General problems of agriculture in
Kyrgyzstan
• The fragmentation of land ( instead 460 kolhozes
and sovhozes have appeare...
Number of agricultural entities in Kyrgyzstan
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Kyrgyz
Republic
323 555 321856 318815 331059 344492...
The average acreage under agricultural crops
in Kyrgyzstan, thousand ha
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Total area
under all...
Average yield of main agricultural crops in
Kyrgyzstan
Crop Total volume
produced, thousand
tons
Yield, ton/ha Total volum...
THE AREA UNDER AGRICULTURAL
CROPS
SEED SECTOR
Legislative and regulatory base
 Law of the Kyrgyz Republic "On the Legal
Protection of Selection Achievement...
ГКСИ
Поддержка сорта и
первичное
семеноводство
Производство семян
высоких репродукций (ССЭ,
СЭ)
Производство элиты
Произво...
Average volume of seed market in
Kyrgyzstan
Crop Acreage under
crop in
Kyrgyzstan,
thousand ha
Average
sowing/planting
rat...
The problems of Seed sector
• The seed production in Kyrgyzstan is still based on seed farms
that are ‘production-oriented...
Number of state and private seed
farms ( 1997-2010)
Number of seed farms in Kyrgyzstan
year Seed farms ,
Total State farms...
Seed farms
Type of
organization
JSC Coops
State
Farms
Private
Farms
Total seed
enteprises
Total by Republic 8 69 22 91 188...
Seed farms
:
There is a total of 188 seed farms of which 161 are
private and 22 are still linked in some way to public
org...
Irrigated arable land in seed farms 1990-2012 (thousand ha)
( тыс.га )
229,1
56
102,5 94,5
77,9
66,4
47,1 44,4 40
0
20
40
...
Breeding institutes
• Kyrgyz Crop Research Institute (wheat , barley, maize);
• Kyrgyz Sugar Beet Breeding and Experimenta...
Yield of wheat varieties at official testing
Winter wheat variety Yield, ton/ha %
2008-2010
1 Kyal (standard) 5, 5 100
2 I...
Average yield of main field crops in
Kyrgyzstan
Crop Area,
thousand ha
Yield, ton/ha Total yield,
thousand tons
2011 2012 ...
The certified wheat seed production of Kyrgyz and foreign varieties
54,0%
29,7%
13,3%
1,7%
1,0%
0,3%
Kyrgyz Russian Kazakh...
Seed marketing in Issyk-Kul region (2007-2009)
Correlation
Generation
Total:
Pre-bas. basic C1 C2 C3
Produced, tons 226 14...
System of seed production in Kyrgyzstan
Elite Seed farms
Seed farms of 1st
category
Seed farms
of 2 nd
category
Prebasic
b...
The average quantity of certified seed produced
in 2011, thousand tons
crop needs Certified
Produced % needs
Cereals, incl...
Seed production of wheat by generation
Generation Actual production in 2010-11,
tons
Needs in seed,
Tons
Total: 41476 1404...
Cost and profitability
of wheat seed production
Operation Cost Cost share , %
generation
KGS USD basic C1 C2
Total field o...
The quantity of agricultural machines in Seed farms of
Kyrgyzstan by January 1 st, 2011
№
п/п
Type of machine Quantity, un...
Recommendations
 An urgent need to adopt a specific seed policy or more focused
strategic plans including iden-tifying pr...
Thank you
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The seed sector in Kyrgyzstan- Hakim Islamov

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The seed sector in Kyrgyzstan- Hakim Islamov

  1. 1. General problems of agriculture in Kyrgyzstan • The fragmentation of land ( instead 460 kolhozes and sovhozes have appeared more than 330 small farms); • The lack of cash for investment in new equipment and inputs ( interest rate of banks about 18, only Ayil Bank -10 %); • Deterioration of the rural infrastructure ( including irrigation); • Poor crop management
  2. 2. Number of agricultural entities in Kyrgyzstan 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Kyrgyz Republic 323 555 321856 318815 331059 344492 Batken oblast 37819 24988 27228 31312 34644 Jalal-Abad 82820 94958 90473 83956 86408 Ysyk-Kul oblast 25147 25640 28835 29239 30341 Naryn oblast 41294 46156 37271 37115 37635 Osh oblast 65630 64508 66835 71326 75271 Talas oblast 21376 16944 17838 19641 20411 Chui oblast 48294 46709 47893 55977 57213 Bishkek 53 62 73 97 107 Osh 1022 1891 2369 2396 2462
  3. 3. The average acreage under agricultural crops in Kyrgyzstan, thousand ha 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Total area under all crops 1128, 8 1160, 3 1169, 6 1145, 7 1159, 2 Wheat 357, 4 392, 3 402, 6 376, 7 377, 4 322, 7 barley 126, 4 135, 3 124, 2 125, 4 123, 3 147, 0 Maize 76, 2 76, 1 78, 9 73, 4 74, 4 94, 8 rice 6, 2 6, 0 6, 3 6, 6 6, 5 7,16 Pulses ( beans) 43, 0 42, 5 41, 0 42, 1 46, 2 49, 2 oats 1, 4 1, 7 1, 4 1, 2 1, 3 0, 872 Rye 0, 1 0, 2 0, 03 0, 03 0, 03 0, 03 triticale 0, 8 0, 566 buckwheat 0, 2 0, 1 0, 1 0, 07 0, 06 0, 043 cotton 34, 8 32, 7 16, 9 26, 7 37, 4 30, 9 Tobacco 5, 9 5, 8 4, 9 4, 1 4, 1 3, 4 Sugar beet 8, 6 - 4, 9 8, 4 8, 1 5, 3 sunflower 56, 9 51, 4 49, 2 43, 0 42, 2 40, 5 Safflower 14, 6 15, 9 15, 9 11, 9 12, 2 13, 5 potato 86, 6 83, 7 87, 2 84, 3 84, 9 81, 5 Melon crops 6, 0 6, 1 6, 5 7, 3 7, 0 8, 9 Vegetables 42, 1 43, 4 43, 4 41, 9 42, 8 45, 3
  4. 4. Average yield of main agricultural crops in Kyrgyzstan Crop Total volume produced, thousand tons Yield, ton/ha Total volume produced, thousand tons Yield, ton/ha 2011 2012 Wheat 799,8 2,1 4 540, 531 1,6 8 barley 233, 8 1,9 2 212, 7 1,45 Rye 130, 3 3,4 3 103, 5 3,45 triticale 1453, 0 1,88 500, 1 0,88 oats 2930, 5 2,1 9 1533, 3 1, 76 Maize 446410, 0 5,90 578294, 1 6,0 2 Pulses 76144, 7 1,65 49233, 0 1,6 4 Rice 19431, 5 2,99 23068, 6 3,1 7 buckwheat 79, 0 1,27 61, 4 1,43 Sunflower 45567, 8 1,08 45857, 6 1,1 2 safflower 10909, 6 0,9 13507 0,91 Cotton 101328, 1 2,72 84735, 2 2,74 tobacco 9917, 7 2,4 2 7434, 6 2,1 8 Sugar beet 158817, 9 19,71 102010, 3 19,2 3 potato 1379222, 7 16, 08 1312699, 3 15,9 Vegetables 820891, 2 18,20 865899, 0 18,11 Melon crops 151589, 0 21,3 3 193264, 9 21,7 Forage grasses 1627155, 0 6,16 1638059, 2 5,7
  5. 5. THE AREA UNDER AGRICULTURAL CROPS
  6. 6. SEED SECTOR Legislative and regulatory base  Law of the Kyrgyz Republic "On the Legal Protection of Selection Achievements" in frame of UPOV Convention 1991 accepted by parliament 26 of May 1998 and every other year amend¬ments have been made to the law  Seed Law with Amendments (1997, 2008) ◦ Article 6 states that everyone has the right to produce seeds, as long as the producers have an agreement with the owners of the variety and acknowledge the breeder's rights.  Law on Plant Quarantine (1998) and the Regulations of 2000. There is also a Law on Pesticides and Plant Protection passed in 2003
  7. 7. ГКСИ Поддержка сорта и первичное семеноводство Производство семян высоких репродукций (ССЭ, СЭ) Производство элиты Производство сертифицированных семян Обработка и хранение семян Производственные посевы фермеров Селекция растений (местные или зарубежные сорта) частные селекционеры Испытание сорта на ООС Испытание сорта на ХПЦ Регистрация сорта с целью его охраны Районирование сорта Предварительный контроль (включая первичное семеноводство) Регистрация производителей семянРГСИ -МСВХиПППолевая инспекция Лицензирование производства Грунт контроль Регистрация торговцев (импортеров, экспортеров) семенами и контроль рынка РСИ ( МСВХиПП) Маркетинг и реализация семян Анализ качества и представление семян в реализацию НациональныйСоветпосеменоводству Цепочка семеноводства и механизмы ее регулирования Сертификациясемян Сборроялти РГСИ С А К
  8. 8. Average volume of seed market in Kyrgyzstan Crop Acreage under crop in Kyrgyzstan, thousand ha Average sowing/planting rate , kg/ha Total seed needs, thousand tons Total volume , million Kyrgyz som USD Wheat 400, 0 220, 0 88, 0 1746, 0 36 ,1 Barley 120,0 200 24, 0 473, 3 9, 8 Maize 80, 0 25, 0 2, 00 290, 4 6, 0 Sugar beet 20, 0 2, 0 0, 040 8, 7 0,180 Sunflower 50, 0 5, 0 0, 250 72, 6 1, 500 Safflower 15, 0 25, 0 0,375 27,2 0, 56 Cotton 30, 0 80 2,400 116, 2 2, 400 Vegetables 43, 0 1210, 0 25, 00 Melons 6, 0 4, 0 24, 0 174, 24 3,60 Alfalfa 170, 0 20, 0 3, 40 210,7 10, 20 Sainfoin 80, 0 100, 0 8, 00 10,4 0, 2 Potato 80, 0 3000, 0 240,0 6000,0 124, 0 Beans 45, 0 100, 0 4,500 217, 80 4, 5 TOTAL 224, 04
  9. 9. The problems of Seed sector • The seed production in Kyrgyzstan is still based on seed farms that are ‘production-oriented’ but lack marketing expertise. The farms do not have sufficient ‘identity’ in the market to develop a brand image for their seeds so they remain rather as ‘commodity producers’; • The need for capital investment: Most seed farms are using old processing machines in very poor condition and often exposed to the weather; • The government is still involved through the provision of seasonal credits and through purchases made for the state seed reserve; • There is no revenue from variety use back to the breeder. Given the predominance of small farmers, revenue collection at the end point will be impossible. Foreign breeders think they can’t obtain sufficient revenue from such protection due to the lack of a functioning royalty collection system, and the small size of the market.
  10. 10. Number of state and private seed farms ( 1997-2010) Number of seed farms in Kyrgyzstan year Seed farms , Total State farms Private farms 1991 46 46 1997 119 57 62 1998 147 66 81 1999 175 75 100 2000 175 75 100 2001 174 65 109 2002 184 62 122 2003 207 68 149 2004 223 59 164 2005 151 43 118 2006 183 39 144 2007 183 30 153 2008 188 25 163 2009 188 22 166
  11. 11. Seed farms Type of organization JSC Coops State Farms Private Farms Total seed enteprises Total by Republic 8 69 22 91 188 Specialization by crop cereals cotton Forage grasses Potato and vegetabl es Fruits tobacco Total Total by Republic 158 16 1 6 6 1 188
  12. 12. Seed farms : There is a total of 188 seed farms of which 161 are private and 22 are still linked in some way to public organisations. Elite Seed Farms for producing early generation seed. The seed farms experienced severe disruption during the period of land reform and they are now a much more diverse group of large and small farms. Moreover their production plans cannot be coordinated as they were under the previous centrally-planned system, but they are still the source of all certified seed despite their many difficulties. Only about 50 of the total of 188 registered seed farms are significant producers.
  13. 13. Irrigated arable land in seed farms 1990-2012 (thousand ha) ( тыс.га ) 229,1 56 102,5 94,5 77,9 66,4 47,1 44,4 40 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 1990г 1995г 2000г 2004г 2005г 2006г 2007г 2008г 2009г
  14. 14. Breeding institutes • Kyrgyz Crop Research Institute (wheat , barley, maize); • Kyrgyz Sugar Beet Breeding and Experimental Station (KOSS) (sugar beet); • Kyrgyz Institute of livestock and pastures (alfalfa, sainfoin, soybean, chick pea, grasses); • JSC “ MIS “ farm ( wheat, barley, triticale); • National Academy of Scienceis ( ornamentals and woody species, breeds fruit crops, turf grasses and herbs)
  15. 15. Yield of wheat varieties at official testing Winter wheat variety Yield, ton/ha % 2008-2010 1 Kyal (standard) 5, 5 100 2 Intensivnya 5, 38 97, 8 3 Tilek 5, 34 97, 1 4 Kairak 5, 34 97, 6 5 Adyr 5, 73 104, 5 6 Asyl 5, 72 101, 1 7 Jamin 5, 62 102,2 8 Ralub 5, 25 95, 5 9 Azibrosh 5, 83 106, 0 10 Zubkov 6, 20 112, 7 11 Petr 5,66 102, 9 12 Vinjett 5, 48 99, 6 13 Nureke 5, 74 104, 4 14 Aliya 5, 77 104, 9 15 Maira 5, 70 103, 6
  16. 16. Average yield of main field crops in Kyrgyzstan Crop Area, thousand ha Yield, ton/ha Total yield, thousand tons 2011 2012 2011 2012 2011 2012 wheat 377, 4 324, 9 2,33 1,83 863,2 591, 4 barley 123, 1 149, 4 2,11 1, 56 226, 5 215,0 Maize 74, 3 95, 2 5, 21 6, 01 446, 5 578,4 potato 85, 1 81, 8 16, 08 16, 61 13796 1288,1 vegetables 42, 8 45, 3 18, 82 18,65 867,9 916,4 melons 7, 0 8, 8 21, 62 21, 9 151,6 193,3 Oil crops (sunflower) 51, 8 53, 8 0,85 1,15 44,8 61,870 Sugar beet 8, 0 6,4 19, 7 19,33 161,4 109,1 Fodder grasses 257, 3 263, 6 10, 0 8, 5 2573, 0 2240, 6 Dry beans 44, 0 47, 2 1,75 1, 73 74,7 78,7
  17. 17. The certified wheat seed production of Kyrgyz and foreign varieties 54,0% 29,7% 13,3% 1,7% 1,0% 0,3% Kyrgyz Russian Kazakh German Swedish French
  18. 18. Seed marketing in Issyk-Kul region (2007-2009) Correlation Generation Total: Pre-bas. basic C1 C2 C3 Produced, tons 226 1472 2526 1579 948 4748 Sold, tons 86 483 1692 630 580 1931 Sold/produced, % 38.1% 32.8% 67.0% 39.9% 61.2% 40.7%
  19. 19. System of seed production in Kyrgyzstan Elite Seed farms Seed farms of 1st category Seed farms of 2 nd category Prebasic basic basic С – 1 С – 1 С – 1 С – 1 С – 1 С – 1 С-2 С-2 С-2 С-2 С-2 С-2 С-2 С-2 С-2 С-2 С-2С-2 Grain producing farms
  20. 20. The average quantity of certified seed produced in 2011, thousand tons crop needs Certified Produced % needs Cereals, including. 112, 0 41, 5 37,0 - wheat 88, 0 37,8 42,9 - barley 24, 0 36,9 15,4 Maize 2,0 0.14 7,0 Pulses ( phaseolus beans) 2,4 - - Technical crops , including - sugar beet 0, 040 0,005 12, 5 - tobacco 0,005 - - - cotton 2,4 1,320 55, 0 Oil crops - sunflower 0,250 - - - safflower 0,375 0, 080 21, 3 potato 240, 0 1,9 0,8 Perennial grasses (alfalfa) 3, 40 0,6 2, 5 Melons (тонн) 24, 0 - - Sapling of fruit and berry (million unit)) 2,520 0,128 5,0 (thousand tons)
  21. 21. Seed production of wheat by generation Generation Actual production in 2010-11, tons Needs in seed, Tons Total: 41476 140498 Breeder’s nurseries 10 8 Pre-basic 149 112 Basic 1423 1277 C1 4085 15345 C2 35909 123746
  22. 22. Cost and profitability of wheat seed production Operation Cost Cost share , % generation KGS USD basic C1 C2 Total field operations 11250 231, 9 41, 3 44, 45 42, 3 Seed Basic 6000 124,6 20, 5 C1 4000 82, 4 14, 7 C2 3400 70, 1 12, 7 Fertilizer 4000 82, 5 13, 7 14, 8 15, 0 Chemicals 1500 30, 1 5, 1 5, 5 5, 7 Certification 1000 20, 6 3, 4 3, 7 3, 75 Marketing 500 10, 3 1, 8 1, 85 1, 8 Tax and social payment, rent payments: 5000 103, 0 17, 2 18, 3 18, 7 100, 0 100, 0 100, 0 Total KGS 29250 27250 26650 USD 603, 0 561, 8 549, 5 Profitability, % 103 48 28
  23. 23. The quantity of agricultural machines in Seed farms of Kyrgyzstan by January 1 st, 2011 № п/п Type of machine Quantity, units Including used machinery more than 20 years 1 Tractor ( 80-150 HP) 1252 1205 2 Grain harvester 337 309 3 Track 667 651 4 Seed cleaning machines 277 237 5 Treatment machines 79 71 6 Sprayer 135 117 7 Plough 459 428 8 Seeder 340 280 9 Grain mover 19 19 10 Interrow cultivator 9 9 11 Potato digger 7 7 12 Potato planter 9 9
  24. 24. Recommendations  An urgent need to adopt a specific seed policy or more focused strategic plans including iden-tifying priority crops and identifying the most efficient breeding methodologies and potential areas for involment of private sector .  The National Seed Council should be reconstituted and made fully operational as soon as possible.  The Government needs to provide further incentives to promote and facilitate investments in renovating seed processing infrastructure and facilities.  It is very important to strengthen the royal-ty collection system to encourage foreign breeders to release their varieties in the country.  Efforts need to attract young staff within the whole seed chain, from breeding to seed production, certification and marketing.  Efforts should be made to promote contract production of seeds for the international trade and thus restore the previous status of the Kyrgyz Republic in this field. Contacts with regional seed organizations should be maintained and strengthened.
  25. 25. Thank you

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