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The Role of Mineral Fertilizers in
Transforming Agriculture in Thailand
Wannarut Chutibut
Department of Agricultural
Thailand
September 25-27, 2013ReSAKSS Asia- Cambodia
Location
Source : http://maps.google.co.th
Economy and Population
2008 2009 2010 2011
Population
(M persons)1
63.39 63.53 63.88 64.08
GDP real growth rate (%) 2 2.5 -2.3 7.8 0.1
Share of agriculture in total
employment (%)3 45.56 45.05 44.83p 45.23e
Source : 1Department of Provincial Administration
2The Fiscal Policy Office
3Office of Agricultural Economics (OAE)
Remark : p = preliminary
e = estimate
Trends of chemical fertilizer use in Thailand
1970 – 2010
September 25-27, 2013ReSAKSS Asia- Cambodia
Total fertilizer (' Mt) Total nutrient (' Mt)
Source: 1.Office of Agricultural Economics (OAE) 2. Chatakom, 2003
History of Rice Production, Area Harvested
and Fertilizer Consumption
-
-
Rice production ( ' t) Fertilizer consumption (' Mt)
Area harvested ( ' ha.) Linear (Fertilizer consumption (' Mt))
Source: Office of Agricultural Economics (OAE)
September 25-27, 2013ReSAKSS Asia- Cambodia
Fertilizer used by crop in 2010
Share of crops in
fertilizer used
Fertilizer use ratio
(kg/ha)
Rice
MaizeCassavaSugar
cane
7%
Para
Rubber
Oil
Palm
Others
Rice
Maize
Cassava
Sugarcane
Para Rubber
Oil Palm
fertilizer use (kg/ha)
Source: Office of Agricultural Economics (OAE)
September 25-27, 2013ReSAKSS Asia- Cambodia
Case Study
 Department of Rice conducted experiment to compare
the rice yields between several methods of fertilizer input
on the field in Phisanulok Province and used Phisanulok2
varieties.
In conclusion, the recommended method, input
fertilizer follow soil test data, by using fertilizer rate 6-2-5
(N-P2O5-K2O) reduced the costs about 31% and increased
yields about 2.8% when compared with the farmer method
by applying fertilizer rate 16.25-0-1.25 (N-P2O5-K2O).
September 25-27, 2013ReSAKSS Asia- Cambodia
Ratios of paddy price/fertilizer price
Ratio of rice price/fertilizer cost
%fertilizer cost from total cost
September 25-27, 2013ReSAKSS Asia- Cambodia
Key Factors Affecting Fertilizer Use
OAE Case Study : year 1967-1990
 Major rice : Rice prices encouraged
fertilizer use by 1.09 %
 Second rice : Harvested areas
encouraged fertilizer use by 1.07 %
 Upland field crop : Harvested area
encouraged fertilizer use by 3.24 %
 Fruit tree and perennial crop :
Harvested area encouraged fertilizer
use by 15.64 % and fertilizer prices
decreased fertilizer use by 1.60 %
 Vegetable and ornamental plant :
Fertilizer prices decreased fertilizer use
by 1.26 %
 Harvested area
 Fertilizer price
 Product price
OAE Case Study : year
1984 -2006
 Harvested areas:
encouraged fertilizer
use by16.41 %
 Fertilizer prices:
decreased fertilizer
use by 1.05 %
September 25-27, 2013ReSAKSS Asia- Cambodia
Share by country of origin Share by product
CIS
Saudi
Arabia
15%
China
KoreaQatar
CanadaNorway
Others
- -
- -- -
- -
- -
- -
- - Others
Fertilizer Importations in 2011
Total Import 5.64 Million Mt. fertilizer
Total Import 2.59 Million Mt. Nutrient
Source: Office of Agricultural Regulation, Department of Agriculture
September 25-27, 2013ReSAKSS Asia- Cambodia
Fertilizer Production
• 540,000 Mt for Ammonium Sulfate plant as by
product
• 1.2 million Mt for the largest granulation plant
Installed Capacity and production by products
and raw materials
• Private
Thai Ownership
• Granulation
• Bulk Blending
• A few plants of AS
Nature of production
September 25-27, 2013ReSAKSS Asia- Cambodia
Fertilizer Price
Price by Product in 2011
(THB/Mt)
Price of Urea ; 2000-2011
(THB/Mt)
- - - - - - - -
Retail price
Wholesale price
CIF
-
Retail price
Wholesale price
CIF
Source: Office of Agricultural Regulation, Department of Agriculture
September 25-27, 2013ReSAKSS Asia- Cambodia
Quality Control of fertilizer
 Fertilizer Act B.E. 2518 and Fertilizer Act B.E. 2518
Amended by Fertilizer Act (No.2) B.E. 2550
 Controlled by Office of Agricultural
Regulation, Department of Agriculture (DOA)
 DOA inspectors inspect fertilizer from
retailer, wholesaler and manufacturer and send to DOA
laboratory for nutrients analysis.
 Quality problems are mostly from the bulk blending
fertilizer because of its homogeneity. The size
different, density, hardness and feature make fertilizer
aggregated between transportation
September 25-27, 2013ReSAKSS Asia- Cambodia
Trade and tariffs
September 25-27, 2013ReSAKSS Asia- Cambodia
The way forward
Demand-Supply
Increasing of harvested area
from year 2003 (%)
September 25-27, 2013ReSAKSS Asia- Cambodia
-
Use Import
-
Para Rubber
Oil Palm
Rice
Kob Khun Ka
September 25-27, 2013ReSAKSS Asia- Cambodia

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The Fertilizer sector in Thailand- Wannarut Chutibut

  • 1. The Role of Mineral Fertilizers in Transforming Agriculture in Thailand Wannarut Chutibut Department of Agricultural Thailand September 25-27, 2013ReSAKSS Asia- Cambodia
  • 3. Economy and Population 2008 2009 2010 2011 Population (M persons)1 63.39 63.53 63.88 64.08 GDP real growth rate (%) 2 2.5 -2.3 7.8 0.1 Share of agriculture in total employment (%)3 45.56 45.05 44.83p 45.23e Source : 1Department of Provincial Administration 2The Fiscal Policy Office 3Office of Agricultural Economics (OAE) Remark : p = preliminary e = estimate
  • 4. Trends of chemical fertilizer use in Thailand 1970 – 2010 September 25-27, 2013ReSAKSS Asia- Cambodia Total fertilizer (' Mt) Total nutrient (' Mt) Source: 1.Office of Agricultural Economics (OAE) 2. Chatakom, 2003
  • 5. History of Rice Production, Area Harvested and Fertilizer Consumption - - Rice production ( ' t) Fertilizer consumption (' Mt) Area harvested ( ' ha.) Linear (Fertilizer consumption (' Mt)) Source: Office of Agricultural Economics (OAE) September 25-27, 2013ReSAKSS Asia- Cambodia
  • 6. Fertilizer used by crop in 2010 Share of crops in fertilizer used Fertilizer use ratio (kg/ha) Rice MaizeCassavaSugar cane 7% Para Rubber Oil Palm Others Rice Maize Cassava Sugarcane Para Rubber Oil Palm fertilizer use (kg/ha) Source: Office of Agricultural Economics (OAE) September 25-27, 2013ReSAKSS Asia- Cambodia
  • 7. Case Study  Department of Rice conducted experiment to compare the rice yields between several methods of fertilizer input on the field in Phisanulok Province and used Phisanulok2 varieties. In conclusion, the recommended method, input fertilizer follow soil test data, by using fertilizer rate 6-2-5 (N-P2O5-K2O) reduced the costs about 31% and increased yields about 2.8% when compared with the farmer method by applying fertilizer rate 16.25-0-1.25 (N-P2O5-K2O). September 25-27, 2013ReSAKSS Asia- Cambodia
  • 8. Ratios of paddy price/fertilizer price Ratio of rice price/fertilizer cost %fertilizer cost from total cost September 25-27, 2013ReSAKSS Asia- Cambodia
  • 9. Key Factors Affecting Fertilizer Use OAE Case Study : year 1967-1990  Major rice : Rice prices encouraged fertilizer use by 1.09 %  Second rice : Harvested areas encouraged fertilizer use by 1.07 %  Upland field crop : Harvested area encouraged fertilizer use by 3.24 %  Fruit tree and perennial crop : Harvested area encouraged fertilizer use by 15.64 % and fertilizer prices decreased fertilizer use by 1.60 %  Vegetable and ornamental plant : Fertilizer prices decreased fertilizer use by 1.26 %  Harvested area  Fertilizer price  Product price OAE Case Study : year 1984 -2006  Harvested areas: encouraged fertilizer use by16.41 %  Fertilizer prices: decreased fertilizer use by 1.05 % September 25-27, 2013ReSAKSS Asia- Cambodia
  • 10. Share by country of origin Share by product CIS Saudi Arabia 15% China KoreaQatar CanadaNorway Others - - - -- - - - - - - - - - Others Fertilizer Importations in 2011 Total Import 5.64 Million Mt. fertilizer Total Import 2.59 Million Mt. Nutrient Source: Office of Agricultural Regulation, Department of Agriculture September 25-27, 2013ReSAKSS Asia- Cambodia
  • 11. Fertilizer Production • 540,000 Mt for Ammonium Sulfate plant as by product • 1.2 million Mt for the largest granulation plant Installed Capacity and production by products and raw materials • Private Thai Ownership • Granulation • Bulk Blending • A few plants of AS Nature of production September 25-27, 2013ReSAKSS Asia- Cambodia
  • 12. Fertilizer Price Price by Product in 2011 (THB/Mt) Price of Urea ; 2000-2011 (THB/Mt) - - - - - - - - Retail price Wholesale price CIF - Retail price Wholesale price CIF Source: Office of Agricultural Regulation, Department of Agriculture September 25-27, 2013ReSAKSS Asia- Cambodia
  • 13. Quality Control of fertilizer  Fertilizer Act B.E. 2518 and Fertilizer Act B.E. 2518 Amended by Fertilizer Act (No.2) B.E. 2550  Controlled by Office of Agricultural Regulation, Department of Agriculture (DOA)  DOA inspectors inspect fertilizer from retailer, wholesaler and manufacturer and send to DOA laboratory for nutrients analysis.  Quality problems are mostly from the bulk blending fertilizer because of its homogeneity. The size different, density, hardness and feature make fertilizer aggregated between transportation September 25-27, 2013ReSAKSS Asia- Cambodia
  • 14. Trade and tariffs September 25-27, 2013ReSAKSS Asia- Cambodia
  • 15. The way forward Demand-Supply Increasing of harvested area from year 2003 (%) September 25-27, 2013ReSAKSS Asia- Cambodia - Use Import - Para Rubber Oil Palm Rice
  • 16. Kob Khun Ka September 25-27, 2013ReSAKSS Asia- Cambodia