Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

The Cost of Nutrition in Asia

23 views

Published on

The Cost of Nutrition in Asia by Derek Headey, Senior Research Fellow, IFPRI.

Presented at the ReSAKSS-Asia - MIID conference "Evolving Agrifood Systems in Asia: Achieving food and nutrition security by 2030" on Oct 30-31, 2019 in Yangon, Myanmar.

Published in: Food
  • Today I have no problem, I even had an emotional time over the weekend where I did eat a little too much but it didnt affect me at all. I did not binge eat or get worried I just let the food digest, had a good rest and was back to myself the next day, just what normal people experience. ♣♣♣ http://t.cn/A6Pq6OB6
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Be the first to like this

The Cost of Nutrition in Asia

  1. 1. The Cost of Nutrition in Asia Derek Headey d.headey@cgiar.org Senior Research Fellow Poverty, Health and Nutrition Division & Myanmar Agricultural Policy Support Activity (MAPSA) International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 1
  2. 2. Pre-lunch appetizers • Poor diets a root cause of undernutrition & overnutrition • Healthy foods often perishable, non-tradable and expensive • Healthy diets expensive in Asia • Policy implications? • Raise incomes? • Lower diet costs? • Nutritional education?
  3. 3. What is a good diet? • Broad agreement on principles, but not necessarily on details • Many countries have food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs): • Diversity/balance across food groups • High intake of fresh fruit/vegetables, whole grains, legumes/nuts • Low sodium, oils/fats, sugar, red meat • First global reference diet released this year: EAT-Lancet • Decrease disease risk in adulthood • However, infants & young children benefit from animal-sourced foods: • Stunting reduction • Cognitive development
  4. 4. Food affordability or nutritional knowledge the key constraint? Why should we care about dietary costs? Diet affordability (ratio of income to diet cost) Dietary quality Cost of healthy diet (fuzzy!)
  5. 5. Why should we care about market prices? 63% 87% 87% 69% 55% 76% 60% 81% 65% 37% 13% 13% 31% 45% 24% 40% 19% 35% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Sources of food consumption in rural Bangladesh Own farm Markets • Even rural consumers mostly depend on markets for consumption
  6. 6. How expensive are (un)healthy foods? • Can answer this question with relative caloric prices • e.g. cost of 1 egg calorie relative to 1 starchy staple calorie • Why price foods in caloric terms? • Calories essential for survival, activity & averting hunger • Why measure prices relative to staples? • Measures cost of diet diversification in a comparable way • Data: 2011 International Comparison Program (ICP) • Prices for 657 standardized food products in 176 countries • Series of maps: • light = cheap relative to cereals • dark = expensive relative to cereals t u t/ [0,2] (2,5] (5,8] (CPR>8] No data
  7. 7. CPRs: vA-rich fruit/veg 0 - 2 2 - 4 4 - 8 8 - 40 No data What kinds of foods are cheap in Asia? Cheapest Vitamin-A rich fruit/veg Relatively cheap in most of Asia, especially China
  8. 8. CPRs: Fortified infant cereals 0 - 2 2 - 4 4 - 8 8 - 40 No data What kinds of foods are cheap in Asia? Fortified infant cereals (well known brand) Very expensive in most of Asia
  9. 9. CPRs: Eggs 0 - 2 2 - 4 4 - 8 8 - 40 No data What kinds of foods are cheap in Asia? Chicken eggs Large variation in Asian egg prices: Cheap in India, expensive in SE Asia
  10. 10. CPRs: Milk 0 - 2 2 - 4 4 - 8 8 - 40 No data What kinds of foods are cheap in Asia? Fresh cow’s milk Very expensive in South-East Asia!
  11. 11. CPRs: Fish/seafood 0 - 2 2 - 4 4 - 8 8 - 40 No data What kinds of foods are cheap in Asia? Cheapest fish Only moderately expensive; cheaper in China & Thailand
  12. 12. CPRs: Sugar 0 - 2 2 - 4 4 - 8 8 - 40 No data What kinds of foods are cheap in Asia? Sugar Cheap everywhere
  13. 13. What kinds of foods are cheap in Asia? CPRs: Oils/fats 0 - 2 2 - 4 4 - 8 8 - 40 No data Cheap everywhere Oils
  14. 14. CPRs: Soft drinks 0 - 2 2 - 4 4 - 8 8 - 40 No data What kinds of foods are cheap in Asia? Soft drinks (Coca-Cola) Cheaper in China, moderately expensive elsewhere
  15. 15. CPRs: Potato chips 0 - 2 2 - 5 5 - 8 8 - 40 No data What kinds of foods are cheap in Asia? Potato chips Cheap everywhere
  16. 16. Why are some foods expensive? Less perishable More perishable Less expensive legumes/nuts, dried fish & fruit sugar, oils, soft drinks, snack foods More expensive Fortified infant cereals Most fruit, vegetables, milk, eggs, meat, fresh fish • Many fresh and nutrient-dense foods are perishable • Limits opportunities for long-distance trade • Prices mostly determined by local supply & productivity
  17. 17. How costly are healthy diets in Asia? $1.90/day Poverty line • We used the same ICP price data to estimate cheapest daily cost the EAT-Lancet diet … Around 1 billion people cannot afford EAT-Lancet in Asia
  18. 18. How costly are healthy diets in rural India? • Use monthly data on prices & wages in rural India, 2001-11 • Diet costs rose from 2001, but wage growth faster • Diet costs as share of wages fell by 5-6 points • But …. • Diets as a share of safety net (NREGA) wages rose • Most rural Indians could not afford a healthy diet in 2011 Indicator Poverty headcount (%) Rural population unable to afford $1.90/day expenditures (World Bank poverty estimate) 24.8% Rural population unable to afford $2.40 CoRD 44.9% Rural population unable to afford $2.40 CoRD + $0.63 non-food expenditures 63.8%
  19. 19. How costly are healthy diets in Myanmar? • Use household survey data on prices and food expenditures • Can compare patterns across income groups & regions 41% 43% 34% 57% 39% 34% 45% 33% 99% 58% 26% 13% 7% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% National Rural Urban Hills DryZone Delta Coastal Yangon Q1-low Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5-high Regions Expenditure levels Population share unable to afford recommended diet (%)
  20. 20. What should be done, where and when?  Income growth is essential for the poor  Incomes of the poor are a long way from meet diet costs  Economic growth must be pro-poor (track with wages?)  Safety nets can reduce dietary gaps in the short run  But cash or food?  Should food be staples or nutritious foods?  Safety net programs should start costing nutritious diets!!!  Investment in agriculture, and for agriculture  Fresh nutrient-dense foods highly perishable, so limits to trade  Diversification and productivity growth can drive down prices  Essential to improve value chains for perishable foods Policy implications
  21. 21. What about improving nutritional knowledge? For poor populations  Focus on young children and mothers  Potentially combine with cash transfers (e.g. TMRI project) For emerging middle classes, with rising incomes  Nutrition education critical for obesity/NCD prevention  Especially important for school-age populations:  Forming life-long dietary habits  Vulnerable to aggressive marketing, social pressures  Focus on encouraging healthy diets and cooking practices  Support with proactive legislation: e.g. food labelling Major challenge: improve nutritional knowledge at scale! Policy implications
  22. 22. • Big thanks to all my coauthors, from various publications • Please email if interested: d.headey@cgiar.org Headey, D.D., Alderman, H.H., 2019. The Relative Caloric Prices of Healthy and Unhealthy Foods Differ Systematically across Income Levels and Continents. The Journal of Nutrition. Kalle Hirvonen, Yan Bai, Derek Headey, William A Masters. 2019. “Affordability of the EAT–Lancet reference diet: a global Analysis.” Lancet Global Health (forthcoming) Kalyani Raghunathan, Derek Headey, Anna Herforth. 2019. “Affordability of nutritious diets in rural India”. Forthcoming IFPRI Discussion Paper Mahrt, K., Mather, D., Herforth, A., Headey, D., 2019. Household Dietary Patterns and the Cost of a Nutritious Diet in Myanmar. Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Food Security, MSU Policy Research Paper 135, East Lansing. Note of thanks

×