to the demands of the situation. • Gives us the ability and strength to bring desirable changes in the state of our environment. • It is physiological as well as psychological. • It is multidimensional. • Brings us happiness and contentment.
  7. 7. Nature of balanced adjustment • Good physical health. • Emotionally balanced, free from conflicts and frustrations. • Wors efficiency or full use of one’s occupational skills. • Socially acceptable behaviour. • Competence in interpersonal relations. • School adjustment.
  8. 8. Characteristics of a well adjusted person… • Adequate philosophy of life. • Awareness of one’s assets and limitations. • Balanced level of aspiration – neither too high nor too low. • Satisfaction of basic needs. • Rational and appreciative aptitude. • Flexible behaviour. • Strong will to face challenges. • Realistic perception of life. • Respect for oneself and others. • Homely feeling with the environment.
  9. 9. Adjustment as a Psychological Process.. • As a process – is major interest to psychologist, to understand a person & his behaviour. • The way one tries to adjust himself to his external environment @ any time  depends on interaction b/w biological factors in growth & social experiece.
  10. 10. Maladjustment… • “the degree of disharmony b/w the individual & the environment. • Results from frustration caused by non- satisfaction of the needs. • When we are unable to provide situations in school which enable the child to satisfy his needs – leads to maladjustment.
  11. 11. contd… • Herbert sorenson : “ A person is not in harmony with his work if it is too hard or too easy. if it is too hard or if the student has too little capacity excessive failure is experienced. if it is too easy or if the student had too high ability for his work  the work is dull and dreading.
  12. 12. Symptoms… Committee on Maladjusted Children [U.K.] 1955 : reported; A. Nervous disorders • Fear: anxiety,phobias,timidity,oversensityvity. • Depression • Apathy etc., B. Habit disorders • Speech : stammering,speech defect. • Sleep : sleep walking or talking • Movements : nail biting,rocking • Feeding : vomiting,indiscriminate eating • Nervous pains & paralysis : headache • Physical symptoms : asthma & other allergic conditions
  13. 13. Cont…. C. Behaviour disorders • Unmanagable : dis obedience, refusal to go to school. • Aggressiveness : cruelty D. Organic disorders • Head injuries,central tumour,epilepsy & cholera. E. Educational and Vocational difficulties • Unusual response to school discipline • Inability to concentrate • Inability to keep jobs
  14. 14. Reference… • Essential of Educational Psychology – J.C.Agarwal ; 1994. • Educational Psychology – Dr. G. Aruna Mohan; 2003.