Aims & Objectives
Types of drug use information
Sources of data on DU
Developed in mid 1960s in Northern Europe & UK.
Pioneering work by Arthur Engel in Sweden & Pieter
Siderius in Holland.
Ultimate goal was to assess rational drug therapy.
“the marketing , distribution , prescription , and
the use of drugs in a society with special emphasis
on the resulting medical , social and economic
AIMS & OBJECTIVES
Description of drug
Early signals of
irrational drug use
improve drug use
Quality control of
Description of drug use patterns
Estimating the no: of patients exposed to drugs in a given time period.
Extent of drug use at a certain moment and/or certain area.
Extent of drug usage – proper/overuse/underuse
Drug use profile – assessing alternative drugs.
Comparing observed patterns of drug use to current guide lines.
Feed back to prescribers on DU data.
Relating the no: of case reports about adverse effects to the no: of pts
exposed to assess the magnitude of the problem.
Early signals of IRRATIONAL DRUG
Helps to generate hypotheses for further drug
Comparing drug utilization patterns and costs b/w
different regions or time periods.
Comparing observed patterns of drug use to current
Interventions to improve drug
Monitoring and evaluating the improvement
measures- information campaigns , regulatory
Following the impact of regulatory changes /
changes in insurance/reimbursement systems.
Assessing promotional activities of pharmaceutical
industry, educational activities of society’s impact on
pattern of drug use.
Quality control of drug use
Analyse current situation to
establish a plan for
Implement plan on a small
Check for the expected results
Revise or implement plan on
Types of drug information
Drug based information
Problem or encounter-based information
Systems and structures surrounding drug use
Processes of drug use
Outcomes of drug use
1. Cross-sectional study
3. Continuous longitudinal
WHO’s drug use indicators
Drug classification systems
Defined daily systems
Drug Utilization Evaluation
1. Ensuring current drug therapy
2. Controlling drug cost
3. Preventing problem related to medication
4. Evaluating the effectiveness of drug therapy
5. Identification of areas of practice that require further
education of practitioners
Sources of data on drug utilization
1. Large data base
2. Data from drug regulatory agencies
3. Supplier/distribution data
4. Practice setting data
a) Prescribing data
b) Dispensing data
c) Aggregate data
d) OTC & Pharmacist-prescribed drugs
e) Telephone & Internet prescribing
5. Community setting data.
1. Public health – diff b/w national & international patterns of
drug utilization requires further study.
2. Pharmacovigilance – DU data can be used to perform
screening pts with ↑ risk for drug induced illnesses.
3. Pharmacoeconomics – by adhering to current guidelines
reduce drug expenditure & improve limited resources.
4. Eco pharmacovigilance – pharmaceuticals are environmental
pollutants care to be taken to ↓ environmental impacts
while delivering patient benefit.
5. Pharmacogenetics – assessing genetic mechanisms related to
drug safety, comparing pts characteristics to the benefit and
risk of drugs.