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Day two: concluding remarks


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By Joseph Karugia

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Day two: concluding remarks

  2. 2. Women Empowerment • Distinguish between: Reach  Benefit  Empower • Development agencies to rethink the hands-off approach to household affairs – interventions affect intra-household relationships. Be intentional and take account of gender issues • Women earning more income is not necessarily good – need control over the income • Which women control income – age, education, control over livestock and land
  3. 3. Women Empowerment… • But consider also religion and poverty levels • Measure empowerment - but more critically undertake analysis to diagnose the sources of empowerment to inform interventions • Data issues – not unique to gender but affect agriculture in general – progress is not good • Need investments to develop capacities for data collection, management and reporting – important role for research
  4. 4. Women Empowerment… • Standardization of methodologies and coordination of data collection and management initiatives to avoid duplication and wastage – national statistics offices get overwhelmed • Build linkages with decisions makers to improve the potential for uptake and impact – Role for country SAKSS • Ministries can be required to engender their budgets – but not as just add-ons (again avoid tokenism!) • Gender responsible budgeting improving
  5. 5. Women Empowerment… • Political will by African countries to address gender issues reiterated strongly in the Malabo Declaration • Measurement of empowerment – indices not easily interpreted by decision makers – consider simple indicators
  6. 6. Women Empowerment… • In thinking about women empowerment consider three things: • Process (What to do)  Outcome  Impact (are there positive and/or negative social and economic disruptions?) • Who wins and who loses? Perceptions matter! • Short-term, medium term and long term interventions • Context experience is different - men/joint/women • Opportunity is to expand the area of joint experience
  7. 7. Social Norms and Leadership… • Social norms can impede progress – but they are very context specific • Makes generalizations difficult – so how do we generate the required evidence? • Gender equality matters for effective leadership • Watch out for tokenism! • In addressing social norms – centrality of formal education and capacity building – both men and women • But also link to generation of gender smart technologies
  8. 8. Social Norms and Leadership… • Acknowledge and address the capacity of decision makers to do the right things - even well meaning policies/interventions can and have been poorly designed/implemented. Results can be perverse • Addressing social norms will require building alliances so as to harness the comparative advantages of different actors – no one change agent has all the required skills and capacities to go it alone – even a beauty pungent has a role!
  9. 9. Social Norms and Leadership… • Norms change over time – how to accelerate this process for the women disempowering norms? • But norms are sometimes contested – how to navigate? • Document success stories
  10. 10. Productivity, Land and Financial Capital • Estimates of gender gap in productivity available – but there are measurement challenges • Need to increase confidence in these numbers - good estimates of cost of inaction can be very persuasive • Again ensure that interventions that increase women’s productivity do not disempower them – access to markets and control of income are important
  11. 11. Productivity, Land and Financial Capital • Women’s land rights in Africa – being affected by changing social and economic environment • With many countries pursuing objectives of agriculture commercialization in their policies/strategies – they must put in place measures that protect women’s land rights to halt their erosion •
  12. 12. Productivity, Land and Financial Capital • Gender gap in financial inclusion • Demand- and supply side constraints • Innovations – are general to men and women; few targeting women • Gender- transformative financial inclusion – financial systems that are “womenable” • How?
  13. 13. Conclusion • Empower men to achieve women empowerment!
  14. 14. THANK YOU