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Achieving the SDG2 in Timor-Leste

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Achieving the SDG2 in Timor-Leste by João Boavida, Centre for Peace and Development, Timor Leste and Gianna Bonis-Profumo, PhD. Candidate, Charles Darwin University.

Presented at the ReSAKSS-Asia - MIID conference "Evolving Agrifood Systems in Asia: Achieving food and nutrition security by 2030" on Oct 30-31, 2019 in Yangon, Myanmar.

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Achieving the SDG2 in Timor-Leste

  1. 1. Achieving the SDG2 in Timor-Leste João Boavida and Gianna Bonis-Profumo SDG2 report team: Jessica Fanzo, João Boavida, Gianna Bonis-Profumo, Rebecca McLaren, and Claire Davis “Evolving Agrifood Systems in Asia conference: Achieving food and nutrition security by 2030” 30 Oct - 1 Nov 2019, Yangon – Myanmar
  2. 2. Strategic Review of SDG2 in Timor-Leste Purpose: • Enable Government to accelerate progress towards achieving SDG2 Process: • A National Advisory Group led by President Ramos-Horta, Nobel Peace Laureate, and the Bishop of Dili Dom Virgilio do Carmo, SDB • Informed by consultations with stakeholders and communities using PAR approach Outcome • 15 evidence-based recommendations to achieve SDG 2 targets and the political economy http://www.tl-cepad.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/progress-and-success- in-achieving-the-sustainable-development-goal-2-english.pdf 2
  3. 3. Context – Timor-Leste History • Independent since 2002 • In late 1999, about 70% of the economic infrastructure including irrigation destroyed Today • Oil-based and dependent economy • Home to 1.2 million people (75% of this live in rural areas and 60% are under 25 years of age) • Poverty remains very high and widespread (from 50.4% to 41.8% (2007-2014) (MoF and WB, 2016) 3
  4. 4. Food Security Situation • 75% of the population relies on subsistence agriculture • Agriculture systems do not produce enough food • Cereal imports 30-40% (GoTL, 2017) • Low yields of staple crops & high post-harvest losses • Climate change vulnerability  El Niño draughts, projected increases of 0.4-1.5 C by 2030-50 (CFE-DM,2016) • 36 - 40% affected by chronic food insecurity (IPC Global Partners, 2019) Credit: Gianna Bonis-Profumo 4
  5. 5. Food Security Situation (Cont.) Agriculture is largely subsistence rather than market oriented. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Cambodia Lao PDR Timor-Leste SEA Mt/ha Productivity (M/ha) of staple crops, average 2014-16 Rice, paddy Maize Cassava Sweet potatoes Source: FAOSTAT. Source: Census 2015 (GDS and UNFPA, 2018). 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 < 1 ha (66%) 1-5 ha (32%) >5 ha (2%) % Farming HH agricultural activity and size of area cultivated, Timor-Leste 2015 Mainly home consumption Minor (backyard) activity Mainly for sale 5
  6. 6. Nutrition Security Situation Undernutrition burden to the economy US$41 million annually, representing ~1% of GDP (Bagriansky, 2014) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 2003 2007 2009-10 2013 2014 2016 % Children <5 Stunting Underweight Wasting Overweight 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 2003 2009-10 2013 2016 % Women of Reproductive Age BMI <18.5 BMI >25 Anaemia Sources: DHS 2003, 2009-10, 2016; TL-SLS 2007, 2014; TL-FNS 2013. 6
  7. 7. Nutrition Security Situation (Cont.) 46 36 33 29 11 40 20 21 19 7 24 14 9 7 5 6 12 4 1 8 Timor-Leste (2016) Indonesia (2013) Lao PDR (2017) Myanmar (2015-16) Thailand (2015-16) %ofChildren<5 Prevalence of child malnutrition in Timor-Leste, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Myanmar and Thailand Stunting Underweight Wasting Overweight Sources: Timor-Leste (DHS-2016), Indonesia (MICS-2013), Lao PDR (MICS-2017), Myanmar (DHS-2015-16), Thailand (MICS-2015-16). 7
  8. 8. Nutrition Security Situation Analysis Dietary diversity is an issue: - High in grains and tubers - Seasonal access to local fruits and vegetables - Low in Animal-Source Foods Dietary indicators for children <2-y: - 13% consumed the Minimum Acceptable Diet - No improvements 2013-2016 (TL-FNS, 2013, DHS-2016) Other barriers: - Affordability, physical access (poor roads, wet season) - Water scarcity for horticulture, customary uses of livestock - Nutritional knowledge - Poverty and corruptionCredit: Gianna Bonis-Profumo Improving the quantity and quality of foods fed to children in their first 5-years of life and of foods consumed by pre-pregnant, pregnant and lactating women, is key to reduce stunting rates. 8
  9. 9. Policy landscape Common goal: food secure and malnutrition-free Timor-Leste 2014 2014-2019 2017 SDP 2011-2013 + Agenda 2030 9
  10. 10. Policy landscape Budget trends for key line ministries 2008-2019 10 $Mil $50Mil $100Mil $150Mil $200Mil 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries Ministry of Education Ministry of Health Ministry of Social Solidarity Source: State Budget Book 2, 2008-2019 - Transparency Portal
  11. 11. Inter-sectoral coordination: KONSSANTIL • Mission: to secure inter-ministerial coordination to synchronize activities efficient and effective use of resources on food and nutrition security plans. • Objectives: 1. to strengthen the individual ministry’s role for implementation, 2. to consolidate existing resources, and 3. to strengthen coordination of services between the ministries to be responsible according to their individual roles (KONSSANTIL 2012). • Implements: Zero Hunger National Action Plan + Food & Nutrition Security Policy 11 National Council of Food Security, Sovereignty, and Nutrition for Timor-Leste
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  13. 13. Inter-sectoral coordination: KONSSANTIL • Municipal KONSSANTIL: - Coordinate at decentralised level, including emergency response - Pilot: Multi-sectoral approach in 3 vulnerable suco (villages) 13 Credit: Gianna Bonis-Profumo
  14. 14. Strengthening inter-sectoral coordination • Assessment - Lofty portfolio with limited capacity and resources - MAF presidency disengages other ministries - Municipal level requires more technical support • Recommendation - Reposition under the Prime Minister Office - High level leadership for cross-ministry engagement, accountability, and adequate funding 14 Strong leadership is fundamental to enable coordination for inter-sectoral and inter-ministerial policy implementation (IFPRI 2016)
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  16. 16. Recommendations: Political economy • Improving coordination and accountability by strengthening KONSSANTIL • Building human capacity in food security and nutrition • Increasing national investment to a minimum of 5% of GDP for nutrition and agriculture • Agriculture-led economic growth in post-oil Timor- Leste 16
  17. 17. Food for thought… • Ensuring social justice and equity to address SDG 2 • Food and Nutrition is a human right • Decision-makers need to understand the problem in order to act • To prevent and combat stunting, we need to continue educating communities and the government on how serious the malnutrition burden is for both economic growth and continuation of peace. 17 Credit: Gianna Bonis-Profumo
  18. 18. Obrigado barak! Thank you! SDG2 report team: Jessica Fanzo, João Boavida, Gianna Bonis-Profumo, Rebecca McLaren, and Claire Davis with the invaluable assistance of Jose Henriques, Florenciana de Jesus Rego, and Lamberto Quintas. Funded by the World Food Programme – Timor-Leste 18 Credit: Jess Fanzo joao.boavida@tl-cepad.org & gianna.bonis-profumo@cdu.edu.au
  19. 19. References • CFE-DM. 2016. Timor-Leste Disaster Management Reference Handbook 2016. Ford Island: Center for Excellence in Disaster Management and Humanitarian Assistance. • FAO. 2018. FAOSTAT Statistics Database. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. http://www.fao.org/faostat/en • GDS, MoH, and ICF. 2018. Timor-Leste Demographic and Health Survey 2016. Dili: Government of Timor-Leste General Directorate of Statistics, Ministry of Health and ICF. • GDS and UNFPA. 2016. Timor-Leste National Census 2015. Dili: Government of Timor-Leste National Statistics Directorate and United Nations Population Fund. • GoTL. 2017. National Food and Nutrition Security Policy. Dili: Government of Timor-Leste. • IFPRI. 2016. Global Nutrition Report 2016: From Promise to Impact: Ending Malnutrition by 2030. Washington DC: International Food Policy Research Institute. http://dx.doi.org/10.2499/9780896295841 • IPC Global Partners, 2019. The First IPC Analysis Report on the Chronic Food Insecurity Situation in Timor-Leste. National Directorate of Food Security and Cooperation, the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries in collaboration with Country IPC Partners. http://www.ipcinfo.org/fileadmin/user_upload/ipcinfo/docs/3_IPC_Timor%20Leste_CFI_20182023_English.pdf • KONSSANTIL. 2012. KONSSANTIL Statues. Dili: National Council of Food Security, Sovereignty and Nutrition for Timor-Leste. • Ministry of Finance, 2018. State Budget 2019 Books 1 and 2. Government of Timor-Leste Ministry of Finance. https://www.mof.gov.tl/category/documents-and-forms/budget- documents/2019-state-budget-book-budget-documents/?lang=en • MoF and WB. 2016. Poverty in Timor-Leste 2014. Dili: Government of Timor-Leste Ministry of Finance and World Bank. • Ministry of Health and National Statistics Office of the Government of Timor-Leste, University of Newcastle, Australian National University, ACIL Australia. 2004. Timor-Leste 2003 Demographic and Health Survey. Newcastle: University of Newcastle. • MoHS and ICF. 2017. Myanmar Demographic and Health Survey 2015-16. Nay Pyi Taw and Rockville: Ministry of Health and Sports and ICF. https://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR324/FR324.pdf • NSD. 2015. Timor-Leste Food and Nutrition Survey 2013. Dili: Government of Timor-Leste National Statistics Directorate and Ministry of Health. • NSD, MoF and ICF Macro. 2010. Timor-Leste Demographic and Health Survey 2009-10. Dili: Government of Timor-Leste General Directorate of Statistics, Ministry of Finance and ICF Macro. • NSO and UNICEF. 2016. Thailand Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2015-2016, Final Report. Bangkok: National Statistical Office and United Nations Children’s Fund. https://www.unicef.org/thailand/sites/unicef.org.thailand/files/2018-06/Thailand_MICS_Full_Report_EN_0.pdf • UNICEF, Multiple Indicators Cluster Survey (MICS) Data. 2018. United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund. http://mics.unicef.org/surveys 19

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