BANGLADESH’S EXPERIENCE
WITH
SOCIAL SAFETY NETS
AKHTER U. AHMED
INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
BANGLADESH PO...
INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 2
Social safety nets in Bangladesh
Bangladesh possesses a wealth institu...
INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 3
Policy and program reforms
Successive governments have shown remarkabl...
INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Impact of Social Safety Net
Interventions in Bangladesh:
Evidence from IFPRI ...
INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Comparing food and cash transfers to
address social protection debates
Progra...
INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Form of food transfer affects
intrahousehold food distribution
Page 6
Source:...
INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Short-term hunger alleviation in the
classroom improves children’s learning
B...
INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Sustained impact of BRAC’s asset
transfers on food energy consumption
Page 8
...
INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 9
Education incentive programs increased
primary school enrollment rates...
INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 10
Girls’ secondary school stipend program
over-achieved gender equity i...
INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Policy Issues
Page 11
INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Safety nets challenges in Bangladesh
Persistent concerns over mis-targeting
P...
INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Way forward
Scale up effective programs
Consolidate programs and phase out hi...
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Ahmed ifpri bangladesh safety nets_14 nov 2011

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“Bangladesh’s experience with safety nets”, presented by Akhter Ahmed, IFPRI/Dhaka at the ReSAKSS-Asia Conference, Nov 14-16, 2011, in Kathmandu, Nepal.

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Ahmed ifpri bangladesh safety nets_14 nov 2011

  1. 1. BANGLADESH’S EXPERIENCE WITH SOCIAL SAFETY NETS AKHTER U. AHMED INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE BANGLADESH POLICY RESEARCH AND STRATEGY SUPPORT PROGRAM KNOWLEDGE, TOOLS AND LESSONS FOR INFORMING THE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF FOOD SECURITY STRATEGIES IN ASIA 14-16 NOVEMBER 2011 KATHMANDU
  2. 2. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 2 Social safety nets in Bangladesh Bangladesh possesses a wealth institutional diversity and a wide range of experiences in providing assistance to the poor through social safety net programs Comprehensive portfolio of social safety nets—over 60 programs operated by 13 different ministries; and some NGOs covering various target groups Bangladesh spends about US$ 2.3 billion per year on social safety nets, representing 2.4% of its GDP Government spending on safety nets increased from around 4% of public expenditure in early 2000s to about 15% in 2010/11
  3. 3. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 3 Policy and program reforms Successive governments have shown remarkable willingness to evaluate program effectiveness, confront shortcomings, and cancel or modify programs as a result Recent policies promote social protection (risk reduction) rather than safety nets (risk coping) strategies Substantive changes in admin structure and implementation mechanisms: Transformed most relief programs to development programs Converted ration food price subsidies to targeted food distribution Engaged NGOs in the implementation of various safety net programs
  4. 4. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Impact of Social Safety Net Interventions in Bangladesh: Evidence from IFPRI Studies Page 4
  5. 5. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Comparing food and cash transfers to address social protection debates Programs evaluated: IGVGD “Only food” ; FSVGD and FFA “Food-cash combination” ;RMP “Only cash” Poorest households prefer food, relatively well off cash Size of transfer and type of food ration important to improve food security Transfer + microcredit access sustained impact Onerous work requirement of public works programs improves targeting but limits impact Page 5 Source: Ahmed, Quisumbing, Hoddinott, Nasreen, and Bryan. 2009. IFPRI
  6. 6. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Form of food transfer affects intrahousehold food distribution Page 6 Source: Ahmed, Quisumbing, Hoddinott, Nasreen, and Bryan. 2009. IFPRI
  7. 7. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Short-term hunger alleviation in the classroom improves children’s learning Bangladesh’s school feeding program (SFP) provides a mid-morning snack of high-nutrient biscuits to children in school Calories from SF biscuits are almost entirely (97%) additional to the child’s normal diet. The child’s family does not give him or her less food at home for eating SF biscuits at school. SFP improves nutritional status (BMI) of school children SFP raises enrollment by 14.2% and reduces dropout by 7.5% Participation in the SFP increased achievement test scores by 15.7% Participating students did especially well in mathematics Page 7 Source: Ahmed, A. 2004. Impacts of feeding children in School: Evidence from Bangladesh. IFPRI
  8. 8. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Sustained impact of BRAC’s asset transfers on food energy consumption Page 8 Source: Ahmed, Rabbani, Sulaiman, and Das. 2009. IFPRI-BRAC
  9. 9. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 9 Education incentive programs increased primary school enrollment rates 18.7 13.7 14.2 8.9 0 5 10 15 20 25 FFE (food) PES (cash) SFP (food) ROSC (cash) %increaseinnetenrollment FFE = Food for Education Program PES = Primary Education Stipend Program SFP = School Feeding Program ROSC = Reaching Out-of-School Children Project - Ananda schools
  10. 10. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Page 10 Girls’ secondary school stipend program over-achieved gender equity in schooling From 1992 to 2008, girls’ enrollment overtook that of boys at both primary and secondary levels of education However, the difference is larger at the secondary level, which indicates that the girls’ secondary education stipend program over-achieved the gender equity
  11. 11. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Policy Issues Page 11
  12. 12. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Safety nets challenges in Bangladesh Persistent concerns over mis-targeting Persistent concerns over leakage and inefficiency in delivery “Too many” programs that are poorly coordinated Appropriate roles of cash and in-kind transfers not clearly articulated Extending safety nets to urban areas Excessive emphasis on short term impact Page 12
  13. 13. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Way forward Scale up effective programs Consolidate programs and phase out high-cost, inefficient programs Focus on: nutrition, pension schemes, social insurance Continue to invest in human capital creation Reach vulnerable and underserved populations: Urban poor Indigenous groups Adolescent girls Children 0-2 Pregnant/lactating women Page 13

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