Interlinear glossing for multilingual research KATE BEECHINGASSOCIATE PROFESSOR, APPLIED LINGUISTICS HEAD, INTERNATIONAL CORPUS LINGUISTICS RESEARCH UNIT (ICLRU) UWE, BRISTOL
International students and post-graduate discourse analytic researchInternational students in the UK conducting discourse- analytic research on languages other than English, either at MA or PhD level, face four major hurdles:a) understanding what is meant by „contributing to knowledge‟;b) applying „Anglo-Saxon‟ models in contexts in which those models may be inappropriate or require adaptation;c) presenting foreign-language data in such a way as to be understandable to supervisors and examiners who may have no knowledge of their language;d) (Academic) writing in English.
Linguistic glossinga. Ed en Floor gaan samen-wonen Ed and Floor go together-live INF „Ed and Floor are going to live together‟b. Maarten en Stefanie zijn uit elkaar Maarten and Stefanie be out RECP „Maarten and Stefanie have split up‟
Too much information… or not enough?I will argue in this paper that: It is not always possible for non-linguistically trained students/researchers to give detailed morphologically glosses; Morphological glosses do not provide us with the pragmatic information we need in studies of everyday interactional (and intercultural) communication > flexible glossing strategies which are fit for purpose AND > discursive explanations of language used in context.
Case Study 1„Negotiating nurturance and autonomy: a mother- daughter case study‟ MA ICC dissertation student Native speaker of German Writing in English and drawing on substantial amounts of literature/analytical and classificatory frameworks in English Data in German
Methodology Record conversations between „the mother‟ and „the daughter‟ Transcribe critical incidents – in this case, the daughter announcing that she is leaving home and moving to Kiel, and that she won‟t be home for the annual „curly kale hike‟ Coding the data, using Penman‟s categorisation system for power and involvement
Line-by-line gloss in English German English gloss1. Ju: Ello „Ello‟2. Ma: (2.) Hallo „Hallo‟3. Ju: < laugh > < laugh >4. Ma: Ach „Oh‟5. Ju: = Ach (repetition) „Oh‟ (repetition)6. Ma: // Wo kommst‟n du her? „Where have you been? ‟7. Ju: = Von oben „Upstairs‟8. Ma: = Ach „Oh‟9. Ju: Njaa „Nyes‟
Case Study 2„Social presence in an online learning situation‟ PhD student Native speaker of Chinese Writing in English and drawing on substantial amounts of literature/analytical and classificatory frameworks in English Some data in Chinese
MethodologyMixed method approach to find out the differences in social presence in the voice-chat and text-chat fora: Questionnaires Interviews Content analysis of data collected in the voice-chat and text-chat fora
Social Presence Categories & Indicators (King and Ellis 2009:4)Categories IndicatorsAffective • Expression of emotions (AE)A • Use of humor (AU) • Self-disclosure (AS)Communicative • Continuing a thread (OC)Reinforcement • Quoting from others’ messages (OQ)Interactive • Referring explicitly to others’ messages (OR)Responses • Asking questions (OA)(Open Communication) • Complimenting, expressing appreciationO (OCE) • Expressing agreement (OE)Cohesive • Vocatives (CV)C • Addresses or refers to the group using inclusive pronouns (CA) • Phatics, salutations (CP)
The interaction analysis of a voice-based chat activityA: Can you hear me? [OA]B: Yeah, I can. [OE]A: So how‟s your homework? Hehe. [OA][AE]B: Hehe. Well-done. Well-done. [AE][OCE]A: Oh.B: 亲爱的，你报名了吗？ “My dear, have you got registered?” [OA]A: 什么东西？ “For what?” [OA]B: 考试，预约考试。 “The exam, for the final exam.” [OC]A: Yeah, I did that. [OC] 你预约了吗？ “And you?” [OA]B: Yeah. [OC]
However…One of the longest extracts which Wu has transcribed from the voice-chat forum includes the following:As they passed down the aisle of the coach, the only empty seat was one facing the young women. Here the linked pair seated themselves. The woman quickly glanced at them with disinterest. Then with a lovely smile, she held out a hand and spoke:A: "Well, Mr. Easton, if you will make me speak first, I suppose I must. Dont you ever say hello to old friends when you meet them in the west?" A: (change to a different voice) "Its Miss Fairchild," "Ill ask you to excuse the other hand. Im not able to use it just at present." B: "Youll excuse me for speaking, miss. But I see you know the marshal here. If youll ask him to speak a word for me when we get to the pen, hell do it. Itll make things easier for me there. Hes taking me to Leavenworth Prison. Its seven years for counterfeiting."
Unexpected uses of the voice-based chat-room (When I transcribe the voice chat talk between two students, I find it‟s a practice session for them to read a play in the voice- based chat room. Our online school organised an activity to promote English learning among students. Students can choose to read a text from the textbook or read a play. It‟s a competition. Students send their reading files to our platform. Teachers will download the files and listen to them. Those students who are judged to be good will get a reward. The extract is a practice session for the two students. There are three roles in the play, but because one student didn‟t have time to attend this session, one student read two roles. The problem is that it‟s difficult to code them, especially the reading part, with the social presence categories and indicators.)
Anglo-Saxon versus Chinese learners‟ behaviour patterns and the need to adjust A-S modelsA:… So what are the three circles about? And what is this Braj Kachru? Why he is so famous or he is so important in linguistic area and can you speak in detail about this three circles theory. Yufang, you have read this part, three circles?B: Yeah, yeah.A: Can you give us a very brief introduction to me as well as Limin?B: Ok. The three circles idea about inner circle, outer circle and expanding circle. Inner circle is about native speakers who were born in Britain.A: En…B: and North America, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and are of British accent. En, the outer circle is about people whose English, another, I am sorry. Inner circle is about people speaking English as their mother tongue.A: Good. Yeah.B: Inner circles, even they think and write.A: En...ha..B: But outer circle is places like India, Hong Kong where English is taught in school and it is for purpose of international business and somehow for official business within their country.
Writing (academic) English Whereas the daughter‟s level of power and involvement due to avoidance is still low on the manifest scale, the mother‟s reaction shows a positive position to the daughter in that she pities (1) that her daughter will not be taking part in the curly kale hike. While there is no explicit category for expressions of regret or pity (2) , the mother‟s „Oh‟ is coded as „Agree‟ as it confirms the relationship of the two in a positive manner but somewhat neutral level of power. (1) is genuinely disappointed (2) I think you mean disappointment? (cf „Wie schade!‟ ?)
Edit the following?The slight approach of the mother is then answered with another „Agree‟ of the daughter in that she tries to reconcile her annihilation of the family meeting that it‟s just due to money that she cannot come to the gathering.
Possible rewording The mother moves tentatively closer to the daughter and is answered with another „Agree‟ from the daughter who tries to soften her refusal to join in the family walk by saying that it‟s just due to money that she cannot come to the gathering.
Researching multilingually Is stimulating and rewarding Requires flexibility and the ability to negotiate meaning Is hard work for student and supervisor Interlinear glossing is essential But does not preclude discursive explanation of context and interpretation And the supervisor‟s help with expression in English
Coda – Ezra PoundThe Jewel Stairs’ Grievance李 白By Li Bai 却 下 水 晶 帘，玉 阶 生 白 露， (Chinese original) que xia shui jing lianyu jie sheng bai lu (Chinese pinyin) kiaku ka hui sho rangioku kai sei haku to (Japanese pinyin) let down water crystal curtainjewel step grow white dew (Fenollosa‟s So I let down the crystal curtain notes) And I let down the crystal curtainThe jewel stairs have already become white with dew (Fenollosa‟s version) She lets down the crystal blindThe jewelled steps are already quite white with She lowers then the cristal screen, dew, (Pound’s version) 玲 珑 望 秋 月。Upon the jade steps white dews grow. (Yip‟s version) ling long wang qiu yueThe marble steps with dew grow white, (Wan Zhaofeng‟s rei ro bo shu setsu version) transparent clear look out autumn moon And still look at the high-moon shining beyond夜 久 侵 罗 袜。 And watch the moon through the clear autumn.ye jiu qin luo wa To watch, glass-clear, the autumn moon.ya kiu shin ra hitsu And gazes at the moon, pale and bright.night long permeate gauze stockingFor gone in the night, the dew has come into my gauze sock It is so late that the dew soaks my gauze stockings, It is late. Gauze stockings are dabbled.It soaks her gauze socks late at night.
Pound‟s note: Jewel stairs, therefore a palace. Grievance, therefore there is something to complain of. Gauze stockings, therefore a court lady, not a servant who complains. Clear autumn, therefore he has no excuse on account of weather. Also she has come early, for the dew has not merely whitened the stairs, but has soaked her stockings. The poem is especially prized because she utters no direct reproach.（Pound, Ezra 「1915」 (2003) Ezra Pound: Poems & Translation, New York: Literary Classics of the United States, Inc.,252）