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IAS 16 Ontology Dojo

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The term ontology is used a lot in our profession but rarely do we define what ontology is or what it is supposed to accomplish. Ontology is actually a very effective method to describe things and their relationships. Come to the Ontology Dojo to:

Find out that ontology really is not that scary.
Learn skills to help understand large information and data problems.
Supercharge your deliverables (especially concept maps).
No ontology skills are needed, but you will leave fully armed to take on any ontology problem!

Video version of the presentation from 2016 IA Summit: http://bit.ly/29bTrqE

Published in: Data & Analytics

IAS 16 Ontology Dojo

  1. 1. Ontology Dojo Learn how to use ontology to define your information and supercharge your deliverables Name: Height: Weight: Age:
  2. 2. ONTOLOGY DOJO @info_do#ontdojo DOJO DO JITSU
  3. 3. ONTOLOGY DOJO @info_do#ontdojo What is Ontology? • Philosophical study of being and reality • “Ontology” has taken on two meanings: • Classical Ontology (a study of philosophy focused on the nature of being) • Modern Applied Ontology (Using ontological theory to describe things) Ontology is a deliberate method of characterization
  4. 4. ONTOLOGY DOJO @info_do#ontdojo Who Uses Ontology? Information Architects Librarians/ Archivists/ Taxonomists Philosophers Investigators/ Law Enforcement Geographers
  5. 5. ONTOLOGY DOJO @info_do#ontdojo History of Ontology Parmenides Plato & Tom GruberJean Paul Sartre Study of Existence Concrete vs Abstract Applied
  6. 6. ONTOLOGY DOJO @info_do#ontdojo From Classical to Modern Applied Ontology • Describe things and their relationships to other things • Model and document things • Facilitate finding things Prove and describe existence of things. Classical Modern
  7. 7. ONTOLOGY DOJO @info_do#ontdojo What is Modern “Applied Ontology” • The description of a subject (The Ontology of…) • A methodology to incorporate into other practices • A set of tools to describe things and relationships
  8. 8. ONTOLOGY DOJO @info_do#ontdojo The bits and pieces of ontology Objects Predicates Attributes Name: Height: Weight: Age: Domains Class
  9. 9. ONTOLOGY DOJO @info_do#ontdojo Limits must be placed on what is examined “The ontology of…” Domains
  10. 10. ONTOLOGY DOJO @info_do#ontdojo Ontology IA/UX Comp Sci Business Library Science BOLO Domain Scope Domain Scope • Subject • Topic • Verticals • Stove Pipes Domains
  11. 11. ONTOLOGY DOJO @info_do#ontdojo Broad Narrow Build Borrow USAGE TOPIC SCOPE ANTIDEPRESSANTS WALMART INVENTORY Healthcare Finance MICHIGAN WINES Domains
  12. 12. ONTOLOGY DOJO @info_do#ontdojo Objects The difference between nothing and being
  13. 13. ONTOLOGY DOJO @info_do#ontdojo Ontology IA/UX Comp Sci Business Library Science BOLO • Being • Object • Object • Artifact • Object • Entity • Vertex Entity Object Artifact • Object • Artifact • Nouns • Product • Things • Concepts Objects
  14. 14. ONTOLOGY DOJO @info_do#ontdojo Objects • Interactions • Organization • Life Cycle • Ownership • Identification • Attributes • Concrete • Abstract Type Description RelationshipsGovernance
  15. 15. ONTOLOGY DOJO @info_do#ontdojo Concrete • Does not have to be something you “touch” • Concrete objects can take action • Adheres to the laws of physics • Much easier to communicate and describe to others Objects
  16. 16. ONTOLOGY DOJO @info_do#ontdojo Abstract • May have to “invent” physics • Harder to describe due to perspective • May not be able to take action • Often reuse terms and concepts we are familiar with. Objects
  17. 17. ONTOLOGY DOJO @info_do#ontdojo On the edges • Virtual objects can be hard to categorize • May be a matter of perspective • Interaction between abstract and concrete objects can be interesting Citizens United v. FEC (2010) Objects
  18. 18. ONTOLOGY DOJO @info_do#ontdojo The actions among things Predicates
  19. 19. ONTOLOGY DOJO @info_do#ontdojo Ontology IA/UX Comp Sci Business Library Science BOLO • Predicate • Link • Relationship • Link • Predicate • Edge • Relationship • Link • Relationship • Link • Rule • Constraint Predicates
  20. 20. ONTOLOGY DOJO @info_do#ontdojo Ben reads bookthe Action of one object on another Predicates
  21. 21. ONTOLOGY DOJO @info_do#ontdojo HyponymHypernym MeronymHolonym Synonym Antinym General Specific Whole Part Like Different Predicates
  22. 22. ONTOLOGY DOJO @info_do#ontdojo IS A TYPE OF Animal Invertebrate Insect Crustacean Vertebrate Mammal Reptile Uses • Taxonomies • Card Sorting • Affinity Diagrams • Concept Map Hypernym Hyponym Predicates
  23. 23. ONTOLOGY DOJO @info_do#ontdojo IS PART OF Uses • Site Map • Content Inventory • Vin Diagram • Card Sort • Concept Map • Affinity Diagram Meronym Meronym Meronym Holonym Predicates
  24. 24. ONTOLOGY DOJO @info_do#ontdojo IS PART OF Example Part Type (1) The handle is part of the mug. Physical (2) The remote control is part of the stereo system. Collection (3) The left half is your part of the cake. Portion (4) The cutlery is part of the tableware. Set (5) The contents of this bag is only part of what I bought. Unrelated Collection (6) That area is part of the living room. Spatial (7) The outermost points are part of the perimeter. Location (8) The first act was the best part of the play. Temporal Different Types of Parts Predicates
  25. 25. ONTOLOGY DOJO @info_do#ontdojo IS LIKE Uses • Thesaurus • Controlled Vocabulary • Card Sort • Concept Map • Affinity Diagram Predicates
  26. 26. ONTOLOGY DOJO @info_do#ontdojo TAXONOMIES CONCEPT MAPS SITE MAPS AFFINITY MAPPING/ CARD SORTS Look for the lines Predicates Predicates are Everywhere
  27. 27. ONTOLOGY DOJO @info_do#ontdojo Ben reads bookthe buysowns Predicates Other Predicates
  28. 28. • Try to use predefined/ established predicates • May have to create abstract objects • Make a legend/directory of your predicates Tammy Pez Friend of Tammy Pez Friend- ship Is a Type of Is a Part of Is Like Is not Like Is a Type of Is a Part of Is Like Is not Like Purchases Reviews Creates Predicates Other Predicates
  29. 29. ONTOLOGY DOJO @info_do#ontdojo Name: Height: Weight: Age: “Metadata liberates us, liberates knowledge.” David Weinberger Attributes
  30. 30. ONTOLOGY DOJO @info_do#ontdojo Ontology IA/UX Comp Sci Business Library Science BOLO Attributes • Attributes • Metadata • Attributes • Properties • Metadata • Metadata • Properties • Metadata • Characteristics • Descriptor • Descriptive data • Associative data Name: Height: Weight: Age: Attributes
  31. 31. • Captures characteristics • Almost endless data points can be captured…know the scope of your project • Attributes/Metadata has evolved tremendously over past 20 years Name: Height: Weight: Age: Make: MG Model: TD Midget Body Style: Convertible Color: Lt Brown Era: Vintage Make: MG Model: TD Midget Height: 53” Length: 145” Width: 59” Make: MG Model: TD Midget Website: www.mg.co.uk Description: The MG T series is a range of body-on- frame convertible spo rts cars that were… Video: Attributes
  32. 32. Name: Height: Weight: Age: UNIQUE IDENTIFIERS ID EVERYTHINGObjects Predicates Classes Metadata Deliverables Notes Clients Attributes
  33. 33. Name: Height: Weight: Age: UNIQUE IDENTIFIERS Prefix Object Type OBJ General Object PSN Persona TAX Taxonomy PRD Predicate OBJ-38 TAX-04 Attributes
  34. 34. ONTOLOGY DOJO @info_do#ontdojo Ontology IA/UX Comp Sci Business Library Science BOLO Class • Class • Group • Collection • Category • Class • Group • Collection • Class • Group • Collection • Category • Class • Schema • Taxon Classes
  35. 35. ONTOLOGY DOJO @info_do#ontdojo • When several object share one or more non- identifying attributes, they may makeup a class • Sales Manager is the class in the example • The more attributes that match, the more specific the class (North American Sales Manager NAME: Alan Moore OCCUPATION: Sales Manager LOCATION: North America SALARY: $88,000 NAME: Sara Whatley OCCUPATION: Sales Manager LOCATION: South America SALARY: $93,000 NAME: Torey Joliet OCCUPATION: Sales Manager LOCATION: North America SALARY: $82,000 Classes
  36. 36. ONTOLOGY DOJO @info_do#ontdojo • Allows to group similar objects together and then treat the collection of the objects as an object itself • Classes can have metadata that applies to all objects in the class Pants Shirts Tools • Inseam • Waist • Neck • Sleeve • Dimensions • Material Classes
  37. 37. ONTOLOGY DOJO @info_do#ontdojo “To be or not to be” “I think therefore I am” “The definition of ‘is,’ is” Class/Predicate/Attribute Pitfalls
  38. 38. ONTOLOGY DOJO @info_do#ontdojo Mammal Is a type of A Cat Maria Mammal Is a type ofClass Instance Is a Class/Predicate/Attribute Pitfalls
  39. 39. ONTOLOGY DOJO @info_do#ontdojo Product Clothes Pants Shirts North Face Solar Plaid Tools Hand Hammer Craftsman Power Impact Power Class/Predicate/Attribute Pitfalls
  40. 40. ONTOLOGY DOJO @info_do#ontdojo Organization Corporate Offices Divisions Branches HR Legal Finance Sections Teams Offices Field Offices Franchises Class/Predicate/Attribute Pitfalls
  41. 41. ONTOLOGY DOJO @info_do#ontdojo Is a Part ofIs a Type of HEIARCHIES (TAXONOMIES, SITE MAPS, AFFINITY DIAGRAMS) Object Object Object Object Object ObjectObject Object Predicates (Is a Type of) (Is a Part of) • Try to use one predicate type per diagram • Mix predicates vertically Deliverables
  42. 42. ONTOLOGY DOJO @info_do#ontdojo PERSONAS (ORGANAS, SPEC SHEETS….) SusanThe Administrator Location: Apps: iControl NetView HRBase Basic Intranet Admin Stats ~~~: xxxxxxx ~~~: xxxx ~~~: xxxxx Description: Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nullam suscipit lacus sit amet eros vehicula sagittis. In in sapien turpis. Donec risus nisi, bibendum id tristique non, rutrum vitae. Availability: Content Knowledge: Training: Investment: P-12.AB20 Deliverables
  43. 43. ONTOLOGY DOJO @info_do#ontdojo SusanThe Administrator Location: Apps: iControl NetView HRBase Basic Intranet Admin Stats ~~~: xxxxxxx ~~~: xxxx ~~~: xxxxx Description: Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nullam suscipit lacus sit amet eros vehicula sagittis. In in sapien turpis. Donec risus nisi, bibendum id tristique non, rutrum vitae. Availability: Content Knowledge: Training: Investment: P-12.AB20 CLASS GLOBAL METADATA CLASS METADATA ID PERSONAS (ORGANAS, SPEC SHEETS….) Deliverables
  44. 44. ONTOLOGY DOJO @info_do#ontdojo CONCEPT MAPS Title (Domain) Is a Part of Is a Type of Uses Object Object Object Object Object Predicate Predicate Predicate Predicate Predicate Attributes Attributes Attributes Attributes Attributes Class Deliverables
  45. 45. ONTOLOGY DOJO @info_do#ontdojo Title (Domain) Is a Part of Is a Type of Uses Object Object Object Object Object System ToolsAdministrator Anchorage Office iControl XYZ Corp’s Intranet HRBase NetView Class Personnel (Persona) (Taxonomy) (UI Wireframe)P-12.AB20 CONCEPT MAPS—TYING IT ALL TOGETHER Deliverables
  46. 46. ONTOLOGY DOJO @info_do#ontdojo Low Fidelity • Initial Design • Rapid Design • Presentation Sketching Tools Sticky Notes/Paper Listing Tools Tools and Technologies
  47. 47. ONTOLOGY DOJO @info_do#ontdojo High Fidelity • Capture Metadata/Predicates/Classes • Actionable ( Development Ready) Designs • Record Keeping Mind Mapping CAD Tools and Technologies
  48. 48. ONTOLOGY DOJO @info_do#ontdojo • Extensible Markup Language (XML) • Unified Modeling Language (UML) • Ontological Web Language (OWL) • Resource Description Framework (RDF) Tools and Technologies
  49. 49. ONTOLOGY DOJO @info_do#ontdojo Ready to go out and CLASS First Day at Ontology Dojo
  50. 50. ONTOLOGY DOJO @info_do#ontdojo • The Accidental Taxonomist by Heather Hedden • OWL: Representing Information Using the Web Ontology Language by Lee Lacy • Modeling Business Objects with XML Schema by Berthhold Daum • Being and Nothingness by Jean-Paul Sartre • Study of Mereology (parthood): http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/mereology/ • National Center for Ontological Research NCOR: https://ubwp.buffalo.edu/ncor/ Sources and Material
  51. 51. ONTOLOGY DOJO @info_do#ontdojo Copyright This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution- NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/.

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