Workshop 02


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From the conference Competence 50+ 2007 in Gothenburg, Sweden.

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Workshop 02

  1. 1. “ Health promotion for elder unemployed regarding preservation of employability and quality of life” – most needed, least promoted! Dr. Peter Kuhnert (University of Dortmund, Germany)
  2. 2. Current conditions for unemployed in Germany <ul><li>„ Workplace Health Promotion in an enlarging Europe“ is very important (Ylikoski, 2006) – but what about the unemployed and precarious employed? </li></ul><ul><li>Only half of the German companies employs elderly people (50 years+) (Keuler, 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Trend to go on pension very early and a “focus on youth” (Naegele & Reichert, 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Discrepancy between the official “elderly-friendly” positions and the consequent exclusion strategy within the companies (Bäcker, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Up to date only few projects contributed to an improvement of job opportunities for the elderly (Eichenhorst & Sprouß, 2005) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Current conditions for unemployed in Germany <ul><li>50-60 year old long-term unemployed reached a re-employment rate of 24% - compared to a group using the “usual official channel” only 5% (Bröker & Schöning, 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Qualification programmes in Germany lack psycho-social counselling in general although complex cases of problems of unemployed increase (Kuhnert & Kastner, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Stabilising Groups can help to strenghten resources since the acceptance for this kind of group offers is rather high (58,7%) within the target group (Kuhnert, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Community psychology orientation can re-establish vitality and confidence, a community related health promotion improved e.g. psycho-social well-being significantly </li></ul><ul><li>(Sickendiek, Engel & Nestmann,2002; Collins&Benedict, 2006; Yaggy et al., 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Incidence probability for a disease was lower when livelihood was not constantly threatened and friends and neighbours were not excluding or dooming (Starrin & Jönsson, 2006) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Current conditions for unemployed in Germany <ul><li>Prevention can delay age morbidity (up to 10 years) in 50 to 65 year old unemployed, who are neglected target group up to now (Altgeld et al., 2006; Klein & Semman; Tiemann; Brehm & Sygusch, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Elderly unemployed who are high underrepresented in health-sports-programmes benefit from special health-sport offers which were especially created for little-moving persons </li></ul><ul><li>More tangible steps towards a coping with everyday life like e.g. „interchange circles“ (Tauschringe) are important for a positive self-esteem of unemployed people (Krebs, 2005; Potreck-Rose & Jacob, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Proved protective factors against psychic and addiction diseases like: experienced social support, good social and communication skills, optimism and humour, active coping strategies and meanigfullness ( Southwick et al. 2006) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Demands for unemployed in Germany <ul><li>Study with 20.000 unemployed shows: </li></ul><ul><li>40% of the unemployed need a debt counselling </li></ul><ul><li>almost 30% an intensive health and family counselling </li></ul><ul><li>20% have insufficient abilities of writing, reading and calculating </li></ul><ul><li>According to our social code long-term unemployed are to receive qualifications within the employment opportunities – up to now this is hardly implemented (Schwendy, 2004) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Leisure- and health relevant aspects for more employability for elderly people (50 plus) <ul><li>Study of the University of Dortmund: long-term unemployed (N=229) with lively leisure time activities (intensive hobbies) have significant better mental health and coping strategies (Kuhnert, 1999) </li></ul><ul><li>Positive as well as negative leisure time activities (TV, alcohol, pets, sexual intercourse, etc.) buffer effect of negative experiences (Kleiber, Hutchinson & Williams, 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Humour allows to refrain from stressors (Kuhnert, 2007), including ability to see something from at least two perspectives and have a new perception of negative experiences (McGhee, 1996) </li></ul>
  7. 7. „ Lack of perspective is my illness“ <ul><li>Former long-term unemployed (more than 7 years) on average 55 years old working in temporary job-creating-schemes (ABM) improved psychological complaints (depression, sleep disorders, nervousness) but increase in the end of employment (Lauenroth & Swart, 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Future prospects are an important determent of health – “Lack of perspective is my illness” (Long-term unemployed, 50+) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Results of selected European Studies <ul><li>East-German study: </li></ul><ul><li>0 (!) % of long-term unemployed older than 50 years believed in getting a job in the first labour market </li></ul><ul><li>West-German study: </li></ul><ul><li>65% of long-term unemployed evaluated their vocational future extremely negative, </li></ul><ul><li>2/3 had great fears to fail in their vocation (Kuhnert, 1999) </li></ul><ul><li>Swiss evaluation study: </li></ul><ul><li>missing cooperation of different services of the agencies for employment and public health authorities complicate the development of health relevant support for unemployed and precarious employed (Kuhnert, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Finnish study: </li></ul><ul><li>unemployed with a low income have the highest health risk (Virtanen et al., 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Australian study: </li></ul><ul><li>especially job insecurity intensifies the risk of fear- and depression affections (D’Souza et al., 2003) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Problems in health counselling of unemployed <ul><li>At least 30% of unemployed have physical or psychological problems </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term unemployed have more severe restraints </li></ul><ul><li>- e.g. Burn-Out-Syndrome is much more frequent in these groups (41%) than within employees in public service (6,5%) (Wüstner, 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>- studies of the University of Dortmund even find percentages of 40-50% ( Kuhnert & Kastner, 2006) </li></ul>
  10. 10. New issues in health counselling <ul><li>health related counselling with 50-60 year-old unemployed can decrease morbidity rate (delay for one decade approx.) Altgeld et al., 2006, S. 21) </li></ul><ul><li>Dortmund: sports-programmes succesfully evaluated for unemployed have been especially designed for people with little affinity to movement (“Koko”-Sport) (Tiemann, Brehm & Sygusch, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>A future domain of counselling will be the „Working Poor“, who constitute a major part of 1,8 million Germans living in concealed poverty (Hans-Böckler-Stiftung, 2006) </li></ul>
  11. 11. New issues in health counselling <ul><li>Multicomponent programmes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>individual and life-related counselling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>different intervention forms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>participation of target-groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> promises best outcomes for persons with multiple problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Target-group-participation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. senior employees help senior unemployed in Sweden </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Schmugge, Künzi & Guggisberg, 2007) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>voluntary addiction councelors help integrate unemployed substance-abusers in their groups in Dortmund (expert interview, March 2007) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Thank you for your attention! </li></ul><ul><li>Contact: </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Peter Kuhnert, University of Dortmund, </li></ul><ul><li>T. 0049-231-755-4114/6570 </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>
  13. 13. Possible questions for the further discussion! <ul><li>Workshop: </li></ul><ul><li>How do you think could the problem of acquisition be solved? (unemployed people with the greatest need, but who are inactive, isolated and/or uninterested) </li></ul><ul><li>Which management-strategies could improve the cooperation of the different actors of the work- and health sector? </li></ul><ul><li>Which method of intervention do you think is the most successful? (e.g. motivational interviewing, stress management) </li></ul><ul><li>Which positive and/ or negative experiences do you have in respect to specific topics? </li></ul><ul><li>Which institutional barriers exist in your country? </li></ul><ul><li>Which characteristics have to be considered when working with this target group (50+)? </li></ul>