Hard copy of report writing


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Hard copy of report writing

  1. 1. CHETANA’S HAZARIMAL SOMANICOLLEGE OF COMM & ECO. & SMT. KUSUMTAI CHAUDHARI COLLEGE OFARTSGroup No:-09Presented By: FYBFMPresented To: Prof. ShivaprasadTopic : Report Writing & Prospectus/ Offer Document 30
  3. 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTThis report was made with the help of Prof.Shivaprasad he guidedus very well. He provided us with basic information to make report.We are thanking him that he gave us valuable time to make thisreport. 30
  4. 4. TABLE OF CONTENTSSr. No. Topic Page No.1. Introduction of report writing 52. Types of report 73. Structure of report 94. Planning of report 135. Features of report writing 156. Common mistakes in report writing 207. Introduction of prospectus 228 Structure of prospectus 219 Importance of report writing 2810 Conclusion 29 30
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION OF REPORT WRITINGA report can be defined as a testimonial or account ofsome happening. It is purely based on observation and analysis.A report gives an explanation of any circumstance. In today’scorporate world, reports play a crucial role. They are a strong basefor planning and control in an organization, i.e., reports giveinformation which can be utilized by the management team in anorganization for making plans and for solving complex issues in theorganization.A report discusses a particular problem in detail. It brings significantand reliable information to the limelight of top management in anorganization. Hence, on the basis of such information, themanagement can make strong decisions. Reports are required forjudging the performances of various departments in an organization. 30
  6. 6. An effective report can be written going throughthe following steps-1. Determine the objective of the report, i.e., identify the problem.2. Collect the required material (facts) for the report.3. Study and examine the facts gathered.4. Plan the facts for the report.5. Prepare an outline for the report, i.e., draft the report.6. Edit the drafted report.7. Distribute the draft report to the advisory team and ask for feedback and recommendations. 30
  7. 7. TYPES OF REPORTSResearch report:This is probably the most widely spread type of report writing. A researchreport is the account on a research work carried out with a specificpurpose. In a research report, you should present the background of theresearch, its findings, theoretical implications and practical applicationsof the result your research provides.Business report:In business milieu, Business report writing happens to be anindispensable part of the communication process. Executive summary iswritten in a non-technical manner. By and large, audience for businessreports will consist of upper level manager, for that reason you shouldtake the audience needs in consideration. Go on with the introduction toarticulate the problem and determine the scope of the research. To attainthe desired results, don’t fail to state about the precise quantitative tools. 30
  8. 8. Scientific reports:Finally, the scientific type of report writing is similar to the research one.The major difference is that scientific reports are written by studentstaking science courses, while research reports dominate in humanities. Ascientific report, similarly to the research one, is an account of aninvestigation a person, or a group of people, carried out, trying to answertheir questions. Such a paper should contain not only the details andfindings of the research, but also the implications of the findings and theirpotential implementations. 30
  9. 9. Report structureWhat follows is a generic structure for reports. Using this structure willhelp to give your report the correct level of formality; it will also help toensure that you do not leave out anything important. However, the actualstructure required by your discipline may not be exactly what isrepresented here - you should check with your lecturer.A report should generally include the following sections.(Sections marked with an asterisk (*) are essential: others are optionaldepending on the type, length and purpose of the report.)Title pageThis must contain: • the report title which clearly states the purpose of the report • full details of the person(s) for whom the report was prepared • full details of the person(s) who prepared the report • the date of the presentation of the reportTable of Contents(Usually only if the report is longer than, say, ten pages)This is a list of the headings and appendices of the report. Depending onthe complexity and length of the report, you could list tables, figures and 30
  10. 10. appendices separately. Make sure the correct page numbers are shownopposite the contents.Abbreviations and/or glossaryIf necessary, you should provide an alphabetical list of the abbreviationsyou have used in the report, especially if they may not be familiar to allreaders of the report.If you have used a lot of technical terms, you should also provide aglossary (an alphabetical list of the terms, with brief explanations of theirmeanings).Acknowledgements (if appropriate)This is a short paragraph thanking any person or organisation whichgave you help in collecting data or preparing the report.Abstract (Summary or Executive Summary)An abstract is quite different from an introduction. It is a summary of thereport, in which you include one sentence (or so) for every main sectionof your report. For example, you can include: • the context of the research • the purpose of the report • the major findings (you may need several sentences here) • the conclusions 30
  11. 11. • the main recommendationsWrite the abstract after you have written the report.Introduction • Give enough background information to provide a context for the report. • State the purpose of the report. • Clarify key terms and indicate the scope of the report (.i.e. what the report will cover).BodyThe content of the body depends on the purpose of the report, andwhether it is a report of primary or secondary research.A report of primary research (based on your own observations andexperiments) would include: • Literature review (what other people have written about this topic. See our webpage for hints on writing a literature review). The literature review should lead towards your research question. • Method (summaries what you did and why). Use the past tense. 30
  12. 12. • Findings or results (describes what you discovered, observed, etc, in your observations and experiments). Use the past tense. • Discussion (discusses and explains your findings and relates them to previous research). Use the present tense to make generalizations.A report of secondary research (based on reading only) would include: • Information organized under appropriate topics with sub- headings. It is unlikely that your report will discuss each source separately. You need to synthesis material from different sources under topic headings. • Analysis/discussion of the sources you are reporting.ConclusionSum up the main points of the report. The conclusion should clearlyrelate to the objectives of your report. No surprises please! (.i.e., don’tinclude new information here.)BibliographyUsing references for the information. 30
  13. 13. Planning of reportAs in all writing assignments, its crucial to analyse the task carefully. • Who is the report for? • Why do they want it? • What do they need to know?Then start planning: Think about structure and format • Check your guidelines! • Have you been given a suggested structure or format? • Think how to present your information most clearly. Plan the writing process • Think about what you already know. • Brainstorm. Jot down notes or make a mind map. • How will you find the information you need? • Make a time plan allowing for each preparation and writing stage. Reports usually have important deadlines! 30
  14. 14. Organise your information • Consider the sources you will need. • Decide which key information should go in which section. • Organise your information as you go along. • Note your references as you go along. 30
  15. 15. FEATURES OF REPORT WRITING1. Good Report has Clarity of ThoughtA good report is one which is drafted in a simple, clear and lucidlanguage. Its language should not be difficult and confusing. Thereshould be no ambiguity as regards the statements made in thereport. A reader should be able to understand the entire reporteasily, exactly and quickly. In fact, this is the basic purpose of reportwriting.2. Good Report is complete and Self-explanatoryA good report is always a complete and self-explanatory document.For this, repetition of facts, figures, information, conclusions andrecommendation should be avoided. Report writing should bealways complete and self-explanatory. It should give completeinformation to the readers in a precise manner.3. Good Report is Comprehensive but CompactA lengthy report is not necessarily a good report. In fact, reportshould be a brief and compact document. At the same time, itshould give complete picture of the problem under investigation. Inthis sense the report writing should be comprehensive but compact. 30
  16. 16. 4. Good Report is Accurate in all AspectsOne more feature of a good report is that it should be correct in allaspects. The data given and statements made in the report must bebased on facts and must be verified carefully. Report writing is aresponsible job as report is used as a reliable document for takingdecisions and framing policies. Thus, report writing should be alwaysaccurate, factual and reliable.5. Good Report has Suitable Format for readersA good report needs proper format. It should be convenient to thetype of the report. The report should have all essential componentssuch as title, introduction, findings and recommendations. This givesconvenience to the reader.6. Good Report Support Facts and is FactualA good report is always factual. The findings, conclusions andrecommendations included in the report should be supported byinformation and data collected from reliable sources. Statisticaltables should support statements made in the report. Attentionneeds to be given to this reliability aspect in report writing. 30
  17. 17. 7. Good Report has an Impersonal StyleA good report should be drafted in an impersonal manner. Thereport writing should be in third person. This is necessary as thereport is prepared for the benefits of a person who needs it and notfor the benefit of the person who prepares it.8. Good Report has a Proper Date and SignatureA good report should be properly dated and signed by theconcerned authority or by the chairman of the committee or by allcommittee members. This has legal significance and needs specialattention in report writing.9. Good Report has a Reference to Relevant DetailsIn effective report writing, reference to relevant details is necessary.A good report should cover all relevant details for the methodologyused,Questionnaire prepared for data collection and the procedurefollowed by the committee. 30
  18. 18. 10. Good Report follows an Impartial ApproachA good report is always fact finding and not fault finding. It should beprepared in an impartial manner. The writers of the report should beimpartial in their outlook and approach. In other words, there shouldbe objectivity in report writing. Emotions, sentiments, personal viewsetc. should be kept away while drafting a report. The approach ofreport writer should be broad based, positive and constructive. Heshould be neutral and self effecting in his reports writing.11. Good Report has all Essential Technical DetailsIn a good report writing attention should be given to certain essentialtechnical details. For example, the pages and paragraphs of thereport should be numbered properly. Marginal heading and titlesshould be given. This gives convenience to readers.12. Good Report is presented in a Lucid StyleA good report is one which is presented in a lucid style. It needslogical and systematic arrangement of different parts. It should beeasily and clearly understandable by all those for whom it is meant.A good report should create interest among readers because of itslucid and convincing style. Clear thinking, objective tone and logicalarrangement of thoughts make the report simple and lucid. 30
  19. 19. 13. Good Report is a Reliable DocumentThe data collection, analysis and interpretation of the data,conclusions drawn and recommendations made in the report shouldbe accurate so as to make the whole report reliable and dependablefor future reference and also for policy decisions. This, reliability isone important aspect of effective report writing.14. Good Report is arranged in a Logical MannerThe different parts of the report should be arranged in a logical orderso as to make it an integrated document. Proper planning isessential while drafting report. Attention to format of a report is amust in effective report writing. 30
  20. 20. Common Mistakes in Report WritingQuite a lot of times, we observe some common mistakes in reportwriting when we go through someone else’s report but very oftenlose track of them when we sit to write our own report.Report writing is a skill which can be indoctrinated and learnedthrough experience. These are the errors which probably we allknow but they become inevitable since we cannot recall them at theright time when it is required the most.1.BoringThe report should be written keeping the background of the targetaudience in mind. Abrupt deviations from the objective can makereport lifeless to the target audience. There are instances where theflow of the topic or subsequent pages or slides is not in sync; thisalso makes report boring. The overall outline should be drawn in away before hand so that all chips fit in well and moves towards theobjective of the report writing.2.ErrorsBe cautious about spelling and grammatical errors. They are the twoimportant focus points while writing a report. Wrong spelling andimproper use of tense can cause severe damage to the overall valueand impact of a report. A report with misspellings and mixed tensesgives an impression of an immature report writer. Any proper 30
  21. 21. documentation requires correct and complete sentence with properwords and tenses.3.LanguageIn order to explain the subject, a writer sometimes uses complexlong sentences with too many clauses or keeps the sentenceincomplete. Sometime, as a result of this, the reader will either fail toidentify the relevant points or not understand the subject at all. Thelanguage used in a report should be lucid.While writing a report, a writer should also take care of thenonfigurative terminologies, idioms, abbreviations and technicalwords. At any given point of time this is should be kept in mind thatreport is to make viewer or reader comfortable with the findingsrather to confuse the reader concerned.4.LengthyThe target audience will generally have essential understanding ofthe matter or have some basic understanding of the subject. In suchcases it is not required for a writer to overemphasize a specific topicat length. The audiences would be more concerned with the factsand findings and they would look for data and analysis part of thereport. Their focus will be more on the inferences, conclusions andon the probable solution suggested if any. A writer should keep areport topic, very specific, relevant and crisp. 30
  22. 22. ProspectusA formal legal document, which is required by and filed with theSecurities and Exchange Commission that provides details about aninvestment offering for sale to the public. A prospectus shouldcontain the facts that an investor needs to make an informedinvestment decision.In finance, a prospectus is a document that describes a financialsecurity for potential buyers. A prospectus commonly providesinvestors with material information about mutual funds, stocks,bonds and other investments, such as a description of thecompanys business, financial statements, biographies of officersand directors, detailed information about their compensation, anylitigation that is taking place, a list of material properties and anyother material information. In the context of an individual securitiesoffering, such as an initial public offering, a prospectus is distributedby underwriters or brokerages to potential investors. 30
  23. 23. Guide to understand an Offer DocumentThis sub‐section attempts to inform the structure of presentation ofthe content in an offer document. The basic objective is to help thereader to navigate through the content of an offer document.1. Cover PageUnder this head full contact details of the Issuer Company, leadmanagers and registrars, the nature, number, price and amount ofinstruments offered and issue size, and the particulars regardinglisting. Other details such as Credit Rating, IPO Grading, risks inrelation to the first issue, etc are also disclosed if applicable.2. Risk FactorsUnder this head the management of the issuer company gives itsview on the Internal and external risks envisaged by the companyand the proposals, if any, to address such risks. The company alsomakes a note on the forward looking statements. This information isdisclosed in the initial pages of the document and also in theabridged prospectus. It is generally advised that the investors should 30
  24. 24. go through all the risk factors of the company before making aninvestment decision.3. IntroductionUnder this head a summary of the industry in which the issuercompany operates, the business of the Issuer Company, offeringdetails in brief, summary of consolidated financial statements andother data relating to general information about the company, themerchant bankers and their responsibilities, the details ofbrokers/syndicate members to the Issue, credit rating (in case ofdebt issue), debenture trustees (in case of debt issue), monitoringagency, book building process in brief, IPO Grading in case of FirstIssue of Equity capital and details of underwriting Agreements aregiven. Important details of capital structure, objects of the offering,funds requirement, funding plan, schedule of implementation, fundsdeployed, sources of financing of funds already deployed, sourcesof financing for the balance fund requirement, interim use of funds,basic terms of issue, basis for issue price, tax benefits are alsocovered. 30
  25. 25. 4. About usUnder this head a review of the details of business of the company,business strategy, competitive strengths, insurance, industry‐regulation (if applicable), history and corporate structure, mainobjects, subsidiary details, management and board of directors,compensation, corporate governance, related party transactions,exchange rates, currency of presentation and dividend policy aregiven.5. Financial StatementsUnder this head financial statement and restatement as per therequirement of the Guidelines and differences between any otheraccounting policies and the Indian Accounting Policies (if theCompany has presented its Financial Statements also.6. Legal and other informationUnder this head outstanding litigations and material developments,litigations involving the company, the promoters of the company, itssubsidiaries, and group companies are disclosed. Also materialdevelopments since the last balance sheet date, government 30
  26. 26. approvals/licensing arrangements, investment approvals (FIPB/RBIetc.), technical approvals, and indebtedness, etc. are disclosed.7. Other regulatory and statutory disclosuresUnder this head, authority for the Issue, prohibition by SEBI,eligibility of the company to enter the capital market, disclaimerstatement by the issuer and the lead manager, disclaimer in respectof jurisdiction, distribution of information to investors, disclaimerclause of the stock exchanges, listing, impersonation, minimumsubscription, letters of allotment or refund orders, consents, expertopinion, changes in the auditors in the last 3 years, expenses of theissue, fees payable to the intermediaries involved in the issueprocess, details of all the previous issues, all outstandinginstruments, commission and brokerage on, previous issues,capitalization of reserves or profits, option to subscribe in the issue,purchase of property, revaluation of assets, classes of shares, stockmarket data for equity shares of the company, promise vis‐à‐visperformance in the past issues and mechanism for redressal ofinvestor grievances is disclosed. 30
  27. 27. 8. Offering informationUnder this head Terms of the Issue, ranking of equity shares, modeof payment of dividend, face value and issue price, rights of theequity shareholder, market lot, nomination facility to investor, issueprocedure, book building procedure in details along with the processof making an application, signing of underwriting agreement andfiling of prospectus with SEBI/ROC, announcement of statutoryadvertisement, issuance of confirmation of allocation note("can") andallotment in the issue, designated date, general instructions,instructions for completing the bid form, payment instructions,submission of bid form, other instructions, disposal of applicationand application moneys, , interest on refund of excess bid amount,basis of allotment or allocation, method of proportionate allotment,dispatch of refund orders, communications, undertaking by thecompany, utilization of issue proceeds, restrictions on foreignownership of Indian securities, are disclosed. 30
  28. 28. Importance of Report WritingThe benefits and report writing importance can be understoodthrough the analysis of basic business reports features andcharacteristics. • Communicative values. Report writing importance can be expressed through communication of the report writer to the readers through business concepts and company’s strategies. • Statistical analysis. Most business reports are dedicated to the analysis of statistical data related to marketing development or supply and demand balance. One can stress the report writing importance through its contribution to marketing management researches making. • Recommendations. Business reports can be dedicated to the description of company’s perspectives and recommendations. The success of future business planning can be reached through centralization of report writing importance.The importance of report writing can be understood only byevaluation the usefulness of paper writing in business organizations.In most firms the employees are to report the managers about theamount of work they made in relation to provided plan. This gives anopportunity to analyze staff work and time spent for its fulfillment.Report writing importance is stressed not only in business, but ineconomics and politics. 30
  29. 29. CONCLUSIONReports in written form are useful for future reference. Reportsprovide adequate and correct information as well as statistical datato management and helps in decision making .a report providesinformation of unknown facts i.e. new ideas new vision new solutionto problem new research about a particular matter. A report providesvaluable information of all sectors in the business hence report areuseful for solving the problem of various department. Report acts asan important and effective internal tool of communication. 30
  30. 30. Referencewww.australia.edu.inwww.invespedia.comwww.hss.iitb.ac.inwww.managementstudyguide.com 30