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Effect of fermentation period on cyanide reduction in garri flour and
comparison with some selected samples marketed in ab...
INTRODUCTION
Food products prepared from cassava (Manihot
species) are the staple diet consumed in tropical Africa.
Produc...
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Plant material
Cassava tubers were obtained from National
Root Crop Research Institute Umudike (NRCR...
Table 2 shows the cyanide contents of market
purchased garri samples, obtained from different
locations in Aba, Abia State...
FIIRO. 2006. Cassava: Production, Processing and
Utilization in Nigeria. Federal Institute of Industrial
Research, Oshodi ...
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Effect of fermentation period on cyanide reduction in garri flour and comparison with some selected samples marketed in aba, Nigeria.

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Garri is the most popular form in which cassava is consumed in Nigeria. This research studied the effect of fermentation period on cyanide reduction in garri flour (white and yellow garri samples) and comparison with some selected samples marketed in Aba, Nigeria. The cyanide content of the various garri samples were estimated by alkaline picrate paper spectrophotometric method. The results showed that the cyanide contents decreased significantly (p<0.05)>0.05). Cyanide concentrations of the market purchased garri samples had 14.37±0.05 to 36.32±0.1 mg/kg and 18.37±0.05 to 29. 68±0.05 mg/kg in the white and yellow garri samples respectively. These values indicated that about 50% of the market purchased garri samples showed varying cyanide concentrations of 1st to 2nd day’s fermentation. This study has revealed the need to educate the public on the imminent danger of inadequate fermentation of garri flour and it will subsequently strengthen the moral norms of the producers to adapt to normal period of 5 to 6 days.

Article Citation:
Ukpabi Chibueze F, Emeghebo Ngozi, Ukpabi Emmanuel and Emole Eke Chukwu.
Effect of fermentation period on cyanide reduction in garri flour and comparison with some selected samples marketed in aba, Nigeria.
Journal of Research in Agriculture (2013) 2(1): 152-156.

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http://www.jagri.info/documents/AG0033.pdf

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Effect of fermentation period on cyanide reduction in garri flour and comparison with some selected samples marketed in aba, Nigeria.

  1. 1. Effect of fermentation period on cyanide reduction in garri flour and comparison with some selected samples marketed in aba, Nigeria. Keywords: Cassava, Cyanide, Garri, Fermentation. ABSTRACT: Garri is the most popular form in which cassava is consumed in Nigeria. This research studied the effect of fermentation period on cyanide reduction in garri flour (white and yellow garri samples) and comparison with some selected samples marketed in Aba, Nigeria. The cyanide content of the various garri samples were estimated by alkaline picrate paper spectrophotometric method. The results showed that the cyanide contents decreased significantly (p<0.05) with the length of fermentation period of the grated cassava mash from 1st to 4th days. Though there was a decrease in cyanide concentrations between the 4th and 5th days, they were not significant (p>0.05). Cyanide concentrations of the market purchased garri samples had 14.37±0.05 to 36.32±0.1 mg/kg and 18.37±0.05 to 29. 68±0.05 mg/kg in the white and yellow garri samples respectively. These values indicated that about 50% of the market purchased garri samples showed varying cyanide concentrations of 1st to 2nd day’s fermentation. This study has revealed the need to educate the public on the imminent danger of inadequate fermentation of garri flour and it will subsequently strengthen the moral norms of the producers to adapt to normal period of 5 to 6 days. 152-156 | JRA | 2013 | Vol 2 | No 1 This article is governed by the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by/2.0), which gives permission for unrestricted use, non-commercial, distribution and reproduction in all medium, provided the original work is properly cited. www.jagri.info Journal of Research in Agriculture An International Scientific Research Journal Authors: Ukpabi Chibueze F1 , Emeghebo Ngozi1 Ukpabi Emmanuel2 and Emole Eke Chukwu2 . Institution: 1. Department of Biochemistry, Abia State Polytechnic, Aba. 2. Department of Chemistry, Abia State Polytechnic, Aba. Corresponding author: Ukpabi Chibueze F. Email: ukpabichibueze@yahoo.com Phone No: 0806670705. Web Address: http://www.jagri.info documents/AG0033.pdf. Dates: Received: 03 Dec 2012 Accepted: 05 Dec 2012 Published: 05 Apr 2013 Article Citation: Ukpabi Chibueze F, Emeghebo Ngozi, Ukpabi Emmanuel and Emole Eke Chukwu. Effect of fermentation period on cyanide reduction in garri flour and comparison with some selected samples marketed in aba, Nigeria. Journal of Research in Agriculture (2013) 2(1): 152-156 An International Scientific Research Journal Original Research Journal of Research in Agriculture JournalofResearchinAgriculture
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Food products prepared from cassava (Manihot species) are the staple diet consumed in tropical Africa. Products such as garri, fufu and tapioca are very popular in Nigeria. These food products play major roles in efforts to alleviate food crisis because of their efficient production of food energy, year- round availability and food systems in Africa. In recent times changes have raised to increase cassava productivity, new varieties, use modern irrigation methods, chemical fertilizers and herbicides. It is estimated that the crop production is about 40% of all calories consumed in Africa (Roa et al., 1997). Garri flour is the most popular processed food from cassava in Nigeria. In garri production, fresh roots are peeled and grated. The grated pulp is put in jute and the jute are placed under heavy stones or pressed with a hydraulic lock between wooden platforms for 5 to 6 days to express excess liquid from the pulp while it is fermenting. The dewatered and fermented lumps of pulp are sieved and roasted. Palm oil may be added to give a light yellow colour to the garri. When palm oil is not added a white garri is produced. Nowadays, the processing techniques of garri has moved from simple processing to complicated procedures which involve semi-mechanised and intergrated accelerated methods (Odoemelam, 2005). Recent studies have shown that garri is widely consumed as food in several parts of Nigeria (Harbor and Ogundu, 2009; Odoemelam, 2005). Garri can be eaten dry or soaked in water as “Eba” and consumed with soups. “Eba” is a very popular food in Nigeria and is gaining popularity in many African countries because of its fast and easy reconstitution into a convenient food. The major factor that limits the use of cassava as food is that it is a significant source as cyanogenic glucosides (Enidiok et al., 2008). These cyanogenic glucosides are widely distributed in the plant, with higher concentrations in the leaves and root peel and lower concentrations in the root parenchyma (inside the root) (Cardoso, 2005). The major traditional method of reducing cyanide in garri is by fermentation over periods of about 5 to 6 days (FIIRO, 2006). Although, other steps such as peeling, washing, grating, drying, dewatering, milling and roasting can also influence the level of residual cyanide in cassava products (Omoike and Adediran, 1991). Due to the imminent danger and high toxicity of several cassava varieties, the Codex Alimentarius Commission has set the limits of 10 mg/kg hydrocyanic acid for cassava flour and cassava starch (FAO/WHO, 1991).The expansion of food markets has forced some countries such as Indonesia to introduce a sanitary control to regulate the entry of food products (Djazuli and Bradbury, 1999). Other countries such as Colombia have set a regulation for cyanogenic glycosides levels in animal feed (ICONTEC, 2002). Few comparative studies have been carried out on the effect of fermentation period on cyanide reduction in cassava products, with the assumption that the commercially sold cassava products have a high level of residual cyanide due to the reduced length of fermentation period of the cassava pulp by the producers in a bid to increase turnover and hence, maximize profit (Odoemelam, 2005). This assumption represents a health risk because cassava consumption has been associated with several types of pathological disorders (Enidiok et al., 2008). Health risks whether at the global, national or local level is a result of multiple major human-related factors (Moghaddam et al., 2012). Data on hydrogen cyanide levels in garri will help in formulating public health policies and strengthen the moral norms of the processors. This work has two objectives: the first is to evaluate the effect of fermentation period on cyanide reduction in garri flour. The second objective consists in comparing the results obtained after analyzing the above samples with some selected garri samples marketed in Aba Nigeria. 153 Journal of Research in Agriculture (2013) 2(1): 152-156 Chibueze et al.,2013
  3. 3. MATERIALS AND METHODS Plant material Cassava tubers were obtained from National Root Crop Research Institute Umudike (NRCRI) and were identified as NR8082. Sample preparation 10.0 kg of fresh tubers were peeled, washed with water and grated in an engine-power machine made for that purpose. The mashed cassava pulp was divided into two portions A and B. The portion B was mixed with palm oil while the other portion left as such. The two samples were separately packed into two different jute bags for dewatering using local fabricated mechanical press. Each sample was further divide into 5 portions and was fermented at the interval of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 days respectively. The fermented and semi-drying cassava pulp was sieved and subsequently roasted in a circular frying pan with continuous stirring until the meal become light and crisp. In addition, 20 garri samples (10 white and 10 yellow) were bought from the major markets in Aba, Abia State Nigeria. The garri samples were randomly selected from these markets over a period of three days. Analysis Cyanide content of the garri samples were determined by alkaline picrate paper spectrophotometric method as described by Balagopalan et al., (1988) and Onwuka (2005). Each garri sample (1.0 g) was homogenized at room temperature in 50ml of distilled water for 60 mins in a 100 ml beaker. An alkaline picrate paper (whatman No1 strip) was hung over the test sample in the conical flask for 18 h at room temperature. The alkaline picrate paper was removed and eluted with 60 ml distilled water into a 100 ml beaker. The absorbance of the eluted sample solution was measured spectrophotometrically at 540 nm against the reagent blank. A standard solution of potassium cyanide was treated as the test sample and the absorbance was measured at the same wavelength. The cyanide concentration was subsequently calculated. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The hydrogen cyanide contents of white and yellow garri and effect of length of fermentation are presented in Table 1. Cyanide contents of the white and yellow garri samples on the 1st day recorded the highest concentration values of 31.44±0.03 and 35.25±0.05 mg/kg respectively. Similarly, on the 5th day, the results also indicated significant reduction (p<0.05) of 13.78±0.05 and 11.23±0.05 mg/kg respectively. The level of cyanide reduction in both garri samples were significantly different (p<0.05) between the 1st and 4th days of fermentation. However there was no significant difference (p>0.05) observed between the 4th and 5th days of the fermentation. It can be deduced from the result that, the longer the fermentation period less the residual cyanide. The reduction may be attributed to the breakdown of the cyanogenic glycosides in the cassava pulp during the various steps involved in the production especially fermentation. Therefore, cassava must be processed adequately in order to reduce cyanide contents. This supports the earlier findings by Odoemelam (2005) that significant reduction (p<0.5) in cyanide level was observed over period of 3 days of fermentation. Journal of Research in Agriculture (2013) 2(1) : 152-156 154 Chibueze et al.,2013 Table 1 The HCN contents of white and yellow garri Samples and effect of length on fermentation Fermentation period Level of HCN White garri (mg/kg) Yellow garri (mg/kg) 1 day 31.44± 0.03 35.25±0.05 2 days 22.88± 0.05 20.66± 0.03 3 days 16.46± 0.03 14.29± 0.00 4 days 13.81± 0.05 12.0.6±0.05 5 days 13.78±0.05 11.23± 0.05 Results are expressed as means of triplicate determination ±S.E
  4. 4. Table 2 shows the cyanide contents of market purchased garri samples, obtained from different locations in Aba, Abia State Nigeria. These market purchased garri samples were reported fermented for 3 to 4 days by the sellers and the cyanide levels ranged from 14.37±0.05 to 36.32±0.10 mg/kg on dry matter basis. The wide variation in the cyanide contents of the market- purchased garri samples showed that 4, 2, 2 and 2 white garri samples fall within the 1st , 2nd , 3rd and 4th days of fermentation respectively while 0, 5 and 5 yellow garri samples fall within the 1st , 2nd and 3rd days respectively. These values indicated that about 50% of the market purchased garri samples showed varying cyanide concentrations of 1st to 2nd day’s fermentation of the reference garri samples as shown in Table 1. The present finding supports the earlier observation that the cyanide levels in the market purchased garri samples had higher levels than the residual cyanide levels in the 3 days fermented reference garri samples (Odoemelam, 2005). This situation could probably arise from the reduced lengths of fermentation periods therefore, it is necessary to discourage the practice of reducing fermentation period in attempt to increase sales. The result represents a health risk because cassava consumption with high concentrations of cyanigenic glycosides causes tropical ataxic polyneuropathy in individuals over 40 years old and also exacerbates the conditions of goiter and cretinism in women and children with a low iodine intake (Delenge et al., 1994; Haque and Bradbury, 2004). CONCLUSION This result indicated that about 50% of the market purchased garri samples showed varying cyanide concentrations indicating fermentation period of 1 to 2 days. The work agrees with Odoemelam, (2005) that campaign to educate the public on the danger of this unwholesome practice is paramount. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors are grateful to the management of National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike for the assistance rendered in the running of the analysis. REFERENCE Balagopalan CG, Padmaja G, Nanda SK, Moorthy SN. 1988. Cassava in Food, Feed and Industry. CRS Press Boca Indian. 13:192- 195. Cardoso AP, Mirione E, Ernesto M, Massaza F, Cliff J, Haque MR, Bradbury JH. 2005. Processing of cassava roots to remove cyanogens. J Food Comp Anal., 8(5):451-460. Chioma I. Harbor and Ogundu EC. 2009. Effect of processing on cyanide reduction in different cassava products. Nigerian journal of biochemistry and molecular biology 24(1):35-37. Djazuli M and Bradbury JH. 1999. Cyanogen content of cassava roots and flour in Indonesia Food Chem., 65(4):523-525. Enidiok SE, Attah LE and Otuechere CA. 2008. Evaluation of moisture, total cyanide and fiber contents of garri produced from cassava (manihot utillissima) varieties Awassa in Southern Ethiopia. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 7(5):625-629. 155 Journal of Research in Agriculture (2013) 2(1) : 152-156 Chibueze et al.,2013 Table 2 The HCN contents of market purchased garri samples Samples Level of HCN White garri (mg/kg) Yellow garri (mg/kg) Sample A 16.32±0.03 29.30± 0.03 Sample B 32.27±0.08 18.67± 0.03 Sample C 33.20±0.05 18.37± 0.05 Sample D 14.37±0.05 29.69± 0.05 Sample E 36.32± 0.1 19.97±0.09 Sample F 18.04±0.05 19.28± 0.04 Sample G 19.12±0.04 20.05± 0.06 Sample H 23.08±0.06 22.37± 0.08 Sample I 28.88±0.05 24.01± 1.02 Sample J 34.58±0.12 27.36± 8.05 Results are expressed as means of triplicate determination ±S.E
  5. 5. FIIRO. 2006. Cassava: Production, Processing and Utilization in Nigeria. Federal Institute of Industrial Research, Oshodi Lagos Nigeria. 27-163. Food Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization. 1991. Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme Italy: Codex Alimentarius Commission XII. Haque MR and Bradbury JH. 2004. Preparation of linamarin form cassava leave for use in cassava cyanide kit. Food Chem., 85(1):27-29. Instituto Colombiano de Normas Tecnicasy Certification. Norma Tecnica Colombiana. NTC 3528. 2002. Alimentos para animals. Yuca integral seca para consume animal. Bogota: ICONTEC; P.1-8. Moghaddam RK, Fatemi M and Monfared N. 2012. Factors affecting agricultural sustainable activities among wheat producers. Journal of Research in Agriculture 1(2):093-098. Odoemelam SA. 2005. Studies on Residual Hyrocyanic acid (HCN) in Garri flour made from cassava (Manihot spp). Pakistan J. Nutri., 4(6):376-378. Omoike AI and Adediran GO. 1991. Studies on free cyanide concentration in three cassava products from some Nigerian markets. J. Agric. Sci. Tec., 1: 75-77. Onwuka GL. 2005. Food Analysis and Instrumentation, theory and pratical. 1st Edition Naptitha Prints Lagos Nigeria. 89-98 Roa AC, Maya MM, Duque MC, Tohme J, Allem AC and Boniercale MW. 1997. AFLP analysis of relationships among cassava and other Manihot species. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 95(5-6):741-750. Journal of Research in Agriculture (2013) 2(1) : 152-156 156 Chibueze et al.,2013 Submit your articles online at www.jagri.info Advantages Easy online submission Complete Peer review Affordable Charges Quick processing Extensive indexing You retain your copyright submit@www.jagri.info www.jagri.info/Submit.php.

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