George Androulakis

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George Androulakis

  1. 1. Researching multilingually adultimmigrants’ language needs in order to design a course of Greek as a second language George Androulakis University of Thessaly androulakis@uth.gr George Androulakis RM Network Event, Bristol, 24-25 April 2012
  2. 2. OutlineResearch contextResearching multilingually in the ELMEGOprojectThe researchers’ point of view (diaries)Questions for discussion George Androulakis RM Network Event, Bristol, 24-25 April 2012
  3. 3. The contextGreece and its monolingual traditionRecent immigration into GreeceGreek as a second languageThe need of needs analysis George Androulakis RM Network Event, Bristol, 24-25 April 2012
  4. 4. Needs analysis components (1/2)Context situation, in which the course will be runPersonal/social information about learnersLanguage information about learnersProfessional and social information about learnersLearners’ deficiencies and strengthsLanguage learning needs formulated by the learners George Androulakis RM Network Event, Bristol, 24-25 April 2012
  5. 5. Needs analysis components (2/2)Language learning needs formulated by the secondlanguage communityLearners’ needs from/about the courseLanguage and communication patterns used in thetarget situationContent analysis of documents used in the targetsituation. George Androulakis RM Network Event, Bristol, 24-25 April 2012
  6. 6. Needs analysis strategy: questionsWho will conduct the study?What kind of information is to be collected?How the information will be collected?How the findings will be interpreted? George Androulakis RM Network Event, Bristol, 24-25 April 2012
  7. 7. “ELMEGO” projectInterdisciplinary, qualitative research-Stages: 3 distinct but interdependent stages-Research team: interdisciplinary, hierarchy (4 “grades”)-1st stage: 3 researchers for the fieldwork (1 Albanian-speaking)Field: Volos-Target groups: 3 ethnic communities: Albanian, Pakistani, Romanian-More precisely: parents with children in compulsory education.Research methods and tools:- participant observation of everyday situations- focus groups-interviews•for a period of ten months (Jan. 2011 to Oct 2011). George Androulakis RM Network Event, Bristol, 24-25 April 2012
  8. 8. Exploring the literaturePrevious researches on the same issue ?-Many studies on multilingualism, not on multilinguallyconducted researchQTopics:- Needs assessment / analysis-Immigration and language / multilingualism-Parents-school communication / involvementLanguages:-IL: English, French, German, Italian -TL: Greek George Androulakis RM Network Event, Bristol, 24-25 April 2012
  9. 9. ProcessData generationTranscription of recordingsReformulation in “academic” (applied linguistics)GreekPresentation of the research (English and Greek) George Androulakis RM Network Event, Bristol, 24-25 April 2012
  10. 10. The toolsParticipant ObservationFocus groupsInterviewsResearch protocol: written in Greek only!(other languages: hidden) George Androulakis RM Network Event, Bristol, 24-25 April 2012
  11. 11. ΑΤΟΜΙΚΟ ΔΕΛΤΙΟ «ΘΕΛΩ ΝΑ ΜΑΘΩ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ»΢σκπιερώλεηαη από όποηολ ή όποηα ελδηαθέρεηαη λα παραθοιοσζήζεη καζήκαηαειιεληθώλ ή (όηαλ ασηό δελ είλαη δσλαηό) από θάποηολ ή θάποηα ποσ προζθέρεηαη λαβοεζήζεη θαη γλωρίδεη ηε γιώζζα προέιεσζες.ΟΝΟΜΑ: _______________ΦΤΛΟ: _______________ΖΛΗΚΗΑ: _______________ΖΜΔΡΟΜΖΝΗΑ ΢ΤΜΠΛΖΡΩ΢Ζ΢: _______________ΠΟΗΑ ΔΗΝΑΗ Ζ ΜΖΣΡΗΚΖ ΢ΟΤ ΓΛΩ΢΢Α (ε πρώηε ποσ έκαζες όηαλ ήζοσλ παηδί);_______________ΞΔΡΔΗ΢ ΑΛΛΔ΢ ΓΛΩ΢΢Δ΢; _______________ΠΟ΢Ο ΚΑΗΡΟ ΕΔΗ΢ ΢ΣΖΝ ΔΛΛΑΓΑ; _______________ΓΗΑ ΠΟΗΟΤ΢ ΛΟΓΟΤ΢ ΘΔΛΔΗ΢ ΝΑ ΜΑΘΔΗ΢ ΚΑΛΤΣΔΡΑ ΣΑ ΔΛΛΖΝΗΚΑ;_____________________________________________ΌΣΑΝ ΚΑΠΟΗΟ΢ ΢ΟΤ ΜΗΛΑΔΗ ΢ΣΑ ΔΛΛΖΝΗΚΑ, ΚΑΣΑΛΑΒΑΗΝΔΗ΢:(ζσκπιήρωζε ηο θοσηάθη ποσ ζοσ ηαηρηάδεη)Όια Σα περηζζόηερα Μερηθά Λίγα Ποιύ Λίγα ΣίποηεΌΣΑΝ ΒΛΔΠΔΗ΢ ΔΗΓΖ΢ΔΗ΢ (ΣΑ ΝΔΑ) ΢ΣΖΝ ΔΛΛΖΝΗΚΖ ΣΖΛΔΟΡΑ΢Ζ, ΚΑΣΑΛΑΒΑΗΝΔΗ΢:(ζσκπιήρωζε ηο θοσηάθη ποσ ζοσ ηαηρηάδεη)Όια Σα περηζζόηερα Μερηθά Λίγα Ποιύ Λίγα ΣίποηεΌΣΑΝ ΓΗΑΒΑΕΔΗ΢ ΜΗΑ ΔΛΛΖΝΗΚΖ ΔΦΖΜΔΡΗΓΑ, ΚΑΣΑΛΑΒΑΗΝΔΗ΢:(ζσκπιήρωζε ηο θοσηάθη ποσ ζοσ ηαηρηάδεη)Όια Σα περηζζόηερα Μερηθά Λίγα Ποιύ Λίγα ΣίποηεΌΣΑΝ ΜΗΛΑ΢ ΔΛΛΖΝΗΚΑ, ΟΗ ΑΛΛΟΗ ΚΑΣΑΛΑΒΑΗΝΟΤΝ: George Androulakis(ζσκπιήρωζε ηο θοσηάθη ποσ ζοσ ηαηρηάδεη) RM Network Event,Όια Σα περηζζόηερα Μερηθά Λίγα Ποιύ Λίγα Γε κηιάω θαζόιοσ Bristol, 24-25 April 2012
  12. 12. Places:HomeSchoolSocial placesUniversity George Androulakis RM Network Event, Bristol, 24-25 April 2012
  13. 13. The dataMostly in Greek (TL).- (“It has to be in Greek”; “It’s about Greek after all!”)But: Albanian, Urdu, Romanian (SL)Paired with: Italian, English, French (shared IL) for some speakers.Trilingualism for each community! George Androulakis RM Network Event, Bristol, 24-25 April 2012
  14. 14. Research and multilingualismLanguage choiceTranslation into GreekCodeswitching Negotiations between researchers – mediators – participants about:language (language needs at several levels);power relations (distance, trust);“meaning of the research” (usefulness, context, their personal perspective) Initially monolingual perception of the research Other Ls generated and gradually encouraged. George Androulakis RM Network Event, Bristol, 24-25 April 2012
  15. 15. Translation and translatabilityCultural/pragmatic/linguistic differences, representations:complex decodings from L to L Diversity of languages and levels of competences Need to translate concepts often private and emotionalExamples (Albanian – Greek)Zot – Θεόσproblem – πρόβλθμαØ – φροντιςτιριοhyrje në shkencë – γραμματικι ??? George Androulakis RM Network Event, Bristol, 24-25 April 2012
  16. 16. Extracts from the researchers’ diaries 1/4Σώρα, ςχετικά με το τι κάναμε εμείσ: Όπωσ αναφζρκθκε ιδθ πολλζσ φορζσ μασμετζφραηαν άλλοι, διαμεςολαβιτριεσ ι άλλοι ομόγλωςςοι που ιταν παρόντεσ/οφςεσ. Σαπροβλιματα που ςυναντιςαμε ςχετικά με τισ γλώςςεσ ιταν περιςςότερα από όςαπεριμζναμε. Χρειάςτθκε πολλζσ φορζσ να αναπροςαρμόςουμε τθ ςτρατθγικι μασ. Π.χ.ρωτοφςαμε ςυχνά, ώςτε να ςιγουρευτοφμε αν καταλάβαμε ςωςτά. Αυτό ιδιαίτερα ςε μίαπερίπτωςθ μθτζρασ από τθ Ρουμανία (αν κυμάμαι καλά 2 χρόνια ςτθν Ελλάδα) δεν ιτανκακόλου εφκολο. Ιδιαίτερα όταν μιλοφςαμε ςτο τθλζφωνο μαηί τθσ κυμάμαι ότι είχαμεδυςκολίεσ, οπότε κάποιεσ φορζσ ζπρεπε να πάμε από το ςπίτι τθσ, ώςτε από κοντά ναεπιτευχκεί μια καλφτερθ επικοινωνία. ΢ε ομάδα εςτίαςθσ που κάναμε με τθν Αλεξάνδρα,θ οποία μιλάει αλβανικά, κυμάμαι ότι προςπάκθςε να διατυπώςει κάποιεσ ερωτιςεισ ινα δώςει το ςτίγμα τθσ ερώτθςθσ με κάποιεσ λζξεισ ςτα αλβανικά. Πόςο ςίγουρεσ μπορείνα είμαςτε όμωσ για το αν αποδίδουμε ςωςτά το πνεφμα των αναγκών τουσ; George Androulakis RM Network Event, Bristol, 24-25 April 2012
  17. 17. Extracts from the researchers’ diaries 2/4 (translates 1/4)Concerning what we have done so far; as often mentioned before, others weretranslating for us, our mediators or other native speakers who were present. Theproblems that we faced regarding languages were more importantthan we were expecting. Very often we had to reconsider our strategy.For example, we used to ask again, so as to be sure if we got it right. This wasnteasy at all especially in the case of a mother from Romania (I think she hadarrived in Greece just 2 years ago). Especially when talking on the phone withher, we can remember having many communicative difficulties. So sometimes wehad to visit her at home, so as to achieve a better communication result. In afocus group that we formed with Alexandra, who speaks Albanian, I can recallher trying to make some questions or to simply give the outline of the questionusing some words in Albanian. However, how sure can we be that wecorrectly express the spirit of their needs? George Androulakis RM Network Event, Bristol, 24-25 April 2012
  18. 18. Extracts from the researchers’ diaries 3/4Μου ζχει τφχει περιςτατικό ςυνάντθςθσ ςτο ΢τζκι με δυο –τρεισ μετανάςτεσ πουπίναμε καφζ, να αρχίςουν να μιλάνε ςτα αλβανικά ςε βακμό που δε μποροφςα ναςυμμετζχω ςτθ ςυηιτθςθ, οπότε και βρζκθκα ςτθ κζςθ που πικανότατα ζχουνβρεκεί οι ίδιοι ςτθν Ελλάδα μθ γνωρίηοντασ ελλθνικά. Αυτι ιταν μια ςτιγμι πουμου ζκανε καλό ωσ ερευνιτρια, κακώσ ξεκίνθςα να ςκζφτομαι τουσ ςυςχετιςμοφσδυνάμεων και εξουςίασ από τθν αντίςτροφθ οπτικι και εκ των ζςω. Κατά κάποιοτρόπο ιρκα πιο κοντά ςτθν κατανόθςθ τθσ ετερότθτασ. Ακόμθ, με ζκανε να νιώςωευχάριςτα μπορώ να πω, κακώσ χάρθκα που ζβλεπα τουσ ςυμμετζχοντεσ νααπελευκερώνονται και να φζρονται επθρεαςμζνοι όλο και λιγότερο από τθνπαρουςία μου. Κάποια ςτιγμι μόνοι τουσ ζνιωςαν ότι αυτό ίςωσ δεν ιταν τόςοευγενικό, το παραδεχτικανε δθλαδι, λζγοντασ πωσ ξεχαςτικανε λζγοντασ τα δικάτουσ και αρχίςανε να μιλάνε ςτα ελλθνικά, αλλά ενδιάμεςα πάλι ξεχνιόντουςανκαι μιλοφςαν ςτα αλβανικά. Είμαι ςίγουρθ και αγχωμζνθ ταυτόχρονα για όλααυτά που χάναμε ςτο μεταξφ… George Androulakis RM Network Event, Bristol, 24-25 April 2012
  19. 19. Extracts from the researchers’ diaries 4/4 (translates 3/4)It occurred to me a kind of incident, when i was having coffee with 2 or 3 immigrants at theImmigrants’ Hangout; I was incapable of participating in the discussion because they startedtalking in Albanian to an extend that I couldnt follow them. At this moment I felt the way theyprobably have felt when coming to Greece not speaking Greek. This moment was very useful formy experience as a researcher, for I started thinking about the correlations of power andauthority the other way round. I somehow felt that I could better feel the concept of difference.It was also a very pleasant feeling to realise that the participants were feeling free to expressthemselves and to gradually not pay attention to my presence. Finally, there was a point, whenthey themselves felt that this attitude might have been quite impolite, I mean they admitted itsaying that they were "lost" in their private conversation and they started talking in Greek again.But there were still moments when they were mixing the codes using both Greek and Albanian.Im convinced and anxious simultaneously about all that information we had lost in themeantime. George Androulakis RM Network Event, Bristol, 24-25 April 2012
  20. 20. Mediators:(not interpreters: informal work)Multiple persons / multiple identities“Appointed” / “spontaneous” mediators (mediators coming from thecommunity, family members)Key persons during the process of generating and interpreting data-Empowering role of the linguistic mediation.Mediators and researchers’: sharing of the project’s perspectives andpriorities(objectives, tools, roles, interpretation)- Explanations of the research objectives- Transformation of questions (examplifying)- Interpretations of answers (hierarchy of needs). Mediator: a co-researcher George Androulakis RM Network Event, Bristol, 24-25 April 2012
  21. 21. Questions – DiscussionThe researchers’ points of view: - How do they deal with the languages issues in the field?- What if they don’t speak the SL of the informants?- What are the differences when they speak/understand the SL?- To what extent they may encourage the use of SL and/or IL?Mediators’ role: - If expressed in SL, how the findings (needs) are interpreted, influenced,biased by the mediators?- How can we make the mediators and the researchers more visible (theirchoices and decisions)? Should we? Presentation of research- How well the wills and interests of immigrants are reported?- How can we cope with the contrast between a flexible and tolerantmultilingualism in conducting the research (oral / informal) and a thorough,regulated multilingualism in presenting the research findings to the scientificcommunity (written / academic). George Androulakis RM Network Event, Bristol, 24-25 April 2012
  22. 22. Thank you!George Androulakis androulakis@uth.grgandren@ath.forthnet.gr George Androulakis RM Network Event, Bristol, 24-25 April 2012

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