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Teaching grammar in the classroom

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Teaching grammar in the classroom

  1. 1. Teaching Grammar in the Language Classroom Foundations Seminar in Foreign Language Teaching September 15, 2003
  2. 2. Plan <ul><li>Deductive vs. Inductive Grammar Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Research results </li></ul><ul><li>What are the benefits of a guided induction approach? </li></ul><ul><li>Description of PACE </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching videos and analysis </li></ul><ul><li>PACE activity </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson Planning Ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Peer-teaching Grammar/ Class Observation Reports </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>“ In the past, a traditional classroom, with its emphasis on grammatical competence and explicit knowledge of language rules, did not provide occasions for learners to communicate…” </li></ul><ul><li>- Adair-Hauck & Donato, 2002 </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>“ Unfortunately, many students who spent years learning only the formal properties of the language (sound system, verb conjugations, rules of syntax, vocabulary lists) could not, in the end, exchange information, express ideas or feelings, construct and control problem solving, or develop and nurture a social relationship in a second language.” </li></ul><ul><li>-Adair-Hauck & Donato, 2002 </li></ul>
  5. 5. Importance of Communicative Competence <ul><li>It is through communication that we are able to improve our world, to prosper, and to enjoy it. </li></ul><ul><li>- Cooper (1993) </li></ul><ul><li>Communicative competence stresses the need to know how, when, and why to say what to whom. </li></ul><ul><li>-Standards of FL Learning, 1996 </li></ul>
  6. 6. How do we focus on form within a communicative framework? <ul><li>Teachers don’t need to dichotomize language use– pitting form against meaning or meaning against form (Johnson, 1992) </li></ul><ul><li>Attention to form is beneficial to language users and critical to improving students’ language proficiency </li></ul>
  7. 7. Deductive vs. Inductive <ul><li>Deductive : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students learn grammar rule  Use Rule </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inductive: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use grammar rule  Learn Rule </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. When grammar is taught deductively , the teacher… <ul><li>Explains the rule to the learners </li></ul><ul><li>Provides NO CONTEXT or COMMUNICATIVE PURPOSE for the grammar </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on form first and then meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Drills students to learn the rule mechanically </li></ul><ul><li>Assumes all responsibility for student learning </li></ul>
  9. 9. When grammar is taught inductively , the teacher… <ul><li>Allows the learner to formulate and discover the rule (“to induct”) </li></ul><ul><li>Provides a CONTEXT and PURPOSE for use </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on meaning first and form second </li></ul><ul><li>Helps learners discover the rule through meaningful </li></ul><ul><li>communication </li></ul><ul><li>Empowers the students to problem solve and learn how to learn a language Source: Donato, 2002 </li></ul>
  10. 10. Research: Effectiveness of a Guided Induction Approach <ul><li>Subjects : 26 students enrolled in French 101 at Emory </li></ul><ul><li>French in Action video audio program </li></ul><ul><li>Within-Subjects Design </li></ul><ul><li>Target structures: 1. Au </li></ul><ul><li>2. Des- indefinite article </li></ul><ul><li>3. Pouvoir + infinitive </li></ul><ul><li>4. Ne (verb) pas DE </li></ul><ul><li>5. Comparative </li></ul><ul><li>6. Du/ De la/ De l’ </li></ul><ul><li>7. Jouer à </li></ul><ul><li>8. Direct object pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>9. Imperative </li></ul><ul><li>10.Lequel/laquelle/ etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Herron, C., & Tomasello, M. (1992). Acquiring Grammatical Structures by Guided Induction. The French Review, 65 (5), 708- 718. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Research Teaching Procedure: Deductive Approach <ul><li>1. Teacher points to a model sentence that exemplified the rule and then provides grammar explanation </li></ul><ul><li>Model sentence : “Dans un avion, on peut parler à un </li></ul><ul><li>ami; on ne peut pas regarder un match de football.” </li></ul><ul><li>Oral rule statement: “En français, utilisez l’infinitif après le verbe pouvoir” </li></ul>
  12. 12. Deductive Approach (cont.) <ul><li>2. Teacher practices this rule with the students with a 10 item oral drill </li></ul><ul><li>Instructions: Cet exercise s’appelle Dans un avion. R épondez </li></ul><ul><li>affirmativement ou négativement à ma question. </li></ul><ul><li>TEACHER: (picture of people drinking) Dans un avion, peut-on </li></ul><ul><li>boire? </li></ul><ul><li>STUDENTS: Oui, on peut boire </li></ul><ul><li>TEACHER: (picture of people dancing) Peut-on parler à un ami ? </li></ul><ul><li>STUDENTS: Oui, on peut parler à un ami . </li></ul><ul><li>TEACHER: Peut-on faire du jogging? </li></ul><ul><li>STUDETNS: Non, on ne peut pas faire du jogging. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Research Teaching Procedure: Guided Induction Approach <ul><li>Teacher begins with introducing exercise “ Dans un avion” and lead students in the previous drill </li></ul><ul><li>Instructions: Cet exercise s’appelle Dans un avion. R épondez </li></ul><ul><li>affirmativement ou négativement à ma question. </li></ul><ul><li>TEACHER: (picture of people drinking) Dans un avion, peut-on </li></ul><ul><li>boire? </li></ul><ul><li>STUDENTS: Oui, on peut boire </li></ul><ul><li>TEACHER: (picture of people dancing) Peut-on parler à un ami ? </li></ul><ul><li>STUDENTS: Oui, on peut parler à un ami . </li></ul><ul><li>TEACHER: Peut-on faire du jogging? </li></ul><ul><li>STUDETNS: Non, on ne peut pas faire du jogging. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Guided Induction (cont.) <ul><li>2. Directs students’ attention to the model sentences on the board and asks the class to fill them in chorally as a group. </li></ul><ul><li>Instructions: Maintenant, r épondez avec imagination </li></ul><ul><li>TEACHER: Dans un avion, on peut ____________ à un ami; on ne </li></ul><ul><li>peut pas ________ un match de football. </li></ul><ul><li>STUDENTS: Parler/ Regarder </li></ul><ul><li>3. Teacher wrote in students’ choral response as they gave it and the teacher and students co-constructed the rule </li></ul>
  15. 15. Test I (One day after grammar lesson)
  16. 16. Test II (one week after grammar lesson)
  17. 17. Overall Research Results <ul><ul><li>Statistically significant at the p<.05 level </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Criteria for Effective Inductive Lessons <ul><li>1. A clear and interesting CONTEXT </li></ul><ul><li>2. A purpose for the grammar in communication </li></ul><ul><li>3. Shows the grammar pattern clearly, frequently, and </li></ul><ul><li>naturally in context </li></ul><ul><li>4. Keeps meaning and communication in focus (not just </li></ul><ul><li>form) </li></ul><ul><li>5. Lesson moves from comprehension to production </li></ul><ul><li>6. Requires learner to communicate using the new </li></ul><ul><li>grammar </li></ul>
  19. 19. In an inductive approach… <ul><li>Students will talk and use sentences with the new structures without having been taught the linguistic rules ! </li></ul><ul><li>How is this possible???? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is this a good thing??? </li></ul>

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