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Effect of elements of communication on effectiveness of poultry technology
messages in Delta State, Nigeria
Keywords:
Elem...
INTRODUCTION
Communication is fundamental to any teaching –
learning situation, hence learning process and
dissemation of ...
developing poultry and other agricultural technology
messages to be communicated to farmers in the future.
Objectives of t...
X4 =Receiver (total mean score of farmers’ human
relation, communication behavior).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Poultry product...
on the magnitude of the coefficient of determination (R2
)
the number of significant variables and the conformity of
the s...
communication skills, the more effective the technology
messages will be. This is because the poultry farmers
(receivers) ...
presented at the National Workshop on Forestry
Extension Services, at the Manpower Development
Centre, Oluwa, Ondo State, ...
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Effect of elements of communication on effectiveness of poultry technology messages in Delta State, Nigeria

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This study was carried out to ascertain the effect of elements of
communications on effectiveness of poultry technology messages in Delta State,
Nigeria. A sample size of 180 poultry farmers and 46 extension agents were randomly
selected and used for the study. The findings showed that the poultry technology
messages communicated to farmers included climate change adaptation measures,
poultry waste management, bird flu prevention, prevention of predators and exotic
breeds of broiler and layer birds. All the elements of communication such as source
(sender), message, channel, and receiver had positive correlation with effectiveness
of poultry technology messages. There is a need to sustain the use of a combination
of channels, various elements in the communication process should be seriously
considered in message designs, its execution and extension agents. Poultry farmers
should be encouraged to improve on their role performance.

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Effect of elements of communication on effectiveness of poultry technology messages in Delta State, Nigeria

  1. 1. Effect of elements of communication on effectiveness of poultry technology messages in Delta State, Nigeria Keywords: Elements of communication, technology message, poultry, effectiveness, Prevention motivation theory, Delta State, Nigeria. ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to ascertain the effect of elements of communications on effectiveness of poultry technology messages in Delta State, Nigeria. A sample size of 180 poultry farmers and 46 extension agents were randomly selected and used for the study. The findings showed that the poultry technology messages communicated to farmers included climate change adaptation measures, poultry waste management, bird flu prevention, prevention of predators and exotic breeds of broiler and layer birds. All the elements of communication such as source (sender), message, channel, and receiver had positive correlation with effectiveness of poultry technology messages. There is a need to sustain the use of a combination of channels, various elements in the communication process should be seriously considered in message designs, its execution and extension agents. Poultry farmers should be encouraged to improve on their role performance. 071-077 | JRA | 2012 | Vol 2 | No 1 This article is governed by the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by/2.0), which gives permission for unrestricted use, non-commercial, distribution and reproduction in all medium, provided the original work is properly cited. www.jagri.info Journal of Research in Agriculture An International Scientific Research Journal Authors: Ofuoku AU1 , Emah GN2 and Isife BI2 . Institution: 1.Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Delta State University, Asaba Campus, Asaba, Delta State, Nigeria. 2.Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Corresponding author: Ofuoku AU. Email: ofuoku@yahoo.com Web Address: http://www.jagri.info documents/AG0010.pdf. Dates: Received: 13 Dec 2011 Accepted: 20 Jan 2012 Published: 23 May 2012 Article Citation: Ofuoku AU, Emah GN and Isife BI. Effect of elements of communication on effectiveness of poultry technology messages in Delta State, Nigeria. Journal of Research in Agriculture (2012) 1: 071-077 Original Research Journal of Research in Agriculture JournalofResearchinAgriculture An International Scientific Research Journal
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Communication is fundamental to any teaching – learning situation, hence learning process and dissemation of information or messages cannot be explained without reference to communication (Okunade, 2005). It is a cardinal instrument for promoting knowledge flow, for information dissemination and of effective extension services (Adedoyin, 1997). Communication can therefore, be defined as the transfer of information or message from a source to a receiver. Adigin (2003) explains that it involves exchange of information, from one person to another through a uniform and common system of signs, symbols, and behaviour. Effective communication therefore, takes place only when the receiver of a coded message is able to decode it and act accordingly. Oladosu (2003) defined communication in extension as a process of interaction to transmit ideas, information technology and feedback from one person to another, which results in a changed situation. Communication is a process that involves the exchange of ideas between two or more persons in an attempt to arrive at convergence in meaning. According to James (1990), communication is a process involving the passing of message form one person to the other through the use of symbols which all parties in the communication process understand. Communication process involves the elements of communication such as the sender, medium, channel, and the receiver. The message being transferred move from one element to the other until it gets to the receiver and back to the sender. An effective message is a concise statement whose purpose is to prompt an audience to act in a way that supports organizational goals. It is simple to understand and avoids relying on confusing issue specific jargon. Hunt (2006) suggests that message is effective if it is brief, straight forward statement aswed on an analysis of what will persuade a particular audience. Poultry technology message stems from development communication. Poultry technology message are therefore those in which poultry farmers and other stakeholders in agriculture interact through planned use of strategies and processes of communication with the goal of achieving agricultural development. To reach and have a significant impact on farming audience requires an appropriate and culturally relevant poultry technology message that is based on thorough knowledge and understanding of the target farming audience. Ofuoku (2010) opines that a lot of fund is being spent on basic and applied agricultural researches, yet agricultural sector has not been able to meet nation’s requirement for food, and poultry products in particular. This may have been occasioned by factors of messages to farmers. The question to be asked then is to ascertain the effectiveness of poultry technologies developed by research institutes that are being made available to farmers. Owing to some problems and uncertainties relating to how agriculture and animal production could be improved among poultry farmers, in order to meet up with the nation’s food requirement, the Nigerian governments have been prompted to set up agricultural development programmes. This has the objectives of improving the production level of crop, livestock and poultry farmers quantitatively and raising their income and standard of living thereby ensuring self-sufficiency. In trying to achieve this objective among poultry farmers, Delta State Agricultural Development Programme’s (DTADP’s) extension agents communicate agricultural technology messages to the poultry farmers using various communication strategies or media. Inspite of these efforts, poultry products are not readily available to everyone. This prompts a study of this nature. The results of this study will be of benefit to the public (DTADP) and private extension agencies and non- governmental organizations that are involved in extension services as it will form a guide for them while 072 Journal of Research in Agriculture (2012) 1: 071-077 Ofuoku et al., 2012
  3. 3. developing poultry and other agricultural technology messages to be communicated to farmers in the future. Objectives of the Study The major objectives of this study was to examine the effect of elements of communication on effectiveness of poultry technology messages in Delta State, Nigeria. Specifically, the objectives of the study were; 1. To identify the poultry production technology messages communicated to farmers; 2. To determine the influence of elements of communication on effectiveness of poultry production technology messages. METHODOLOGY This study was carried out in Delta State, Nigeria. It is located in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria and lies approximately between longitude 50 00 and 60 45’ east and latitude 50 00 and 60 45’ east and latitude 50 00 and 60 30’ north of the equator. The state consists of 25 Local Government Areas and has a total land area of 17,698 square kilometers with a population of 2,570,181 people (NPC, 1993). The state is naturally divided into South, Central and North Agro-ecological Zones based on the vegetative cover. The Delta State Agricultural Development Programme (DTADP), the major agricultural extension agency in line with aforementioned demarcated into north, central and south agricultural zones. Apart from tree crops like oil palm, rubber and fruit trees, arable crops are widely cultivated by the people. A lot of poultry farms abound in the state and neighbouring states depend on Delta State for supply of poultry products. The population of the study included all poultry farmers that were registered with DTADP and all the village extension agents of (DTADP). Random sampling method was employed to select respondents form among the poultry farmers registered with the three DTADP zonal headquarters on the basis of 10% from each zone. This gave a total of 180 poultry farmers. The extension agents covering their various blocks were purposively isolated and forty six (46) extension agents were resulted from then. Consequently, this gave a total of two hundred and twenty-six (226) respondents that were used for the study. Primary data used for the study were collected from the respondents using questionnaire and structured interview schedule. Test-retest method was used to test the reliability of the instrument. The results of the correlation between the first and the second responses showed a high level of correlation for structured interview schedule (r = 0.9310 and the questionnaire (r = 0.951). Data for the study were analyzed with the use of descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentages. The influence of the elements of communication on message effectiveness (objective ii) was analyzed using multiple regression model. The multiple regression model was implicitly specified as follows: Y = f (X1 + X2 + X3 + X4 …………X11) Y = f (X1 = X1a + X1b + … X1n + X2 = X2a + X2b + … X2n + X3 = X3a + X3b + X4 = X4a + X4b ………….. X4n) Where Y=Level of effectiveness of poultry farming borne in the messages. X1=Source (total mean score of farmers’ perception of EA’S relationship with farmers, communication behaviour and skill and role performance) X2=Message; (Total mean score of farmers’ perception on relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, triability observability of the technology borne in message. X3=Channel; (Total mean score of farmers’ perception of channels of communication was used. Journal of Research in Agriculture (2012) 1: 071-077 073 Ofuoku et al., 2012
  4. 4. X4 =Receiver (total mean score of farmers’ human relation, communication behavior). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Poultry production technology messages communicated as reported by farmers Table 1 indicates that 92.2% of the farmers received messages on poultry waste recycling; 100% on health management (bird flu prevention and control); 97.2%, climate change adaptation method; 100% on constants supply of water and 78.3% on prevention of predators using garlic. On exotic breeds, 25% of the farmers received messages on Abro, 6.7% on Abroracre, while 28.3% on Hubbard strains. Tree planting messages were transmitted to the farmers so as to reduce the excessive heat from the sun by providing shades for poultry pens hence the birds. Heat prompts heat stress on the birds. According to Izunobi (2003) a substantial increase in environmental temperature will reduce growth rate, reduce egg production and size and eggs will have poor quality shell. The trees also reduce the effect of wind on poultry pens and installation of fans is also meant to reduce heat in the pens. Excessive wind known as wind hedge poses inescapable problem to many poultry farms in the southern coastline to the northern Sahara fringe (Izunobi, 2002). Constant supply of water to the chicken reduces heat stress. The water, especially when cool reduces the body temperature to the normal level required by chickens. Waste management messages are meant to profer solution for the problem of waste (droppings) disposal. The waste when recycled in the form of manure is beneficial for growing crops and reduces effect of effluents from the droppings on the climate. Bird flu prevention and control messages were sent to the farmers to prevent the outbreak of it in their farms, especially when the disease is zoonotic. On the prevention of predator such as snakes, messages on the use of sliced garlic were sent to the farmers for the ‘prevention of snakes from entering the pen. This method is environmental friendly, especially in the era of environmental awareness vis a viz climate change. Messages on the exotic breeds of chickens were sent to the farmers because of their superior qualities of fast growth and productivity in terms of meat and eggs. The one mentioned are superior to the pure breeds as they are hybrids of the pure exotic breeds. Effects of elements of communication on effectiveness of poultry technology messages The linear function (Table 2) was adopted and presented. The choice of the lenear equation was based 074 Journal of Research in Agriculture (2012) 1: 071-077 Ofuoku et al., 2012 Messages Frequency Percentage (%) Climate change adaptation methods Tree planting 175 97.2 Installation of fans 166 92.2 Constant supply of fresh water 180 100.0 Waste management Recycling 166 92.2 Health Management Bird flu prevention 180 100.0 Prevention of predators Use of sliced garlic 141 78.3 Exotic breeds of chicken Broilers Abro 45 25.0 Arboracre 12 6.7 Hubbard 51 28.3 Layers Harco 43 23.9 Isa brown 34 18.9 Shower Star Cross 24 13.3 Black Olympia 33 18.3 Table 1: Poultry production technology messages communicated by farmers
  5. 5. on the magnitude of the coefficient of determination (R2 ) the number of significant variables and the conformity of the sign borne by the variables to a prior expectation. The table reveals an R2 value of 0.708. This implies that an increase in efficiency of these variables, ceteries paribus would lead to increase in effectiveness of the poultry production technology messages. The source (sender) (X1) factor was found to be positively correlated with effectiveness of the poultry technology messages and significant at 5% level of significance. This means that more the senders of poultry technology messages exhibit characteristics of a good verbal and non-verbal communication skills, good knowledge of the poultry technologies (subject matter); ability to understand the poultry farmers in terms of their educational level, cultural norms and beliefs; possession of favourable attitude towards the poultry technology messages, and the poultry technology messages, and the farmers (receivers) and awareness of time limits not to over burden his/her audience with too much information within a short time. This agrees with Agbamu (2006) and Olowu (1989) who stated that more the sender of messages shows the signs of a good communicator, the more effective his/her message will be. The message (X2) also positively correlated with its effectiveness. This is attributed to the clarity of the poultry production technology messages as to purpose, content and treatment. Purpose, content and treatment are the three major components of a message (Agbamu, 2006). According to Agbamu (2006), the purpose of message indicates the objectives of communicating a message stating change in knowledge, skill or attitude of the receiver, and this purpose must be borne in mind. The content of a message which includes statements, arguments and appeals should be relevant to the receiver so that he feels it is something he can accept. The treatment of message involves how the sender orders or arranges the content, variation of sentence, length and pattern in order to prevent muddling. Treatment has to do with the way message is handled to get the information across the audience. It implies that the senders logically organized the messages leading from the simple to the complex and the messages conformed to acceptable social standard. It also means that the poultry technology messages fit the level of understanding of the poultry farmers and aroused a set of needs and suggested ways to satisfy the needs in ways appropriate to norms and values of poultry farmers. The content of the message also should be triable, have relatively advantage over previous ones and should be observable. Channels (X3) positively correlated with effectiveness of the messages. This is as a result of the fact that the senders (extension agents) used a combination of channels that appealed to different senses of the poultry farmers. This is congruent with Agbamu (2006) who argues that experience has shown that a combination of channels that are appealing to different sences, appear to be more effective in disseminating messages to farmers. The types of communication channels the extension agents used were also determined by the poultry farmer’s capability, nature of the subject matter, availability and cost of such channels. Receivers (X4) factor similarly correlated with effectiveness of the poultry technology messages. This means that the more a receiver exhibits some Journal of Research in Agriculture (2012) 1: 071-077 075 Ofuoku et al., 2012 Variables Co-efficient Std Error T-Value Constant 0.997 0.320 3.115* Source (X1) 6.542E-02 0.014 4.661* Message (X2) 0.427 0.070 6.101* Channel (X3) 9.047E-02 0.000025 3.648* Receiver (X4) 0.156 0.017 9.176* R2 = 0.708 F = 98.287 Table 2: Parameter estimate of the effects of elements of communication on message effectiveness
  6. 6. communication skills, the more effective the technology messages will be. This is because the poultry farmers (receivers) attended to the transmitted poultry technology messages, interpreted them accurately and accepted them. Elements of attention, comprehension and acceptance are essential for successful message delivery (Wilcox, 1977). This supports Olowu (1989) who discovered a relationship between receiver’s factor and effectiveness of communication. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS The poultry technology messages communicated to the farmers included climate change adaptation measures, waste recycling, bird flu prevention, prevention of predators, and exotic breeds of chickens. The extension agents were very good in human relations and communications skill, but poor in role performance. All the messages were compatible with the farmer’s culture, had relative advantage over previous ones used, simple to use, triable and observable, the contents of the messages were relevant to the farmers hence appealed to them. The messages were logically organized and not lengthy. They were packaged according to the level of understanding of the poultry farmers. The channels used were effective and a combination of them were utilized. The farmers had good human relation, and communication skill, but poor in role performance. Conclusively, all the elements of communication contributed to effectiveness of poultry technology messages. Considering the findings, it is recommended that: 1. The use of a combination of channels in message passage should be sustained. 2. The various elements of communications involved in the process of communication should be seriously put into consideration when messages are being packaged for poultry farmers. 3. Extension agents and poultry farmers should be encouraged to improve on their role performances. REFERENCES Adedoyin SF. 1997. The dumb professor concept: an articulation of import communication in extension education Nigerian Development Journal. 1:26-35. Adigin D. 2003. Some features of communication in transition Journal of Contemporary Issues 2 (1):71-76. Agbamu JU. 2006. Essentials of agricultural communication in Nigeria . Lagos: Malthouse Press Ltd. Hunt JG. 2006. Defining an effective message. Technical Assistance Bulletin. Washington, D.C.CSAP. James S. 1990. Business communication. London: Green Wood Publications. NPC. 1993. Provisional census figures, 1991 national population census. Abuja: National Population Commission. Ofuoku AU. 2010. Communication process and effectiveness of agricultural technology messages in poultry production in Delta State, Nigeria, Unpublished PhD post findings seminar document. Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcout. Oladosu IO. 2003. Review of basic concepts in communication for introducing, change programme. Ogbomosho: Age Publications. Okunade EO. 2005. Impact of Extension agents’ communication skill on the adoption of improved farm technology in Ife/Ijesa Agricultural Zone of Osun State, Nigeria. In proceedings of the 10th Annual National Conference of the Agricultural Extension Society of Nigeria. Held March 4-8, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria. 12- 16. Olowu TA. 1989. Extension communication strategies: role of communication in forest protection. Paper 076 Journal of Research in Agriculture (2012) 1: 071-077 Ofuoku et al., 2012
  7. 7. presented at the National Workshop on Forestry Extension Services, at the Manpower Development Centre, Oluwa, Ondo State, Nigeria. Izunobi ND. 2003. Poultry husbandry. Ihiala, Nigeria. Mgbe-Bpp Publishing House. Wilcox RE. 1977. Communication work: Writing work: Writing and speaking Boston, USA: Houghton Mifflin. Journal of Research in Agriculture (2012) 1: 071-077 077 Ofuoku et al., 2011 Submit your articles online at www.jagri.info Advantages  Easy online submission  Complete Peer review  Affordable Charges  Quick processing  Extensive indexing  You retain your copyright submit@jagri.info www.jagri.info/Sumit.php.

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