CIMMYTMR
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
Conservation Agriculture Adoption
in Kazakhstan
Prof. M.Karabaye...
CIMMYTMR
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
CIMMYT-Kazakhstan Program on Wheat Improvement
I. Wheat germplas...
CIMMYTMR
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
Average Wheat Yield, t/ha
< 2 2-2.5 2.5 -3 3-4 4-6 6-8 >8< 1.5
CIMMYTMR
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
Wheat production and annual rainfall distribution
CIMMYTMR
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
250-300 mm,
rainfed
250-300 mm,
rainfed
250 mm, rainfed
350-400 ...
CIMMYTMR
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
Kazakhstan. Country Statistics
Rainfed Irrigated
Wheat area, ha ...
CIMMYTMR
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
Wheat area and yield in Kazakhstan
Years Area, mln ha Yield, t/h...
CIMMYTMR
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
Ploughing up of the virgin lands in the mid of 1950s had
led to ...
CIMMYTMR
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
Conservation tillage practice developed in 1960s reduced
soil er...
CIMMYTMR
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
Conservation Agriculture for Wheat Production in Kazakhstan
In t...
CIMMYTMR
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
Key Locations of CA practices
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CIMMYTMR
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
The local seeder SZS-2,1 with the Brazilian
disk furrow openers ...
CIMMYTMR
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
CA equipment used in Kazakhstan
CIMMYTMR
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
CA equipment used in Kazakhstan
CIMMYTMR
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
Adoption of Conservation Agriculture in Northern Kazakhstan
CA f...
CIMMYTMR
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
CA in Kazakhstan - the way to improve soil moisture storage in t...
CIMMYTMR
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
GEF Small Grants Program (GEF/SGP)
Spring wheat yield and yield ...
CIMMYTMR
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
World Bank “Drylands Management Project”
in Central Kazakhstan
T...
CIMMYTMR
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
World Bank “Drylands Management Project”
To convert abandoned la...
CIMMYTMR
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
World Bank “Drylands Management Project”
The effect of abandoned...
CIMMYTMR
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
Winter Wheat in North Kazakhstan
The cold and severe climate of ...
CIMMYTMR
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
Crop Rotation Alternatives.
Diversification
 Canola
 Sunflower...
CIMMYTMR
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
Conservation Agriculture for Irrigated Area of Kazakhstan and Ce...
CIMMYTMR
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
Direct seeding of winter wheat into cotton.
Autumn
CA practices ...
CIMMYTMR
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
CA practices for irrigated agricultural
systems. South Kazakhsta...
CIMMYTMR
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
Тechnological operations
Conventional technology:
1 Dehulling of...
CIMMYTMR
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
Economic efficiency of crops production under conventional and d...
CIMMYTMR
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
Crops lands areas under different technologies in Kazakhstan
(Wo...
CIMMYTMR
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
International traveling seminars on Conservation Agriculture.
20...
CIMMYTMR
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
Field Day at “Svetlana” Farm. 20 May, 2010
Meeting with Dr. Pann...
CIMMYTMR
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
Conservation Agriculture for wheat
production and crop diversifi...
CIMMYTMR
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
Country
Страна
Area under No-tillage (ha) 2007/2008
Площади под ...
CIMMYTMR
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
DUST STORM.
North Kazakhstan, 2007, 2009.
CIMMYTMR
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
THANK YOU!
Almaty
Astana
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  1. 1. CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center Conservation Agriculture Adoption in Kazakhstan Prof. M.Karabayev (CIMMYT) Dr.P.Wall (CIMMYT) Dr.K.Sayre (CIMMYT) Dr.T.Friedrich (FAO) Dr.T.Bachmann (FAO) Dr.A.Baitassov (CIMMYT) Dr.R.Zhapayev (CIMMYT) Dr.N.Yushenko (NARS) Dr.A. Morgounnov (CIMMYT) 2011, Kathmandu, Nepal
  2. 2. CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center CIMMYT-Kazakhstan Program on Wheat Improvement I. Wheat germplasm enhancement: Spring high latitude wheat and winter wheat breeding II. Efficient soil and water management: Conservation Agriculture for wheat production and crop diversification III. Strengthening NARS capacity
  3. 3. CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center Average Wheat Yield, t/ha < 2 2-2.5 2.5 -3 3-4 4-6 6-8 >8< 1.5
  4. 4. CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center Wheat production and annual rainfall distribution
  5. 5. CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center 250-300 mm, rainfed 250-300 mm, rainfed 250 mm, rainfed 350-400 mm, rainfed 300-350 mm, irrigated, rainfed Wheat Growing Regions in Kazakhstan The territory of Kazakhstan is of 270 mln ha. Ranks 9 place all over the world in the area extent. Around 20 mln ha is used for crop production, mainly for wheat – 14 mln ha
  6. 6. CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center Kazakhstan. Country Statistics Rainfed Irrigated Wheat area, ha 14.1 mln 0.8 mln Yield, t/ha 1.2 2.2 Major diseases Leaf rust, Stem rust, Septoriosis Yellow rust, Leaf rust Major abiotic stresses Drought Low temperatures, Drought Major varieties Omskaya 18, Pamyati Aziyeva, Akmola 2 Steklovidnaya 24, Almaly, Progress
  7. 7. CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center Wheat area and yield in Kazakhstan Years Area, mln ha Yield, t/ha Up to 1990 14.1 1.00 1991-95 13.1 0.80 1996-2000 10.7 0.85 2001 10.7 1.18 2002 11.6 1.08 2003 11.3 1.02 2004 11.8 0.84 2005 12.6 0.87 2006 12.4 1.09 2007 13.7 1.07 2009 14.9 1.20 2010 14.9 1.02 Sources: MoA RK
  8. 8. CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center Ploughing up of the virgin lands in the mid of 1950s had led to the dramatic loss of soil fertility in Kazakhstan
  9. 9. CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center Conservation tillage practice developed in 1960s reduced soil erosion in Kazakhstan but failed to control it efficiently Conventional Tillage Practices and Rotation : • Multiple tillage trips with blades and sweeps, at 15-25 cm depth. • 3 years spring wheat, 1 year spring barley and 1 year summer fallow. • Most erosion occurs during the fallow period.
  10. 10. CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center Conservation Agriculture for Wheat Production in Kazakhstan In the beginning of 2000s FAO, CIMMYT, MoA, NARS initiated large scale Conservation Agriculture activities in North Kazakhstan. Due to these efforts, the area under CA-based practices has been increasing from: 0 ha in 2001 to: 500,000 ha in 2007 1,200,000 ha in 2008 1,600,000 ha in 2011 with continued increases in area according to a recent assessment conducted by CIMMYT. The utilization of CA-based technologies has become an official state policy in agriculture in Kazakhstan. Since 2008, the government of Kazakhstan has been subsidizing farmers who are adopting CA-based technologies. With this Kazakhstan is now included among the top 10 countries with the largest areas under No-tillage in the world (Source: R.Derpsch & T.Friedrich. Global Overview of Conservation Agriculture Adoption, 2008, FAO)
  11. 11. CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center Key Locations of CA practices ● ● ● ● ●● ● ● ● ● ●
  12. 12. CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center The local seeder SZS-2,1 with the Brazilian disk furrow openers and cutting discs Direct seeders locally developed in Kazakhstan CA equipment used in Kazakhstan
  13. 13. CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center CA equipment used in Kazakhstan
  14. 14. CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center CA equipment used in Kazakhstan
  15. 15. CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center Adoption of Conservation Agriculture in Northern Kazakhstan CA for wheat production and crop diversification
  16. 16. CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center CA in Kazakhstan - the way to improve soil moisture storage in the field due to high stubble. Snow capturing differences between conventional and no-till technologies Conventional No-till No-till No-till
  17. 17. CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center GEF Small Grants Program (GEF/SGP) Spring wheat yield and yield components under no-till and traditional technologies, Akmola province, North Kazakhstan, 2007 CA for wheat production and crop diversification Technology Yield, t/ha Total tillering Produc- tive tillering Plant height, cm Top inter- node length, cm Length from flag leaf to spike, cm Spike length, cm N of spiklets per spike N of grains in spike N of grains in spiklet No-till 1.83 2.2 1.8 84.1 43.4 30.4 6.9 12.4 22.5 1.8 Traditional 1.26 2.0 1.7 80.2 33.9 23.6 6.5 10.2 20.1 1.9 CIMMYT on-farm Trials and Demonstrations on Conservation Agriculture
  18. 18. CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center World Bank “Drylands Management Project” in Central Kazakhstan The Project Component “Validation and Demonstration of New Technologies for Restoration of Degraded Lands and Forage Crop” Objective: Demonstration of different methods of sowing perennial and annual crops with low costs resulting in sustainable and profitable crop yields
  19. 19. CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center World Bank “Drylands Management Project” To convert abandoned land… …into perennial grassland Chemical field treatment combined with direct sowing of crops is the most efficient way of land rehabilitation
  20. 20. CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center World Bank “Drylands Management Project” The effect of abandoned land restoration methods on agropyron-sainfoin hay mix yields. Shetsky region, Central Kazakhstan, 2006-2007 Type of fallow (2005) Yield, t/ha 2006 2007 Total for 2 years Average for 2 years Moldboard plow fallow, traditional seeding 0.88 1.23 2.11 1.06 Sweep tillage fallow, traditional seeding 0.78 1.32 2.10 1.05 Chemical fallow, direct seeding 0.97 1.47 2.44 1.22
  21. 21. CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center Winter Wheat in North Kazakhstan The cold and severe climate of Northern Kazakhstan is not favorable for growing winter wheat. However, breeding wheat varieties adapted for these conditions, in combination with zero tillage technologies (including leaving the straw and crop residue on the field, direct sowing) can be a good alternative for wheat production and diversification in the northern parts of the country. In the recent years, the global climate change leads to softer winters, and the option to grow winter wheat in the Northern Kazakhstan is being more realistic and reachable objective. Direct Seeded Winter Wheat. North Kazakhstan province. May, 2004
  22. 22. CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center Crop Rotation Alternatives. Diversification  Canola  Sunflowers  Field Peas  Lentils  Chickpeas  Buckwheat  Winter Wheat  Flax
  23. 23. CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center Conservation Agriculture for Irrigated Area of Kazakhstan and Central Asia PERMANENT BEDS PLANTING SYSTEMS FOR CROP PRODUCTION IN CENTRAL ASIA FAO-TIIM Project on CA, Tashkent province, Uzbekistan, 2005-2006
  24. 24. CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center Direct seeding of winter wheat into cotton. Autumn CA practices for irrigated agricultural systems Direct seeded winter wheat into cotton. Spring # Technology Number of rows Yield, t/ha 1 Conventional Continuous/dense 3.1 2 No-till direct seeding 8 rows on the beds 4.0 3 No-till direct seeding 4 rows on the beds 4.5 Average yields of conventionally and directly seeded winter wheat into cotton. Tashkent province, Uzbekistan, 2005-2006 FAO-TIIM Project on CA, Tashkent province, Uzbekistan, 2005-2006
  25. 25. CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center CA practices for irrigated agricultural systems. South Kazakhstan, 2005 -2007 Locally developed direct seeder for bed-planting Direct seeded winter wheat on permanent beds Direct seeded wheat on permanent beds Direct seeded soybean on permanent beds CA technologies enable to grow two crops in one year in South Kazakhstan!
  26. 26. CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center Тechnological operations Conventional technology: 1 Dehulling of stubbles 2. Application of fertilizers 3. Moldboard ploughing 4. Grinding 5. Cutting of irrigating furrows 6. Irrigation 7. Pre-seeding soil treatment 8. Sowing 9. Rolling 10. Early-spring dressing by nitrogen fertilizer 11. Harrowing 12. Herbicides application 13. Cutting of irrigation networks 14. Irrigation 15. Closing of irrigation networks 16. Harvesting Bed-planting: 1. Ploughing 2. Levelling 3. Crop seeding with cutting of furrows 4. Irrigation 5. Early-spring fertilizing 6. Herbicides application 7. Irrigation 8. Harvesting Permanent bed-planting: 1. Direct seeding with fertilizer application 2. Irrigation 3. Early-spring extra dressing by fertilizer 4. Herbicides application 5. Irrigation 6. Harvesting
  27. 27. CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center Economic efficiency of crops production under conventional and direct seeding technologies. Irrigated system, South Kazakhstan, 2004-2007 Crop Technology Yield, t/ha Grain costs, $ USD/ha Expenses, $USD/ha Net profit, $USD/ha Prime cost, $USD/t Winter wheat Conven- tional 4.6 1160 356.7 803.3 77.5 Direct seeding 4.6 1148 164.2 983.3 35.0 Maize Conven- tional 10.0 1672 634.2 1037.5 63.3 Direct seeding 13.7 2283 237.5 2045.8 16.7 Soy- bean Conven- tional 2.7 1138 603.3 534.2 216.7 Direct seeding 3.1 1296 228.3 1067.5 73.3
  28. 28. CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center Crops lands areas under different technologies in Kazakhstan (World Bank & Kazakhstan “Agricultural Competitiveness Project”, CIMMYT-Kaz subproject “CA areas assessment in North Kazakhstan”, 2011-2012) Techno- logy Area, mln ha Operations 2007 2008 2011 Conven- tional 13.7 11.6 8.5 Multiple tillage trips with blades and sweeps, (mostly monocropping system) Minimal- tillage 4.6 6.2 8.9 Direct seeding with V- shaped openers or with narrow chisels regularly combined with shallow harrowing/cultivation, (few diversification) No-tillage 0.6 1.2 1.6 Direct seeding with narrow chisels or double discs openers (diversification)
  29. 29. CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center International traveling seminars on Conservation Agriculture. 2008-2011, Central, North, North-West, South, South-West Kazakhstan
  30. 30. CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center Field Day at “Svetlana” Farm. 20 May, 2010 Meeting with Dr. Pannkuk, WSU. 28 May, 2010 Field Day at Bereke Farm. 29 June, 2010 Meeting with farmers. 27 July, 2010 Field Days, Seminars, Meetings…
  31. 31. CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center Conservation Agriculture for wheat production and crop diversification Main issues to be addressed: Weed control. This is one of the major issues that needs further research. Options for weed control with different weed spectra and these different conditions must be available. Crop rotations. The development and adoption of functional and economic crop rotations and the general diversification of the production system remain as a big challenge to the successful development of CA in Kazakhstan. Fertilization strategies. New recommendations based on extensive and thorough research of fertilization aspects, balance and dynamics of mineral nutrients in soil under CA need to be developed. Training and awareness. There is still a need for much effort in farmer and researcher awareness and training
  32. 32. CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center Country Страна Area under No-tillage (ha) 2007/2008 Площади под нулевыми технологиями (га) 2007-08 1 USA 26.593.000 2 BRAZIL 25.502.000 3 ARGENTINA 19.719.000 4 CANADA 13.481.000 5 AUSTRALIA 12.000.000 6 PARAGUAY 2.400.000 7 CHINA 1.330.000 8 KAZAKHSTAN 1.200.000 9 BOLIVIA 706.000 10 URUGUAY 672.000 11 SPAIN 650.000 12 SOUTH AFRICA 368.000 13 VENEZUELA 300.000 14 FRANCE 200.000 15 FINLAND 200.000 16 CHILE 180.000 17 NEW ZEALAND 162.000 18 COLOMBIA 100.000 19 UKRAINE 100.000 20 RUSSIA ? Others (Estimate) Остальные 1.000.000 Total Всего 105.863.000 Source: Derpsch, R. and Friedrich, T., 2008 General overview of Conservation Agriculture/No-tillage adoption Распространение нулевой технологии в мире
  33. 33. CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center DUST STORM. North Kazakhstan, 2007, 2009.
  34. 34. CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center THANK YOU! Almaty Astana

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