Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Farm Production, Market Access and Dietary Diversity in China’s Poor Rural Households: Evidence from a Panel Data

Farm Production, Market Access and Dietary Diversity in China’s Poor Rural Households: Evidence from a Panel Data by Kevin Chen, Senior Research Fellow, IFPRI- Beijing.
Presented at the ReSAKSS-Asia - MIID conference "Evolving Agrifood Systems in Asia: Achieving food and nutrition security by 2030" on Oct 30-31, 2019 in Yangon, Myanmar.

  • Login to see the comments

  • Be the first to like this

Farm Production, Market Access and Dietary Diversity in China’s Poor Rural Households: Evidence from a Panel Data

  1. 1. Kevin Z. Chen Senior Research Fellow and Head of East and Central Asia Office (ECAO) International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) Chair Professor, School of Public Affairs, Zhejiang University Evolving Agri-food Systems in Asia: Achieving Food and Nutrition Security by 2030, October 30 - November 1, 2019, Yangon, Myanmar Farm Production, Market Access, and Dietary Diversity in the Poor Rural China
  2. 2. To improve nutrition, stronger emphasis needs to be put on promoting dietary quality and diversity ▪ Hunger and malnutrition remain a global burden. ▪ Malnutrition is not only caused by insufficient calorie intake but also by inadequate intake of various nutrients due to low dietary quality and diversity. ▪ To improve nutritional status, it is vital to strategize using promotion of dietary diversity.
  3. 3. A positive relationship between production diversity and dietary diversity is plausible ▪ The majority of the malnutritional people live in rural areas. ▪ Much of what smallholders' produce is consumed at home. ▪ A positive relationship between production and dietary diversity is plausible. Increasing production diversity is often considered as a useful way to improve dietary diversity
  4. 4. Literature Review ▪ Previous studies identified a positive association between production and dietary diversity in developing countries. ▪ For subsistence and semi-subsistence farmers, production diversity is considered as the most important way to improve dietary diversity (Remans et al., 2015; Cook, 2018). ▪ However, a number of recent studies indicated that subsistence production could not wholly explain the relationship between production diversity and dietary diversity. Market access measures were found to be more important for dietary diversity than diverse production (Sibhatu et al., 2015; Koppmair et al., 2015; Hirvonen and Hoddinott, 2017; Jones, 2017; Sibhatu and Qaim, 2018). ▪ Little empirical studies on association between production dietary and dietary diversity in China.
  5. 5. Objectives ▪Is there a link between production and dietary diversity in poor rural China? ▪What are other factors such as market access that influences the link and dietary diversity?
  6. 6. Data ▪ Rural China Poverty and Food Security Household Survey by CAAS ▪ The seven counties, including Luonan and Zhenan in Shaanxi, Qingshui in Gansu, Huize and Wuding in Yunnan, and Zhengan and Panzhou in Guizhou were selected from the poorest group of 572 National Poor Counties.  A two-stage clustering approach was applied. − The selection of 19 villages in each county using the probability-proportional-to-size (PPS) method, except 16 villages in Qingshui county. − 12 households in each village were randomly selected − Four-wave panel data from the year 2010, 2012, 2015 and 2018  The total dataset includes 1,560 households from 130 villages in 2018, of which we use 1,495 observations after excluding nonfarm households and those with missing data.
  7. 7. Survey Location
  8. 8. Measurement of dietary diversity, market access and production diversity ▪ Dietary diversity − The count of food groups − The number of food groups: 12 food groups − Recall period: 24 hours ▪ Production diversity − The count of food groups produced on a farm − The number of food groups: 12 food groups − Recall period: the last 12 months  Market access - The distance to the nearest market - Cash agricultural income generated from commercial agricultural sales - Off-farm income 12 food groups (FAO, 2007) • Cereals • White tubers and roots • Legumes, nuts and seeds • Vegetables • Fruits • Meat • Eggs • Fish and fish products • Milk and milk products • sweets and sugar • oil and fats • spices, condiments and beverages
  9. 9. Model Specification and Estimation - Poisson Regression 0 1 2 3 4 5 i i i i i i i HDDS PDS Marketdis ln Agricashincome lnOfffarmincome X u α α α α α α =+ + + + + + • HDDS denotes the household-level dietary diversity; • PDS denotes the production diversity; • lnAgricashincome denotes the log of cash agricultural income from sales of food agricultural goods; • lnofffarmincome denotes the log of income earning from off-farm activities; • Marketdis denotes household distance from the nearest market; and • X denotes household characteristics such as household size, gender, age, education and land size.
  10. 10. Descriptive Statistics on Key Variables Overall Shaanxi Gansu Yunnan Guizhou Dietary diversity 6.505 (1.643) 6.474 (1.765) 6.115 (1.582) 6.779 (1.610) 6.427 (1.519) Production diversity 4.062 (1.578) 4.081 (1.522) 3.901 (1.688) 4.498 (1.512) 3.649 (1.536) Market distance 6.825 (7.051) 6.582 (6.970) 10.020 (8.713) 7.033 (6.698) 5.381 (6.118) Annual agricultural cash income (yuan) 3,835.013 (9,016.792) 1,748.79 (4,147.779) 3,967.517 (9,743.759) 6,346.385 (11,158.85) 3,388.266 (9,399.225) Annual off-farm income (yuan) 24,709.390 (52,976.860) 21,924.110 (36,892.250) 20,190.140 (25,447.640) 19,879.940 (55,738.200) 35,081.730 (70,411.550) ▪ Vary significantly across regions ▪ The lowest production diversity is observed in Guizhou. However, the dietary diversity in Guizhou not lowest.
  11. 11. The association between production diversity and dietary diversity is positive and significant Explanation variables Production diversity 0.018*** (0.004) Distance to the market (km) -0.003*** (0.001) Agricultural cash income (yuan) -0.001(0.002) Off-farm income (yuan) 0.010*** (0.002) Association between production diversity and dietary diversity ▪ Producing one additional food group leads to 1.8% increase in the number of food groups consumed. Notes: A coefficient estimate states by what percentage the dietary diversity score changes when the independent variable changes by one unit.
  12. 12. Explanation variables Production diversity 0.018*** (0.004) Distance to the market (km) -0.003*** (0.001) Agricultural cash income (yuan) -0.001(0.002) Off-farm income (yuan) 0.010*** (0.002) Table 2 Association between production diversity and dietary diversity Notes: A coefficient estimate states by what percentage the dietary diversity score changes when the independent variable changes by one unit. ▪ The further distance to the market, the lower dietary diversity. ▪ Reducing market distance by 6 km has the same effect on dietary diversity as increasing farm production diversity by one additional food group. Market distance has a negative association with the dietary diversity
  13. 13. Explanation variables Production diversity 0.018*** (0.004) Distance to the market (km) -0.003*** (0.001) Agricultural cash income (yuan) -0.001(0.002) Off-farm income (yuan) 0.010*** (0.002) Table 2 Association between production diversity and dietary diversity ▪ The higher off-farm income, the higher dietary diversity ▪ Increasing off-farm income by 3,565.8 yuan has the same effect on dietary diversity as increasing farm production diversity by one additional food group. Off-farm income has a positive association with dietary diversity Notes: A coefficient estimate states by what percentage the dietary diversity score changes when the independent variable changes by one unit.
  14. 14. Conclusions  The results from data in poor rural China revealed that the production diversity has a positive and significant effect on the diversity of household diet.  Better market access through reducing distances could contribute to higher dietary diversity.  Better market access through increasing off-farm income could contribute to higher dietary diversity.  Better market access through increasing commercial agricultural sales could not contribute to higher dietary diversity.  Improving market access could be rather promising to improve dietary diversity in the poor smallholder families.
  15. 15. References  Shu Wu, Jiaqi Huang, Jieying Bi, Fengying Nie, Kevin Chen, Chenfang Liu, Shaoping LI. 2019. Production diversity and dietary diversity in poor rural China: linkage and pathway. CAER-IFPRI 2019 Annual International Conference on Quality-driven Development in China’s Food System: Challenges and Options, Hangzhou, China.  Cook, S. 2018. The spice of life: The fundamental role of diversity on the farm and on the plate. Discussion Paper. IIED and Hivos, London and The Hague.  Kibrom T. Sibhatu, Vijesh V. Krishna, and Matin Qaim. 2015. Production diversity and dietary diversity in smallholder farm households. PNAS.  Remans, R., F.A.J. DeClerck., G. Kennedy, and J. Fanzo. 2015. Expanding the view on the production and dietary diversity link: scale, function, and change over time. PNAS.

×