-Elizabethan Era- -Shakespeare--Romeo and Juliet-
Elizabethan England• Known as the English Renaissance (rebirth)• England was ruled by Queen Elizabeth I , daughter of King Henry VIII, from 1533-1603.• The Queen had a love for theater and the arts, so during this period, the arts (poetry, plays, painting, etc.) flourished. (c) 2007 brainybetty.com ALL 2 RIGHTS RESERVED.
Life in the Elizabethan EraClothing/Fashion• Certain fabrics, textures, and colors of clothing indicated which social class a person was a part of.• If a person dressed out of his/her social class, they would be punished because it was against the law. (c) 2007 brainybetty.com ALL 3 RIGHTS RESERVED.
Life in the Elizabethan EraMarriages• A woman didn’t choose husband.• Marriages were usually arranged by the families of the bride and the groom in order for both sides to benefit from one another.• Once married, women had practically no rights; they could not work outside the home. (c) 2007 brainybetty.com ALL 4 RIGHTS RESERVED.
Life in the Elizabethan EraHealth• Many members of a family, often 48 people, would live in the same room.• There was no sanitation, no indoor plumbing, no concept of germs or sterilization.• The streets were filled with waste, both human and animal.• There were two outbreaks of the Bubonic Plague (c) 2007 brainybetty.com ALL 5 RIGHTS RESERVED.
Life in the Elizabethan EraOther interesting facts:• Only boys were allowed to attend formal education• Going to the dentist was deadly• Punishment for crimes was VERY harsh – Robbers would have limbs cut off by a saw, have fingers torn off, eyes dug out with hot pinchers, or death sentence – Women gossips had sharp device put in mouth and, with any movement, the tongue would be cut or damaged – For adultery, one would be attached to stool and continuously dunked under water until death (c) 2007 brainybetty.com ALL 6 RIGHTS RESERVED.
Life in the Elizabethan Era• The lower class would bathe a couple times A YEAR, and the upper class bathed once every couple of weeks.• Instead of toilet paper, clumps of grass or hay was used.• Pale skin was considered beautiful, so they avoided the sun.• A high forehead was a sign of intelligence, so many women would shave a portion on top of their head. (c) 2007 brainybetty.com ALL 7 RIGHTS RESERVED.
William Shakespeare• The most famous playwright of all time• Born: 1564 in Stratford uponAvon; Died: 1616• At 18, he married 26 year old Anne Hathaway• Had 3 children, one of which died at 11 (c) 2007 brainybetty.com ALL 8 RIGHTS RESERVED.
William Shakespeare • 1585 – 1592 were considered his lost years. No one knew of his whereabouts. • By 1592, he had become well known in London theatrical circles. • In his lifetime Shakespeare wrote 37 plays (c) 2007 brainybetty.com ALL 9 RIGHTS RESERVED.
William ShakespeareTypes of Plays• 1. comedy – usually ends with weddings. • 2. history – a retelling of the history of England• 3. tragedy – ends with death a. a hero has a high position b. hero falls (causes his own fall) (c) 2007 brainybetty.com ALL 10 RIGHTS RESERVED.
The Globe Theatre• Famous theatre of the time• Plays were held at 2:00 pm because there was no lighting in the theaters. And in good weather because it had no roof • Few props were used; language focused on imagery (c) 2007 brainybetty.com ALL 11 RIGHTS RESERVED.
The Globe Theatre • Both poor and rich people alike attended plays in Shakespeare’s time. • It had several levels of seating – Lowest level, or pit, was the cheapest; the “groundlings” stood here (c) 2007 brainybetty.com ALL 12 RIGHTS RESERVED.
The Globe Theatre • During this time, women were NOT allowed to be actors • ALL roles were played by men/boys • The character of Juliet would have been played by a boy (c) 2007 brainybetty.com ALL 13 RIGHTS RESERVED.
The Globe Theatre• In the 1590s, the theaters had to close a few times due to outbreaks of the Plague• Germs were EASILY spread at the theaters (c) 2007 brainybetty.com ALL 14 RIGHTS RESERVED.
Romeo and Juliet William Shakespeare“Starcrossed lovers” (c) 2007 brainybetty.com ALL 15 RIGHTS RESERVED.
Romeo and Juliet• The play is set in Verona, Italy (c) 2007 brainybetty.com ALL 16 RIGHTS RESERVED.
Juliet’s Balcony• Although Juliet is a fictional character, this actual building in Verona (built around the 13th century) is said to have been the home to a prominent family in Italy back then. The Capuleti was a family that actually existed, and some believe that Shakespeare based his fictional family, the Capulets, on them.• Pictured here is Juliet’s balcony. Some couples even get married there today. (c) 2007 brainybetty.com ALL 17 RIGHTS RESERVED.
Basics of Romeo and Juliet• Written around 1595• Involves two major families who hate each other• Entire play takes place over 5 days• Fate of Romeo and Juliet is given at the beginning of play (c) 2007 brainybetty.com ALL 18 RIGHTS RESERVED.
Romeo and Juliet - Characters The Montagues The Capulets• Romeo first loves Rosaline; sees Juliet • Juliet – daughter of Capulet; happy, and forgets Rosaline. innocent girl who loves Romeo• Lord Montague Romeo’s father • Lord and Lady Capulet Juliet’s • Lady Montague Romeo’s mother parents• Benvolio nephew of Montague and • Tybalt Juliet’s cousin; likes to fight friend of Romeo • Nurse Juliet’s nanny and friend• Balthasar servant of Romeo • Peter servant to the Nurse• Abram servant of Montague; enjoys • Sampson and Gregory – servants fighting with Capulets (c) 2007 brainybetty.com ALL 19 RIGHTS RESERVED.
Romeo and Juliet - Characters The Others•Prince Escalus ruler of Verona; tired of the fighting in the city and threatens anyone who disturbs the peace with death•Mercutio relative of the prince and friend of Romeo (sides with Montague); serves as comic relief •Friar Laurence a Franciscan priest; helps Romeo and Juliet; good man•Friar John another Franciscan priest•Count Paris a young nobleman and relative of the prince (sides with Capulet); Juliet’s parents arrange for her to marry him (c) 2007 brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Literary Terms• Pun – a joke based on the use of a word or words that has multiple meanings. Mercutio: Nay, gentle Romeo, we must have you dance. Romeo: Not I, believe me. You have dancing shoes with nimble soles; I have a soul of lead.• Oxymoron– a figure of speech that combines two contradicting terms Juliet: Beautiful tyrant! Fiend angelical! 22
Literary Terms• Foil – a character who contrasts and balances another character in the story. – Benvolio is a peacemaker, while Tybalt is confrontational.• Catharsis – the point where a character accepts his/her fate.• Dramatic Irony – the audience knows something that the character on stage is not aware of. 23
Literary Terms• Allusion – an indirect reference by casually mentioning something that is generally familiar like mythology, the Bible, history, etc. Romeo: … She’ll not be hit With Cupid’s arrow; she hath Dian’s wit.• Tragic Flaw – a character’s trait that leads to his/her downfall or destruction. 24
Literary Terms -- Speeches• Soliloquy –long speech given by a character directly to the audience; reveals private, inner thoughts about the character.• Monologue – long speech given by one character to other characters.• Aside – a “mini soliloquy;” lines whispered to the audience or one other character (not meant to be heard by everyone on stage. 25
Poetry Terms• Meter – rhythmic structure of poetic lines.• Couplet – a pair of rhyming lines with usually the same meter.• Blank verse – unrhymed verse.• Iambic pentameter – a line over verse with ten syllables that is accented on every second beat. 26