• Boom in migration and development research; but with clear distinction between theories of migration and theories of development.• “We still need to work on *…+ an integral vision that addresses the root causes of the considerable asymmetries among countries and the social inequalities that dominate contemporary capitalism.” (2009, p.87).• And: no attention for the underdeveloped context of the migrant-sending countries.
Goal: “this article underscores the need for a theoretical approach based on the political economy of development” (2009).This means:Remittances are larger than FDI investmentreceive Remittances: estimated 500 million people flowsand more than double 2007). From estimated $85 B in remittances (UNDP, ODA 2000 to $199 B in 2006 (WB, 2006). Including unrecorded flows: +- 50% of the above extra.
Three sections in article:1. Overview of current models for analyzing migration-development relationship;2. New analytical model based on the political economy of development;3. The ideas underlying the alternative analytical model.
1. Current models and trendsTwo trends in analytical approaches:The vicious circle and the virtuous circle“considers migration “migratory processesincapable of inducing with consolidateddynamics of development social networks and established migrantin places of origin organizations capable(leading to more emigration)” of assisting local and regional development”.
• Virtuous trend has gained far more notoriety. Means: migration is seen as capable of bringing development.The virtuous circle is based upon:• Remittances and productive investment;• Transnationalism and development;• Co-development (developed in receiving country)• Migrant social subjects and local development
2. Towards a new theoretical approach• The political economy of migration and development• International migration should be incorporated in the field of development studies and because processes of (under)development should be considered the source of international migration.• In other words: in a global context!• Not: But:
Links between international migration and development:• Underdevelopment constitutes a catalyst for forced migration to developed countries• Migrants contribute to the receiving country’s development• Migrants help maintain precarious socio-economic stability in their countries of origin• The promotion of development as a social transformation could contain forced migration
3. Underlying ideas“In order to study migration, its cause-and-effect interrelationwith development, and the different stages that are integral tothis dialectical interaction, we must take into account twofundamental analytical dimensions: Strategic practices and structural dynamics”
The theoretical approach of this article focuses on:1. Critical approach towards neo-liberal globalization2. Critical reconstitution of development studies3. Construction of an ‘agent of change’4. Reassessment of migration and development studiesThese are fundamental for understanding therelationship between migration and development.
• Interest on migration – development nexus has increased in the past few years.Article answers three questions:1. what is new and what is old about the current ‘mantra’ of the migration-development nexus?2. with regard to sustained cross-border transactions, which and what kind of transnational ties benefit development?3. why is there a new enthusiasm about migration and development at this particular point in time?
• The history of thinking on the migration – development nexus:Phase 1: 60smigration and development-remittances and return • economic modernization concepts • Labor gaps in North, development in SouthPhase 2: 70s/80sunderdevelopment and migration-poverty and brain drain • dependency theories + world system theory.
Phase 3: 90s onwardsmigration and co-development- the celebration of circulation • globalization, network society, world society. • migration supposed to fuel development in south, not only financial and human capital but also via knowledge flows and social remittances
What is new?• The concept of migrants as transnational agents, “diasporic” actors.• Migrants still fundamental for development (even if there is no eventual return) through associations but also “informal diaspora knowledge networks”.“Diaspora/transnational communities are communities without propinquity, built primarily not on geographical closeness but on a series of social and symbolic ties that connect ethnic, religious and professional diasporas.”
Why now?• Changing concepts of development: statehood, the market and transnational civil society and community• Geo-political changes: new role of diasporas• Coupling of migration and development aid
• Emergence of a new trend in the international community: GRT global remittances trend, focused on the potential of remittances for poverty reduction and development.• Causes: 1) Growing awareness of migratory processes. 2) Lack of resources to finance MDG’s
• This implies a major shift in thinking about migration and development.• Traditionaly migration was seen as: 1) a completly distinct area of concern from development 2) the outcome of lacking or failed development
• Starting from the 90’s: – New paradigm= migration and develoment nexus (positive) [think of article Faist, phase 3] – Migration not seen as a problem but as a tool for development – Tendency to instrumentalise migration and remittances for development
GRT = gender neutral or gender blind? It is necessary to broader the concept of remittances:1) There are different typologies of remittances (different use/function) - Wages / salaries - Investments - Capital2) Remittances mean also: - social remittances - technical remittances - political remittances3) Remittances as a transnational activity4) Importance of contexts
• Regarding gender and remittancesMany unverified stereotypes: 1) Men are mainly remittances senders and women mainly (passive) remittances receivers 2) When senders, women send more remittances than men 3) Women make better use of remittances than men With empirical researches contradictory and complex findings importance of specific context-culture analysis.
Implications of these stereotypes. They: 1) Naturalise and reproduce gender norms and gendered forms of behaviour; 2) Contribute shaping policy-making and development initiatives. Conclusion: More gender-specific analysis of the gender implications of GRT on the ground and more in general researches on different dimensions of collective remittances.
Examples and discussion• Ghanacoop• Michael Clemens: true globalization as solution
The case of Ghanacoop• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FQBhmQd 3K5c
Discussion• Transnational migrant networks are the answer for underdeveloped countries.
Michael ClemensThe biggest idea in development no one really tried.Background on him:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WLoP9GalIHc • http://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/console/p00kktgp • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bB1hRNMGdbQ&feature=relmfu • Michael Clemens on labor mobility and true globalization as solution True globalization: “everything AND labor globalization”
DiscussionTrue globalization is the answer for internationaldevelopment.