Review of CAADP Progress Babatunde OmilolaCoordinator, Regional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System (ReSAKSS) IFPRI Partnership to Cut Hunger and Poverty in Africa SPECIAL DISCUSSION: Next Steps for the US Food Security Initiative Association of Public and Land-Grant Universities December 3, 2009
Outline• What is CAADP? – Principles – Processes and implementation• Where is CAADP now? – Agricultural growth – Agricultural Investments (Allocations to agriculture)• Impacts – Poverty and hunger (MDG1)• Challenges
What is CAADP?• The Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) is the African Union (AU)/New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) vision and strategy for the development of African agriculture.• CAADP puts agriculture at top of priorities of African countries• CAADP is African-owned and African-led
CAADP Principles• Employ agriculture-led growth to achieve MDG1 of halving poverty and hunger by 2015• Pursuit of 6% average annual sector growth at national level• Allocation of 10% of national budgets to agriculture sector• Exploitation of regional complementarities and cooperation to boost growth• Policy efficiency, dialogue, review and accountability (evidence-based policymaking)• Partnerships and alliances to include farmers, agribusiness, civil society
CAADP Process• The principles are achieved through: – the strategic functions of CAADP, – the guidance and involvement of the Regional Economic Communities (RECs), and – the national roundtable process• These activities surround four key pillars, led by Africa-based technical institutions: – Pillar 1: extending the area under sustainable land management (University of Zambia) – Pillar 2: Improving rural infrastructure and trade-related capacities for market access (Conference of Ministers of Agriculture of West and Central Africa (CMA/AOC)) – Pillar 3: Increasing food supply and reducing hunger (University of KwaZulu-Natal) – Pillar 4: Agricultural research, technology dissemination and adoption (Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa (FARA))
Who Implements the CAADP process?• African Union Commission (AUC) and New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD)• Key Regional Economic Communities (RECs) establish their own priorities based on the continent-wide Pillars – Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) – Southern African Development Community (SADC) – Common Market of Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA)• Countries in Africa
The National CAADP Roundtable Process & Country Status 1. Government 2. REC and 3. Country Steering appoints Focal Government launch and Technical Point(s) process Committee Libya, Eritrea Zimbabwe, Egypt, Mauritius, DRC 6. Drafting of 5. Stocktaking – 4. Cabinet Memo Country CAADP Growth and and Endorsement Compact Investment Analysis Burkina Faso, Guinea- Bissau, Guinea, Kenya, Cape Verde, C. Comoros, Malawi, Uganda, d’Ivoire, Djibouti, Madagascar, Sudan Zambia Seychelles, Swaziland 8. Donor and 9. Regular 7. Roundtable Government Refinement andSigning of Compact Benin, Burundi, Ethiopia, Implementation Adjustment Gambia, Ghana, Liberia, 13 Mali, Niger, Nigeria, countries Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo
What is the role of ReSAKSS in CAADP implementation? 1 2 In order to implement goals of CAADP Framework created by AU, CAADP framework, targets (6% & 10%) agreed upon decisionmakers need evidence- by all African leaders. based knowledge on investments, options, etc. 6Country CAADP compacts are signedbinding stakeholders to goals setforth at Roundtables. 3ReSAKSS manages this ReSAKSS, though its network ofknowledge so that partners across the continent,decisionmakers and takes stock and starts analysis ofstakeholders can access and growth options. 5utilize it. Debate and dialoguetake place in countries as they 4consider options for The establishment of Country SAKSS facilitates thisimplementing CAADP by providing country-specific information andframework. (lead-up to analysis. These also serve as in-country policy andRoundtables) knowledge hubs.
Tracking Progress of CAADP: ReSAKSS Website www.resakss.org
Users can customize the map and charts The ReSAKSS website allows based on the specific users to easily track progress information they are against looking for, whether the CAADP and MDG targets that be regionalwhile also accessing a wealth of information or knowledge and data on country-specific agricultural development in information Africa
Where are we now?• 6 years after CAADP, has there been any progress toward the goals?• The Process: – 13 countries and 1 region have signed CAADP compacts• Agricultural Spending/Investment: – The number of countries spending at least 10% of budgets on agriculture has increased since 2002• Agricultural Growth: – At the continent level agricultural growth has increased since 2002 – The number of countries with annual agricultural growth rates of 6% or more has increased since 2002
Government spending on agriculture: Progress towards the Maputo Declaration target • The African continent as a whole has not met the 10% target (current spending at 6-8 percent) • But, this varies by country Only 8 countries have Agricultural Expenditures as a share of total (%), 2007 met the 10% 25 target 20 CURRENT, 2007 (Unless otherwise noted) 15% 10 5 0 Central African… Madagascar** Ghana**** Guinea Bissau*** Morocco** Gabon*** Mali Nigeria DRC** Egypt** Swaziland** Benin**** Burundi*** Tunisia** Chad*** Kenya**** Uganda**** Tanzania** Malawi Sudan*** Zambia* Gambia*** Senegal Niger* Cote dIvoire Lesotho** Togo Mauritius** Namibia** Ethiopia** Rwanda Botswana Mauritania*** Mozambique** Guinea*** Cameroon** Zimbabwe** Burkina Faso* *=2006; **=2005; ***=2004; ****=2008 estimates Source: Omilola and Lambert, 2009.
Have countries increased their spending in response to the 2003 Maputo Declaration?• At the continental level, Level of agricultural spending as a share of total spending, 2002-2007 agricultural spending nearly doubled between 70.0% 2000 and 2005 60.0% % of reporting countries• In 2003, only 3.2% of countries allocated 10% 50.0% or more of their budgets 40.0% to agriculture – This increased to 33.3% 30.0% in 2006 before slightly falling to 25% in 2007 20.0%• 9 countries increased 10.0% their allocations from 0.0% less than 5% spending to 5-10% spending 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Less than 5% 5%-10% More than 10% Source: Omilola and Lambert, 2009.
Agricultural expenditure as a share of agricultural GDP • Measures government spending on agriculture relative to the size of that countrys agriculture sector • Under this measure, more countries fall into the category of low budget support to agriculture Agricultural expenditures as a share of agricultural GDP, 2007 80 60 The range is CURRENT, 2007 (Unless otherwise noted) considerable% 40 (1 to 60%) 20 0 *=2006; **=2005; ***=2008 estimatesOn aggregate , Africa spends between 5-7% Source: Omilola and Lambert, 2009. of agricultural GDP on agriculture, compared to 15% in Asia during its Green Revolution
-36 -30 -24 -18 -12 -6 12 18 24 0 6 Eritrea Gambia, The Zimbabwe SenegalSource: WDI Tunisia Mauritania 2008: Malawi Lesotho 2002: Cape Verde 6% CAADP target 6% CAADP target Gabon Mali Kenya Cote dIvoire Ethiopia Zambia Madagascar Algeria CAR Chad Guinea-Bissau Botswana DRC Seychelles Swaziland Niger Burkina Faso Djibouti Sudan Egypt Cameroon Page 15 Uganda Ghana Burundi Nigeria Comoros Mauritius Morocco Tanzania Agricultural GDP growth Guinea South Africa Togo Benin Namibia Only 9 countries achieved 6% or more annual growth At least 20 countries achieved 6% or more annual growth Mozambique Sao Tome &… Angola Rwanda Equatorial Guinea
What about poverty and hunger? Burkina Faso Cameroon Congo, D.R. C. African Rep. Angola Ethiopia Botswana Guinea Algeria Egypt Kenya Malawi Ghana Mali Sao Tome and Principe Mauritania Morocco Tanzania Namibia Senegal Swaziland Togo Tunisia UgandaCountries on track towards Countries on track towards halving poverty by 2015 Only 6 Countries on track halving hunger by 2015 towards achieving both Source: Omilola and Lambert, 2009 goals of MDG1
Challenges for CAADP• Although agriculture seems to be firmly back on the development agenda, pledges have not translated into increased spending in many countries.• The CAADP process has stalled in some countries.• The post-compact process has only recently received attention (Rwanda post-compact meeting on Dec. 8-9)• The contributions of the CAADP process to the achievements in agricultural growth and poverty reduction are not yet known fully.• How are agricultural budgets being spent? Are they being spent judiciously?• What critical M&E information is needed to enhance effective dialogue and policy processes at all levels? Page 18