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State of capacities and needs for greater evidence-based policy making in developing Asian countries


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“State of capacities and needs for greater evidence-based policy making in developing Asian countries” presented by Suresh Babu, IFPRI at the ReSAKSS-Asia Conference, Nov 14-16, 2011, in Kathmandu, Nepal.

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State of capacities and needs for greater evidence-based policy making in developing Asian countries

  1. 1. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Suresh C. Babu State of Capacities and Needs for Greater Evidence-Based Policy making in developing Asia – Case of Bangladesh, India, and Vietnam International Food Policy Research Institute November 15, 2011
  2. 2. Organization of Presentation  Broad changing policy making scenario  A conceptual framework  Issues and challenges • Case of Bangladesh • Case of India • Case of Vietnam  Lessons for Discussions
  3. 3. Changing Policy Needs Scenario  Countries moving towards high value agriculture  Need for strengthening policy process for evidence-based policies  Productivity related policies  Climate change, environment and sustainability policies  Role of trade, market, and private sectors  Safety nets policies
  4. 4. Capacity Issues and challenges in Policy Process  Policy agenda setting for the government  Setting policy research priorities  Helping in policy design based on evidence  Policy implementation  Policy monitoring and evaluation  Policy revisions and refinements
  5. 5. A conceptual framework  Policy research needs to be placed in the context of policy process – Capacity Value Chains  What types of policy processes exist?  What are the elements of the policy process?  How does research fit in the policy process?  How researchers and policy makers interact?  Where are the capacity gaps?
  6. 6. Linear Model of Policy Process Source: Adopted from Porter and Hicks (1995)
  7. 7. Interactive Model of Policy Process Policy Issues Policy Agendas Decision Stages Policy Characteristics Arena of Debates and Dialogues Policy Managers Assess and Mobilize Resources to Sustain Reform Policy Impact Policy Outcome Multiple Potential Outcomes Policy Makers Assess and Mobilize Resources to Sustain Reform Reject/Implement Public Opinion/ Discussion Source: Porter and Hicks (1995)
  8. 8. The Policy Research Cycle 1. Identification of Problems and Priorities 2. Research Program Development 3. Research Study Design 4. Data Collection, Processing, and Analysis 5. Preparation of Research Outputs and Publications 6. Dissemination for Policy Impact Network of collaborators in policy- research and analysis Linkages and alliances with policy makers, political leaders, and parliamentarians Collaboration with stakeholders, NGOs, CSOs, and media Linkages with external players, donor community, and global research community Political, Organizational, Institutional, and Cultural Context
  9. 9. Broad Stages of Policy Process and the Role of PROs Setting policy agenda Policy analysis/ formulation Policy decision making Policy implementation Policy monitoring/ Impact assessment Policy revision/ correction 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Stages of Policy Cycle
  10. 10. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Global Agenda Setting Regional Policy Challenges Country Level Policy Priorities Problem Identification 1 Content/ Ideas Policy Research/ Evidence 2 Political Process Opportunities for Policy Influence External Factors International and Global, regional, national policy networks Policy learning and diffusion 3 4 Institutional and Capacity Strengthening and Understanding / Rational Choice by Policy makers? 5 Strengthening Advocacy Coalition of Policy makers, Donors, Administrations Advocacy organizations, NGOs, CSOs Competition among these subsystems 6 Strengthening and mobilizing policy entrepreneurships of actors & players Identify opportunities for policy change Look out for policy windows 7 Policy Agenda Setting/ Policy Decision making, Implementation 8 Solution Feedback? Political, Administrative, Cultural Problem Feedback? A Unifying Framework of Policy Process & the Role of Research
  11. 11. , , , , , and are respectively the stages of Policy Research Cycle1 2 3 4 5 6 Intensity of policy communications + + Linear Stage Heuristic Model of Policy Process + + + Interactive Country Concentration Model + + + + Multiple Stream Model + + + + Institutional Development and Rational Choice Model + + + + Policy Learning and Diffusion Model + + + + Policy Entrepreneurship Model ( Context, Content, Connectivity + + + Advocacy Coalition Model + + + + + + + Unifying Model of Policy Influence Unifying Model of Policy Influence: Further Discussion
  12. 12. State of capacities for evidence- based policy making  Wide-ranging levels of capacity  Larger countries have more number (not necessarily quality for policy influence)  Most research capacity is academic  Policy capacity is limited  Existing capacity is not connected well to policy process  Quality of capacity leaves much to be desired.
  13. 13. State of capacities for evidence- based policy making - 2  Typology possible?  China, India  Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Kazakhstan  Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Philippines, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan  Nepal, Cambodia, Laos, Timor-Leste, Bhutan, Tajikistan  Afghanistan
  14. 14. What skills are needed to be effective in the policy process?  Thematic skills  Analytical skills  Research skills  Policy communication skills  Policy advocacy skills  Policy process skills
  15. 15. Organizational Structure of Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies, Bangladesh Director General Board of Academic Advisors Policy Consultative Committee Deputy Director Policy Research Program 1 Agricultural R&D and Production Policy Research Program 2 Natural Resource and Environment Policy Research Program 3 Integrated Rural- Urban Development Policy Research Program 4 Rural Development & Decision Support
  16. 16. NCAAP Director General Board of Directors Governing Council Publication, Knowledge Management Media and Public Affairs Growth, Trade, and Economic Management Investment Climate, Physical and Economic Infrastructure Agriculture, Rural Development, and Resource Management Household Behavior, Poverty, and Human Development Organizational Structure of National Council for Applied Economic Research (NCAAP), India
  17. 17. Board of Directors Management Divisions Research Divisions Independent Centers Personneland Administration FinanceDivision ScienceManagement Division StrategyandPolicy ResearchDivision NaturalResourcesand Environment Centerfor AgriculturePolicy CenterforRural Development InformationCenterfor AgricultureandRural Development AgriculturalPolicyand Strategy MarketandCommodity ResearchDivision RuralInstitutionResearch Division Organizational Structure of Institute of Policy and Strategy for Agriculture and Rural Development (IPSARD), Vietnam
  18. 18. What capacity needed for evidence based food policy making - Bangladesh  Thematic capacity exists at all levels – high level of interaction with global systems  Some research capacity in think tanks and academic institutions  Analytical capacity needs improvement – Ministry of Food, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of health and Family Welfare  Project based capacity strengthening – at all levels – does not add up  Academic institutions – Dhaka university, Agricultural universities, need capacity to build capacity  Limited connection of researchers to policy makers – policy communications and advocacy need strengthening
  19. 19. What capacities needed for evidence based food policy making - India  Adequate thematic capacity in several Research in think tanks and academic institutions  Analytical capacity is fairly developed but not effectively used – Ministry of Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Rural Development, ICAR; weak at the state level  Few well developed think tanks for research based capacity strengthening – many average institutions  Academic institutions – Agricultural universities – declining in quality -- need capacity to build capacity  Weak connection of researchers to policy makers – need strengthening – few researchers tend to dominate policy process  State levels capacity needs strengthening where agricultural policy is implemented
  20. 20. What capacities needed for evidence based policy making - Vietnam  Thematic capacity is improving but still weak – eg: Climate change  Research capacity in think tanks not well developed but improving with international collaboration  Academic institutions have low capacity  Analytical capacity is still weak – Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development  Scattered project based capacity strengthening  Academic institutions – Agricultural universities, need capacity to connect them to policy making  Tight connection of selected researchers in policy process – but not highly transparent
  21. 21. Research – Policy - Capacity Interactions  How do researchers understand the policy and political context?  How do researchers get to know the policy makers and actors?  How do researchers respond to demand?  Are they practical in their recommendations?  What is their strategy to establish their credibility?  What are the communications strategies?  How does the researcher and policy makers network to bring evidence to policy making?
  22. 22. Concluding Thoughts  Translation of evidence into action?  Capacity Value Chain approach to set prioritize capacity strengthening for evidence based policy making  Research and analytical capacity need to be placed in the context of policy process  Understanding the various roles of institutions in the capacity building process  Understanding and address the disconnect between the policy research and policy making through capacity strengthening
  23. 23. Thank you