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Technology for Learning:              A Guidebook               for ChangeProduced by                 Sponsored by
Table of Contents        IntroductIon .......................................................................................
Introduction     A     Nation at Risk, the 1983 report on the status of           schools in the United States, found that...
Introduction     Digital Students                                            Trends     and Analog Schools                ...
Introduction       expertise, and learning experiences that       enable and inspire more-effective teaching            Te...
Introduction           In traditional schools, certain methods work well           technology initiatives based on real-li...
Introduction                                                                  chapter 7: Managing classrooms for change   ...
Introduction     ference in how students learn and how they approach           Sustaining and Growing the     tasks. Today...
Chapter 1: Understanding                                Technology for Learning     T    echnology is everywhere. Practica...
Chapter 1:      Understanding Technology for Learning          Realizing the dream of educational-     technology programs...
Chapter 1:      Understanding Technology for Learning     Challenges                                                     A...
Chapter 1:      Understanding Technology for Learning     The Device Is the Tool                                        to...
Chapter 1:      Understanding Technology for Learning     Key Implementation Factors                                     b...
Chapter 1:      Understanding Technology for Learning        •	 Is the committee empowered to make decisions             a...
Chapter 1:      Understanding Technology for Learning            for students who are having their devices repaired?     W...
Chapter 1:      Understanding Technology for Learning                                                                   di...
Chapter 1:      Understanding Technology for Learning     ing Initiative is to “prepare 21st-century students and         ...
Chapter 1:      Understanding Technology for Learning     Summary                                                         ...
Chapter 2: Planning                        for E-learning     I  mplementing an educational-technology program        mean...
Chapter 2:      Planning for E-learning     Task Force and Action Plans                                     Needs Assessme...
Chapter 2:      Planning for E-learning         8. What will be the processes for recharging and storage?   At least two c...
Chapter 2:      Planning for E-learning          work that differentiates for the adult learner.     develop a consistent ...
Chapter 2:      Planning for E-learning     Generate policies that guide the program                          “Building ca...
Chapter 2:      Planning for E-learning     Summary                                                       REnsure that act...
Chapter 3: Establishing                           Policies and Procedures     S   tate and local governments as well as sc...
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
Technology for learning   a guidebook for change
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Technology for learning a guidebook for change

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Technology for Learning: A Guidebook for Change

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Technology for learning a guidebook for change

  1. 1. Technology for Learning: A Guidebook for ChangeProduced by Sponsored by
  2. 2. Table of Contents IntroductIon ......................................................................................................................................... pg. 3 Chapter 1: understanding technology for Learning ...............................................................................................pg. 9 Chapter 2: Planning for E-learning ............................................................................................................................. pg. 19 Chapter 3: Establishing Policies and Procedures .................................................................................................. pg. 25 Chapter 4: driving Effective Leadership .................................................................................................................. pg. 34 Chapter 5: creating Professional-development Systems.................................................................................. pg. 41 Chapter 6: using digital content in curriculum .................................................................................................... pg. 50 Chapter 7: Managing classrooms for change ........................................................................................................ pg. 60 Chapter 8: Assessing Instruction and Improvement ............................................................................................ pg. 69 Chapter 9: Employing a Sustainable Infrastructure ............................................................................................. pg. 75 Chapter 10: Financing Educational technology ..................................................................................................... pg. 90 Chapter 11: determining and Evaluating results ...............................................................................................pg. 104 Chapter 12: conclusion.................................................................................................................................................pg. 112 rESourcES And rEFErEncES ............................................................................................................... pg. 116 Appendix A: online Safety Links .................................................................................................................................pg. 119 Appendix B: “drawing conclusions” Worksheet (Word).......................................................................................pg. 120 Appendix C: School observation Measure (SoM) data Summary (PdF) ...........................................................pg. 121 Appendix D: observation of computer use (ocu©) targeted data Summary Form (PdF) .........................pg. 122 crEdItS ................................................................................................................................................ pg. 123Technology for Learning: A Guidebook for Change 2
  3. 3. Introduction A Nation at Risk, the 1983 report on the status of schools in the United States, found that the system as a whole was deficient. The report stated, “Declines in unsustainable and morally unacceptable.” In this century students need new abilities as well as traditional skills. The good news is that schools have new tools to help educational performance are in large part the result of them change the system and improve students’ learning. disturbing inadequacies in the way the educational pro- The National Education Technology Plan 2010 says, cess itself is often conducted. The four most important “Technology itself is an important driver of change. aspects of the educational process were content, expec- Contemporary technology offers unprecedented per- tations, time and teaching.” formance, adaptability, and cost-effectiveness.” This Twenty-seven years later, a crisis continues to exist. guidebook looks at an essential component of change: As Secretary of Education Arne Duncan has said, the cur- providing universal access to technology to improve the rent state of our educational system is ““economically educational process.Technology for Learning: A Guidebook for Change 3
  4. 4. Introduction Digital Students Trends and Analog Schools The Horizon Report identifies five key drivers of technol- We call today’s learners Millennials, Generation Next, or ogy adoptions that are promising. the Net Generation for good reason. They use communi- • Technology is increasingly a means for empowering cations, media, and digital technologies almost instinc- students, a method for communication and socializ- tively. They are connected, wired for the next moment’s ing, and a ubiquitous, transparent part of their lives. activities, and view the world through the prism of • Technology continues to profoundly affect the way their own interests. This worldview is different from we work, collaborate, communicate, and succeed. that of previous generations and the difference affects • The perceived value of innovation their learning significantly. Within the context of their and creativity is increasing. interconnected, always-on world, the path to student • There is increasing interest in just-in-time, alterna- engagement has changed. tive, and nonformal avenues of education, such as Young people carry personal communications online learning, mentoring, and independent study. devices and can text friends at will, get answers to • The way we think of learning environments questions, and stay in touch. According to the 2010 is changing. Horizon Report, K–12 Edition, “beyond the classroom walls, students can take advantage of online resources, explore ideas, and practice skills using games and other Transforming Schools programs they may have on systems at home, and inter- In the real world, each person has at least one device to act with their extensive—and constantly available— use as his or her own. Thus in schools, the move to any- social networks.” time, anywhere computing—providing access to technol- All too often when students come to school, they ogy for learning to all students—makes sense. Research must turn off their devices and adjust to a world from Project RED in 2010 shows that the lower the stu- that exists nowhere but in that building. The Hori- dent-to-computer ratio, the greater the improvement in zon report says, “Within the classroom, learning that students’ learning. Thus programs that provide access incorporates real-life experiences like these is not have the potential to drive student achievement. occurring enough and is too often undervalued when Five objectives outlined in the National Education it does take place.” Technology Plan 2010 are the foundation of today’s edu- In fact, Project Tomorrow’s 2009 Speak Up report cational ecosystem: learning, assessment, teaching, infra- Creating Our Future: Students Speak Up About Their Vision structure, and productivity. for 21s- Century Learning says, “Today’s classroom envi- The goals are: ronment does not mirror the way today’s students are liv- 1. Learning: Engage and Empower All learners will have ing their lives outside of school.” engaging and empowering learning experiences both While no one would advocate allowing students to in and out of school that prepare them to be active, spend school time on purely social activities, schools creative, knowledgeable, and ethical participants in can leverage students’ facility with and dependence our globally networked society. on electronic devices to build a connection from out- side classrooms to inside them and engage students 2. Assessment: Measure What Matters Our educational in learning while also building essential technologi- system at all levels will leverage the power of technol- cal competencies. Schools focus on student achieve- ogy to measure what matters and use assessment data ment, but only students who are engaged can achieve. for continuous improvement. Clearly, providing technology for students’ use is one important aspect of engagement. 3. teaching: Prepare and connect Professional educators will be supported individually and in teams by tech- nology that connects them to data, content, resources,Technology for Learning: A Guidebook for Change 4
  5. 5. Introduction expertise, and learning experiences that enable and inspire more-effective teaching Technology continues to profoundly for all learners. affect the way we work, collaborate, 4. Infrastructure: Access and Enable All stu- communicate, and succeed. dents and educators will have access to a comprehensive infrastructure for learning Universal access means the availability of online when and where they need it. tools and resources 24/7, with technology platforms 5. Productivity: redesign and transform Our educational for more personalized and more individualized learn- system at all levels will redesign processes and struc- ing. Companion tools such as cell phones and handheld tures to take advantage of the power of technology to devices can provide additional resources and connectiv- improve learning outcomes while making more efficient ity for students without a computer at home or for spe- use of time, money, and staff. cialized tasks. Today devices come in many forms and provide many options for learning. A full-functioning To reach these objectives, schools can implement the Web-accessible device with 24/7 access is best. methods below. Technology enables and enhances each. With this access, teachers can make assignments In fact, change and technology are intertwined. based on how students learn and on the data gathered • Become learner-centric. from individual work. According to the Mobilizing the Mil- • Modify curriculum and instruction to seamlessly lennials report, “each student responds uniquely to spe- integrate “universal” (formerly known as“21st- cific classroom environments and instructional practices century”) skills and knowledge. based on what they already know and how they are wired • Engage the anytime, anywhere, 24/7 model of to learn. Each student’s cognitive approach is as individ- lifelong learning. ual as his or her physical makeup.” • Adapt and adjust to personalize learning processes. In addition, “equipping classrooms with sufficient • Incorporate state-of-the-art technologies in workstations or laptop carts is essential to ensure that meaningful, engaging, and relevant ways. each student has access to a networked computer in each • Use the power of technology to increase classroom and essential student data can be collected, efficiencies and productivity. allowing teachers to make data-driven decisions to indi- • Provide pervasive, equal opportunities for learning. vidualize teaching and learning.” • Aggregate and analyze data on a systems level. Teachers can use state-of-the art technologies to • Ensure consistent, coherent professional- help students develop the universal skills of research, learning experiences. critical thought, collaboration, problem solving, com- • Use research and development to continually munication, creativity, innovation, metacognition, and seek and define organizational best practices. global connection. A learning environment of personal- ization, rich media, dynamic resources, and immediate Student Learning and Access to Technology connectivity is the catalyst for helping students acquire The original term “one-to-one computing” meant that every these crucial skills. student, teacher, and administrator would have 24/7 access Today’s “classroom” is located wherever there is to a computer and software that could lead to anytime, any- the potential for instruction and learning to occur. where, any-way learning. Currently in schools, a more real- Virtual classes, online sessions/collaborations, Web- istic view includes one-to-one, one-to-many, virtualized based instruction modules, and access to dynamic environments, labs, virtual learning, and using a wide range digital resources are examples of “classrooms” that of devices. K–12 technology programs take many forms can happen anytime and anywhere there is connec- these days. Some percentage achieves one-to-one, but many tivity and a student. Four brick-and-mortar walls are have a combination of types of learning environments. not required.Technology for Learning: A Guidebook for Change 5
  6. 6. Introduction In traditional schools, certain methods work well technology initiatives based on real-life practitioners’ with technology to engage learners and make content successes. It is based on the complex confluence of vari- meaningful. Research shows that techniques such as ables that affect today’s schools. project-based learning, collaboration, hands-on learning, More than ten years of research, practitioners’ obser- and constructivism make a difference. Clearly, technol- vations, and best practices have affirmed the ingredients ogy enables teachers to institute such learning practices that are key to K–12 technology projects’ achieving the and students to engage in the activities that will motivate overarching goals of: them to achieve to their potential. • equal access to education for all Technology is a vehicle, an enabler, that is only as • personalization of learning and teaching effective as those using it. The tools must support, not • increased student engagement and achievement supersede, educational goals related to content and out- • development of “universal” skills and competen- comes. Educators have to drive student achievement by cies for the global workplace using the power of technology, not by having the tech- • just-in-time student assessment, data gathering, nology drive them. Professional learning must be aligned feedback, and adjustments with the objectives, assessments, structures, and pro- • communication between home and school cesses that demarcate the school or district. If schools are going to improve, we must learn from What follows is an overview of each chapter. best practice and institute sweeping, systemic change. According to a new report from the Organisation for Eco- chapter 1: understanding technology for Learning nomic Co-operation and Development (OECD) says, “While Universal access to technology means that it is pres- there seems to be clear support for a systemic approach to ent everywhere. It exists in many aspects of our lives technology-based school innovations, particularly when it today; however, one place where universal access has comes to the complex issue of assessing them and using val- not yet taken hold is in our schools. This chapter pres- idated evidence to decide upon their scaling up, there is also ents a framework for understanding universal access to the recognition that this new approach challenges predomi- technology: the promises and challenges for learning and nant assumptions about innovation in education. Govern- how to assess school and district preparedness. ments and teachers alike need to rethink how innovations are supported, monitored, and assessed, whether the right chapter 2: Planning for E-learning strategies and tools are in place and used to their full poten- Implementing a program that relies on technology for tial, and finally whether the whole discussion about technol- learning means advance planning and careful prepara- ogy in education has to be redefined in light of what we all tion. Planning it is a complex and detailed process that is should be caring about: the quality of students’ learning.” tied to the organization, culture, and personnel involved. Using technology to achieve systemic change requires To achieve goals and sustain a robust program, school dis- many components and people. These include understanding tricts have to lay the groundwork and engage all stakehold- the computing needs of learners and educators; planning for ers in setting expectations, making decisions, establishing the future; establishing policies and procedures; providing benchmarks and timelines, and achieving consensus. effective leadership and professional development; under- standing digital content; and providing classroom manage- chapter 3: Establishing Policies and Procedures ment, assessment, infrastructure, funding, and program The National Education Technology Plan 2010 encourages evaluation. In addition, systemic change must be sustained. us to be clear about the outcomes we seek; collaborate to redesign structures and processes for effectiveness, effi- Purpose of This Book ciency, and flexibility; monitor and measure our perfor- Simply having the tools in teachers’ and students’ hands mance; and hold ourselves accountable for progress and doesn’t guarantee achieving educational goals. This results. We need policies and procedures that will enable document provides a guide to creating effective, robust us to carry out the plans.Technology for Learning: A Guidebook for Change 6
  7. 7. Introduction chapter 7: Managing classrooms for change Classrooms are complex systems that are affected by many factors. Because they are made up of dynamic human systems, there is no cookbook approach to class- room management or an approach to managing change that works in all situations. If teachers are going to be successful, they need training and hands-on experience with new methods, new technologies, and new ways of looking at effective learning. chapter 8: Assessing Instruction and Improvement To improve student achievement, teachers must set clear standards for students to achieve and identify how stu- dents will demonstrate that they have met these standards. Both summative and formative assessments provide data Chapter 4: Driving Effective Leadership that are important in the learning process, and technology In education, leaders are charged with inspiring and man- can help educators get the information necessary to gain aging educators, students, school boards, and others in the full picture of what students know and can do. the community in order to achieve common goals. Strong leaders should be honest, competent, and intelligent and chapter 9: Employing a Sustainable Infrastructure be able to lead others to understand and share in the mis- An infrastructure is the basic physical and organizational sion of excellent personal performance and high student structure needed for a program to function. In school dis- achievement. Such leaders exist at all levels within an tricts, it includes computers, software, wired and wireless educational system. networks, servers, and other devices that are needed to support the services managed in the data center and the chapter 5: creating Professional-development Systems components managed in the cloud, plus the support to Professional development is essential to building the keep it all going. As districts develop their educational- capacity of teachers to create classroom transformation. technology programs, add companion devices, and move Formal systems for ongoing professional learning can beyond the physical walls of their buildings, they have to lead to transforming educational environments, raising plan for the technological infrastructure needed to sup- student achievement, and ultimately creating high-per- port these initiatives. forming schools. Professional-learning experiences can be conducted face-to-face, facilitated online, or provided chapter 10: trends and Funding with blended methods. School leaders say that lack of funds is a major barrier to the infusion of educational technology. Current eco- chapter 6: using digital content in curriculum nomic realities underscore the point. Educational leaders We can define digital content as electronic images, text, are charged not only with ensuring students’ preparation video, and sounds. Use of digital media expands educa- for high-stakes tests but also with equipping them with tors’ ability to meet diverse learners’ needs beyond what the universal skills needed to flourish in a rapidly chang- they can achieve with traditional resources. A combina- ing workforce. Schools and districts have struggled to tion of digital content, the right software, and online keep initiatives up and running, and trends point to a new tools offers students options for obtaining information day for focusing on and funding educational technology. and demonstrating understanding. These opportunities help engage each student by providing the right level of chapter 11: determining and Evaluating results challenge for each one. Providing universal access to technology can make a dif-Technology for Learning: A Guidebook for Change 7
  8. 8. Introduction ference in how students learn and how they approach Sustaining and Growing the tasks. Today’s schools must provide the learning tools Program: A Buyers’ Guide that will engage students and help them achieve both There are various educational-technology solutions avail- basic and 21st-century skills. Simply providing the tools able for learning platforms, administrative solutions, and is only one step. School districts must design a program all the tasks needed to run a district. Many offer the best and implement it wisely and then evaluate the results. in flexibility, performance, and cost efficiency. Whatever This chapter will describe and provide examples of how the decision—from desktops to laptops to cloud comput- to determine what to evaluate and how to design an ing—there are numerous technologies and products for evaluation, as well as measuring results and matching meeting specific requirements. Here are some basics to outcomes to goals. guide you in choosing the right fit for your school popu- lation, curriculum, pedagogical and administrative needs, chapter 12: conclusion and IT requirements. In planning for e-learning, districts should be strategic in their thinking, which means taking into account all of a district’s needs, resources, goals, and priorities before starting any new initiative. This chapter summarizes the key points made in the guidebook. At the end of this chap- ter is a link to the Buyers’ Guide, a separate document on sustaining and growing an e-learning program that will be updated regularly as new technologies emerge and products change.Technology for Learning: A Guidebook for Change 8
  9. 9. Chapter 1: Understanding Technology for Learning T echnology is everywhere. Practically every gadget we carry around in our pockets, have at home, or encounter in stores, offices, and elsewhere is essentially will discuss this “bring your own device (BYOD) model in more detail. This chapter will explore the promises and challenges of technology in learning and related a computer: a programmable device that receives input, issues to help assess school and district preparedness. stores and manipulates data, and provides output in a useful format. Digital Learning Programs Unfortunately, one place where universal access One-to-one computing programs appeared in K–12 to technology is not universal is in our schools. We see educational programs about 20 years ago. The pio- hints of it in one-to-one programs, labs, and blended neers of the movement believed that universal access models, in which students use devices as indispens- to technology could transform education and dramati- able tools for learning anytime and anywhere. We cer- cally increase achievement. After 20 years, we know tainly see it in some of the companion devices many that when it’s done right, it works well (www.hp.com/ students carry and use when permitted. Chapter 10 go/success).Technology for Learning: A Guidebook for Change 9
  10. 10. Chapter 1: Understanding Technology for Learning Realizing the dream of educational- technology programs often requires a fundamental shift in the way we think Case Study: Fresno Unified School District about learning and teaching. Traditional classrooms function as a shared culture of entrenched patterns that shape beliefs about learning and control the school envi- ronment. Changing these fundamental pat- terns and beliefs in a school’s culture is the key to a school’s transformation. For example, the focus on acquiring a standard body of knowledge may no lon- ger be relevant. Because of the exponen- tial growth of information and evolution of thinking, it is an impossible to learn the entire body of knowledge. Almost all data, ideas, and thinking in all intellectual domains are available at the students’ fin- gertips. If acquiring and retaining informa- Fresno (California) Unified School District didn’t think it could tion are no longer the fundamental goals of afford to equip all its classrooms in a one-to-one program. the educational system, there are serious School leaders came up with a new solution that cut both the implications for our beliefs about learning, cost and the footprint of technology down to size. It’s deploying teaching, and the role of students, teachers, some 10,000 HP Mini-Note PCs in selected classrooms, giving and schools. many students throughout the district a one-to-one or two-to- When properly implemented, edu- one student-to-computer experience in the classroom. cational programs with universal access The mini notebook is small enough to fit on a student’s to technology provide a primary building desk without taking over the desktop and powerful enough block for new thinking about the process to give students and teachers the tools they need to learn and of learning. When students have their own explore. This strikes a good balance with size, price, and capac- personal, portable computing devices con- ity for classroom computing. nected to the Internet, they hold the key   The district’s goal is that over the course of a student’s to their own learning and begin to learn entire K–12 journey, their best work will be digitally saved and in self-directed ways. Teachers can per- gathered in a portfolio. Each student will have a DVD of their sonalize learning for their students using finest work, ideas, and school years’ history. authentic, student-centered methods. Stu-  Benefits that Fresno Unified is experiencing include: dents can follow their curiosity and work Ÿ The number of computers in selected classrooms with teachers to produce dynamic project- increased. based content instead of relying on static Ÿ There was the freedom to pursue individual research paper-based curricular materials. projects online. Technology is an important tool but Ÿ Its small footprint allows the mini notebook to alone will not create reformed schools or share desktop space. prepare students for their future. Trans- Ÿ There is the ability to work collaboratively in formation occurs only if technology is classrooms. combined with best practices and used in Ÿ Teachers are able to move from “sage on the stage” compelling new ways. to coach/guide/mentor.Technology for Learning: A Guidebook for Change 10
  11. 11. Chapter 1: Understanding Technology for Learning Challenges Advantages There are a number of challenges to creating a success- There are endless advantages to learning in a program ful educational-technology program. Funding usually designed with universal access to technology. Teachers tops this list. Yet Project RED contends that properly report that the benefits of programs with instructional tech- implemented one-to-one computing programs can nology embedded include an increase in students’ engage- become revenue positive. Information about financing ment and motivation, improvements in student-centered for technology is in Chapter 10. activities, and an increase in teachers’ and students’ use of Teachers report that the benefits to programs with instructional technology embedded include an increase in students’ engagement and motivation, improvements in student-centered activities, and an increase in teachers’ and students’ use of technology across the curriculum. Teachers commonly report in the early stages of technology across the curriculum. In the Fresno (California) technology implementation that their biggest challenges Unified School District, for example, chief technology offi- are managing students’ off-task use of laptops; the time it cer Kurt Madden saw that “students who were able to use takes to learn to use educational technology well; and the the notebooks became more engaged, more excited about time it takes to prepare lessons and activities. Once they what they were doing in the classroom.” are more experienced with the technology and skilled Many districts have seen their attendance and gradu- in a student-centered approach to instruction, many of ation rates improve and behavior problems decrease. the initial challenges disappear. Classroom-management Students are better prepared for higher education, tools and resources developed over time also contribute internships, and the 21st-century global workforce. Proj- to successful implementations. ect RED’s research also indicates that schools with uni- Another common challenge is when some or all stu- versal access to technology reported: dents have no Internet access at home. Even though stu- dents may be able to find public Internet access at a local All Schools library or community organization, educators often are • fewer disciplinary actions not comfortable assigning homework that requires access. • lower dropout rates Teachers can devise a wide range of work-arounds to cre- • less paperwork ate optimal learning opportunities, such as group assign- • lower paper and copying expenses ments that require only one member to have access to • greater teacher attendance Internet resources. While this is the case in many districts • higher test scores across the country, some innovative districts are finding High Schools community and home Internet-access solutions for stu- • greater AP-course enrollment dents and parents. For example, the Alvarado (Texas) • greater college-attendance plans Independent School District uses community kiosk pro- • higher course-completion rates grams, and other districts are working with broadband • greater simultaneous enrollment carriers on solutions for providing air cards for students • in high school and college to check out and take home. • higher graduation ratesTechnology for Learning: A Guidebook for Change 11
  12. 12. Chapter 1: Understanding Technology for Learning The Device Is the Tool to increased academic achievement. Simply employing Smartphones and handheld devices of many varieties are technology in the classroom does not necessary change essential to a mobile learning experience, and education the way that teachers teach and students learn. is widely adopting them. These companion devices are Papanastasiou, Zemblyas, and Vrasidas support this generally viewed as secondary to computing devices such idea with their finding that computer use in and of itself as laptops, desktops, and tablet PCs. While PCs are getting does not have a positive or negative effect on student smaller, they continue to provide extensive computing achievement (2003). It is the way technology is used that power and capacity. Handheld devices are getter richer in makes the difference. applications and functionality, but there are key content- Dr. James Marshall at San Diego State University creation uses—multimedia projects, for example—that reviewed existing research on the impact of technol- are best accomplished on PCs. ogy on learning and found clear evidence that educa- A variety of other companion devices have emerged. tional technology “complements what a great teacher In addition to smartphones, they include e-book readers, does naturally.” He says, “With ever-expanding content tablet and slate devices, graphing calculators, and single- and technology choices, from video to multimedia to purpose devices. All these remain in the domain of the the Internet, there’s an unprecedented need to under- companion device because they are complementary. stand the recipe for success, which involves the learner, However, the line between a companion device and the teacher, the content, and the environment in which a primary computing device is blurring as the way we technology is used.” define personal computing evolves. Smartphones are This kind of complex system will not change overnight. an obvious example in that applications are available When teachers have the time to experiment and grow in the that make it easier to use smartphones to find infor- ways they use technology in instruction, programs become mation and connect to communities of users in inno- more efficient and students are more engaged. Achieve- vative ways. The smartphone or tablet device is now ment will ultimately improve, but these improvements may the primary computing device for many while they are take a few years to come to fruition. The process requires a mobile. When people stop moving, whether that be in mindful, systemic change-management strategy. an office or a coffee shop or at home, they still tend to shift back to their wirelessly enabled laptop or desktop Project RED: Key Findings computer. Project RED, a partnership among the One-to-One Insti- Whether the future will be with a laptop, netbook, tute (OTO), the Greaves Group, the Hayes Connection, smartphone, tablet, slate, or some other, future device, it and Peterson Public Sector Consulting, was created to is becoming clear that there will be roles for both primary identify the key implementation factors that lead to aca- and companion computing devices. demically successful and financially sustainable educa- tional-technology programs. The research investigated What the Research Says About the three hypotheses: Success of Technology Integration 1. Properly implemented educational technology can Researchers report that integrating technology affects substantially improve student achievement. students’ motivation, autonomy, access to diverse 2. Properly implemented educational technology can be sources of information, development of technology revenue positive at all levels—federal, state, and local. skills, and engagement. These are all important aspects 3. Continuous access to a computing device for every of the learner’s experience that can lead to academic student leads to increased academic achievement success. But does technology integration lead to greater and financial benefits, especially when technology academic achievement? is properly implemented. The answer is that it depends. It depends on whether From the One-to-One Institute’s research, nine key the technology is implemented in a way that changes implementation factors emerged as being most strongly the behavior of teachers and students so that it leads tied to a program’s success.Technology for Learning: A Guidebook for Change 12
  13. 13. Chapter 1: Understanding Technology for Learning Key Implementation Factors better horse feed, and lighter-weight papers, the incre- 1. Intervention classes (e.g., Title 1, reading recovery, mental improvements in speed constituted a first-order special education): Technology is integrated into change. Then mail delivery by train provided a second- every class period. order change.” 2. Change-management leadership by principal: While a one-to-one student-to-computer ratio seems Leaders provide time for teachers’ professional to increase the impact on student outcomes, a third key learning and collaboration at least monthly. finding, and one that is important, is that technology- 3. Online collaboration: Students use technology based schools employing the key implementation factors daily for online collaboration (games/simulations outperform all other schools, including one-to-one schools and social media). that do not embrace the key implementation factors. 4. Core subjects: Technology is integrated into core curriculum weekly or more frequently.  Assessing Your District’s Digital 5. Online formative assessments: Assessments Learning Environment are done at least weekly. Understanding the strengths and weaknesses of a district’s 6. Student-computer ratio: Lower ratios technology environment is an essential step to ensuring a improve outcomes. program’s long-term success and sustainability. 7. Virtual field trips: With more frequent use, virtual There are several key components to assess. trips are more powerful. The best schools do these • leadership and the effectiveness of the at least monthly. transformative strategies 8. Search engines: Students use daily.  • the development of the district’s goals and 9. Principal training: Principals are trained execution of its strategic plans in teacher buy-in, best practices, and • what is actually happening in every classroom and technology-transformed learning. with every student • the overall effectiveness of the technology program As the researchers analyzed the data, it became clear that schools really are inconsistent in technology Leadership implementation. Although each key implementation fac- Assessing leadership and the effectiveness of strategic tor may have a significant positive impact, they did not plans is valuable. find any schools nationally that were implementing all Shared vision drives the program. While a strong the factors, and very few that were even implementing leader—superintendent, technology director, or build- most of them. ing principal—can drive the initial thinking through his The Project RED data also provided substantial evi- or her passion and leadership, a leader must collaborate dence that technology can have a positive financial with others to create a vision that all share, that lives in impact. Making the investment in technology alone, how- the hearts and minds of all the program’s stakeholders. ever, is not enough. To realize the financial benefit of the Creating the shared vision begins by engaging all the investment, schools have to embrace what the research- stakeholder groups in the development process and in ers call second-order change and completely reengineer the ongoing management of the program. Chapter 2 will the way schooling is done. explain more about a shared vision, but here are some A second-order change is very different from most of initial questions to help assess where a district is: the changes or innovations in education we have seen. • Does the district have a technology Instead of improving the current system, a second-order leadership committee? change alters the system itself. In the report, The Technol- • Does the committee include central office lead- ogy Factor: 9 Keys to Student Achievement and Cost Effec- ers, building leaders, district technology leaders, tiveness, the authors describe it as: teacher leaders, and community leaders and “When the Pony Express introduced faster horses, possibly even student leaders?Technology for Learning: A Guidebook for Change 13
  14. 14. Chapter 1: Understanding Technology for Learning • Is the committee empowered to make decisions about these in later chapters, but here are a few initial about the implementation of the program? questions to consider: Educational-technology programs require a major • Do we have specific written plans for each one of shift in the way teachers and schools function. School the components of the strategic plan described leaders have to understand what this change looks like above (communication, financial, hardware and and be trained to guide their staffs in this transformation. infrastructure, professional learning, assessment, They must also understand that this pedagogical and capacity building)? shift can be difficult for some teachers and that it will • Are our benchmarks and timelines realistic, and are take time to transform the learning environment. The they clearly aligned with the goals and objectives school leaders should cultivate an environment of inno- of our plans? vation. In this environment, teachers and students are • Have we developed a financial plan of at least five encouraged to be creative, take calculated risks, and years’ duration to fund the technology through the learn from the experience. first device-refresh cycle? Districts can consider the following questions: • Do we have a hardware and infrastructure plan that • When do we expect to see a shift in the classroom is flexible and allows for changes in technology practice of all the teachers? and the growth of the program? • Do we have realistic benchmarks and timelines • Do we provide regularly scheduled time for for teachers? teachers to engage in professional learning, as • Are we supplying enough time, training, and well as plan for instruction and collaborate with support for teachers to be successful? their colleagues? • Are mistakes seen as tools necessary for learning, • Do we have assessments that provide us with or are teachers punished for classroom innovations data about individual components of the program, that fail? teacher effectiveness, and student achievement? Program Evaluation In a digital learning environment, Evaluating the program is essential, and having an out- technology is seemingly invisible. side independent evaluator is a good way to get credible Technology is everywhere, and data that you can use to support the program’s impact and to help in future decision making. Chapter 7 and Chapter students use it seamlessly without 11, respectively, will address assessing instruction and thinking about it, and there may evaluating the success of a program. The questions below can help a district decide if it is on the right track. be a variety of computing devices Please note that the One-to-One Institute has found for students to use. that it makes a difference if each student has their own device and uses it all day. There are many configurations, Strategic Planning but when students feel ownership, they treat devices dif- An educational-technology program’s strategic plan ferently and have a different level of engagement. includes goals and objectives and plans for communica- • Does each student have his or her own mobile tion, finances, hardware and infrastructure, professional computing device with continuous Internet access? learning, assessment, and capacity building. It must also • Are there enough access points to ensure wireless include benchmarking and implementation timelines. connectivity for all students everywhere in Using project-management software, such as a Gantt the learning space at the same time? chart, can help in assigning responsibilities, tracking • Do students use the same device all day? progress, and working toward goals. There is more detail • Are there enough replacement devices availableTechnology for Learning: A Guidebook for Change 14
  15. 15. Chapter 1: Understanding Technology for Learning for students who are having their devices repaired? What Does Success Look Like? • Is there a technical-support person in each building? We have discussed many of the key components of suc- • Do teachers have access to a help desk cessful digital learning environments. What does this and other support? actually look like in the classroom? Below are descrip- • Is there enough reliable tech support to quickly tions of what students, teachers, and the learning envi- address concerns and fix problems? ronment might look like. • Does each teacher have a mobile device? • Are there enough charging stations in the Students learning environment to charge all the Students are working independently and in small groups devices at the same time? on a variety of assignments and projects. The noise level • Is there a plan of action for when devices may be higher than is common in most schools today. As are not charged? you listen more closely to the noise, however, you notice • Is there accidental-damage and security that the sound is being generated by a flurry of intel- for all the devices? lectual activity. Students are debating with each other • Is the bandwidth sufficient to handle all the about the meaning of the content. A group of students devices logged on at the same time? in the corner are conducting an experiment and collect- • Is there sufficient server space to handle the ing data. Two other small groups are deciding on music capacity of the program? and images for the video they are going to use to explain • Does each student and staff member have what they have learned. a unique username and password? • Does each student and teacher have their Teachers own folder on the network server? The role of teacher in a personalized, student-centered, • Is an acceptable-use policy in place? digital learning environment changes dramatically from what it is in the traditional classroom. Orchestrating the Evaluation of Instruction environment, the variety of assignments, the diverse The transition from a teacher-centered environment to work products, and the personalization of instruction one that is student-centered, personalized, and infused requires a great deal of skill and planning. Teachers with technology is not always easy. Students who are report, however, that the advantages outweigh the extra used to being passive recipients of information and time and effort that they put in at the beginning of the teachers who are used to always being in charge may find rollout. Once programs mature, many teachers begin to it challenging to make this shift. The questions below report significant productivity efficiencies. Again, the review some of the more basic technology-transformed advantage for teachers who take on this challenge is the classroom elements and may help you determine if you freedom it provides during the class period. Teachers are on the right track. become available to work with individual students who • Is technology integrated into instruction in all our are struggling and also provide just-in-time instruction core academic classes every day? to groups of students who have to learn something new • Is technology integrated into all our intervention or relearn a concept to achieve their goals. The teacher classes every day (e.g., Title 1, reading recovery, becomes, in effect, a facilitator of learning and a resource special education)? during the class period that students can use to help • Does our school allow students to collaborate with them achieve their goals. each other via social media? The first impression in this classroom may be that the • Do students regularly use blogs, wikis, and other teacher has lost control. However, looking deeper at what online collaborative tools? students are doing and how they are interacting shows the • Is technology used to personalize our students’ underlying structure and reveals that students know what learning experience? is expected of them. There is an energy and a flow in theTechnology for Learning: A Guidebook for Change 15
  16. 16. Chapter 1: Understanding Technology for Learning ding it in a high-definition video before working on their edited master. Other students are using science probes to check the pH level in the water of the fish tank and send the data from their handheld devices to a spread- sheet on their wireless laptops. Still other students are texting their responses to a survey the teacher posted at the beginning of the class. The teacher uses a classroom management sys- tem (CMS) or learning management system (LMS) not only to monitor students online but also to organize all the instruction, house important resources, and pro- vide a platform on which students can collaborate. The teacher’s grade book, calendar, homework assignments, rubrics, assessments, and a host of collaboration tools are bound together to create a dynamic online learning community that is accessible anytime and anywhere. The teacher uses this online environment to extend instruc- tion beyond the classroom and beyond the school day. The environment is designed for all types of learn- ing: It has spaces for group work, hands-on activity, pre- sentations, and lectures as well as spaces where students can work in more independent traditional ways. How Do You Know You Are Moving Toward Your Goals? Creating successful digital learning programs is a pro- cess, not an event. If a school shows evidence of many of the characteristics of successful programs discussed in this chapter, it is probably moving in a positive direction, toward its goals. It is important, however, to articulate classroom that is not happening by chance. Although there specific goals and objectives to achieve the vision and are a number of things going on in the classroom, the fur- meet the expectations planners set for the program. niture, hardware, and all the other resources seem flexible District leaders must also understand that change and appropriate for the work the students are doing. happens over time. Teachers will grow and change at different rates. Early adopters may embrace new ideas Environment quickly and immediately use them in the classroom. In a digital learning environment, technology is seem- Others may take several years to transform their class- ingly invisible. Technology is everywhere, and students room environment and the way they teach. Although use it seamlessly without thinking about it, and there everyone is working toward the same long-term goals, may be a variety of computing devices for students to the instructional leaders must be aware that different use. Each student has his or her own primary device for support may be needed to address the varied learning accessing the Internet through the wireless network. needs of the entire staff. There are a couple of high-powered desktop computers An example of how articulating specific goals with large monitors that students can use for such tech- and objectives is handled is Auburn (Alabama) City nology-intensive tasks as mixing a sound file and embed- Schools. The mission of Auburn’s 21st Century Learn-Technology for Learning: A Guidebook for Change 16
  17. 17. Chapter 1: Understanding Technology for Learning ing Initiative is to “prepare 21st-century students and learn from each other should be ongoing. A “cycle of improve- educators to be contributing members of an ever- ment” should be in place. The parts of the cycle include: increasing technological and global society through Ÿ Learn something new. an anytime, anywhere learning environment.” The Ÿ Have an opportunity to try it in a real-world setting. district developed three goals that it believes will Ÿ Have the opportunity to discuss with colleagues achieve this mission. how it went. Table 1 shows how one of these goals was defined Ÿ Plan to try it again according to the feedback. before the program was implemented and the specific Ÿ Try it again in the real-world setting. elements that must be detailed to achieve the goal. Ÿ Repeat the cycle. Finally, creating an environment of continuous improve- If schools follow these suggestions, they will begin to ment will keep a program on track for years. Continuous see the change necessary to move the educational system learning and growing are important for everyone from stu- forward. It is not always easy, but if leaders at each level dents to teachers to administrators and even custodians. For- of the educational ecosystem are committed to chang- mal professional-learning opportunities should be regularly ing, learning, and improving, great things can happen. scheduled, but less formal opportunities to collaborate and Table 1: How Auburn City Schools defined one of their goals before implementing the program Goal: Teachers will change and improve the delivery of instruction to realize the benefits of a one-to-one computing environment. objective: To infuse curriculum, instructional methods, content, projects, and lessons with 21st-century educational technology throughout the daily delivery of classroom instruction Activities that help Inputs that help outcome achieve the objective achieve the objective data Measurement (what was timeline and outcome and outcome accomplished) Create and facilitate Direct comparison growth of self- Sandbox space on the of curriculum, Observable directed and viral Internet for new instructional meth- differences in learning communities kinds of communica- ods, content, projects, curriculum, (e.g., Wikipedia) to tion exchanges and and lessons to record instructional support independent new on-line com- the quantitative methods, content, learning, informa- munities that meet and qualitative projects, and tion gathering and safety and quality differences as well as lessons exchange, and requirements differences in kind communicationTechnology for Learning: A Guidebook for Change 17
  18. 18. Chapter 1: Understanding Technology for Learning Summary citizenry, workforce goals This chapter addressed the following components of Ÿ Proper implementation understanding how to implement an e-learning environ- Ÿ Professional-learning requirements and outcomes ment: Ÿ Required leadership skills Ÿ The “why” for educational technology §§Universal-skill development RAssessing the digital learning environment §§ effective workforce An Ÿ Leadership w Student engagement Administrators §§ §§ look at the research A Teachers §§ w Key implementation factors School board §§ • The significance of planning Community §§ §§Elements of effective planning RShared vision §§Essential readiness questions Ÿ Engagement of all stakeholders Teachers §§ Checklist Administrators §§ The following checklist is an inventory of actions and Community and business-community mem- §§ activities to help schools and districts understand what is bers involved in creating an e-learning environment: Students §§ Parents/caregivers §§ RDefinition of educational-technology implementation Support staff §§ Ÿ Beyond one laptop per student §§Goals to be achieved using which hardware RStrategic action plan and software Ÿ Project manager §§Continuous access for each student Ÿ Steering committee §§Internet, digital resources, electronic materi- §§Regularly scheduled meetings als, etc. Ÿ Action plans tied to benchmarked goals §§Tied to achievement, productivity, and finan- Ÿ Use of project-planning software, e.g., Gantt cial outcomes charts for tracking and accountability Ÿ Delineate expected outcomes, goal setting RIdentification of research to support theplan Ÿ Students Ÿ Effectiveness in reaching educational, economic,Technology for Learning: A Guidebook for Change 18
  19. 19. Chapter 2: Planning for E-learning I mplementing an educational-technology program means advance planning and careful preparation. Plan- ning is a complex and detailed process that is tied to the organization, culture, and personnel involved, and there are no shortcuts. To achieve goals and sustain a robust program, school districts have to lay the groundwork and engage all stakeholders in setting expectations, making decisions, establishing benchmarks and timelines, and achieving consensus. School district administrators should take two ini- tial steps. The first is to choose a project manager who is organized, efficient, and fastidious about benchmark- ing and accountability. The second is to decide which tools the manager will use. While there are many tool kits school leaders can use to guide the planning process, all include similar elements. To deal with the complexity of large projects, a dis- trict can use project-management software that incorpo- rates the following: scheduling, cost control and budget management, resource allocation, collaboration, a com- munications system, quality management, and documen- tation. The software can be server- or Web-based and should be collaborative. Using project-management tools helps a district set the process in motion and move toward setting goals, bench- marks, and timelines; identifying problems, solutions, and adjustments; and determining assessments. It helps ensure that the manager establishes active communication with stakeholders, the school board, and the community. the goals and anticipated outcomes of the program. Com- Shared Vision munication among participants leads them to agree on Once district leaders have decided to move forward with what they want and then express that vision to the rest of an educational-technology program, everyone must the school community. agree on the vision, the “why”: the reason we are doing Identifying key stakeholders for a task force is a big this. The costs, in terms of financial and personnel com- step. The task force usually includes representatives from mitments, are great, and a superintendent must promise stakeholder groups, such as board members, administra- that the result will be what everyone has agreed on. Yet tors, teachers, students, parents/caregivers, and business getting to this agreement is also a process, and the first and community leaders. It can include state-level policy step is to identify the stakeholders who will decide on makers as well.Technology for Learning: A Guidebook for Change 19
  20. 20. Chapter 2: Planning for E-learning Task Force and Action Plans Needs Assessment and Gap Analysis The task force creates a vision that its representative To determine next steps, the task force must first decide groups sign on to. The vision includes setting project goals why it wants to implement an educational-technol- according to a needs assessment and supporting research: ogy program. This analysis should focus on needs and evidence of how the program will transform education resources for student achievement, research, and best and increase students’ success. Task-force members must practices; note areas that need improvement; capitalize report back to their respective stakeholder groups about on new strategies that can come from changes in meth- decisions and answer questions about the program’s pur- ods and technology; and evaluate local policies, funding pose, risks, and short- and long-term strategies. sources, and flexibility. A task force should be small enough to get work At its core the program will have people, processes, done but also represent key groups. It should include the technology, and data. It is important to do a gap analysis project manager and representatives from the principals, to determine if each core area has the capacity to deliver teachers, curriculum and technology personnel (instruc- its component to ensure a successful program. The com- tion and infrastructure), support staff, business commu- mittee can pose questions such as: nity, and parents/caregivers, with ad hoc involvement of 1. Are the right people in the right positions to support the superintendent and the board. While the opinions of the program’s success? Which additional skill sets those who will have significant roles in development and are needed to integrate the new technology and implementation are important, the diverse opinions and data-driven decision-making solutions? Provide experiences of all task-force members can help drive the training for all skill levels. project in productive ways. 2. Are the school’s/district’s processes helpful or a In addition, members can get advice by networking hindrance to what is to be accomplished? with a community of peers with similar goals, share best 3. Which technologies exist where? practices, read case studies, and network with colleagues 4. What is the refresh cycle? who have already implemented successful programs and 5. How is the refresh cycle being used and by whom? those who are at a similar stage of implementation. In 6. Is the infrastructure able to accommodate the pro- addition to communicating with their respective groups, gram and the number of participants now and in the members can consult with vendors for their expertise future? and partnerships to estimate the project’s costs. 7. Are there sufficient electrical outlets? Case Study: Alvarado Independent School District   The value of a one-to-one technol- the reach of the Alvarado (Texas) was several years before it was able ogy program, in which every student Independent School District. District to deploy PCs to students; it first is guaranteed access to his or her leaders found that the budget would worked to plan teacher training and own computer in the classroom, has enable them to purchase a Mini PC ensure a capable infrastructure and been proven over and over in recent for every fifth and sixth grader. The technology-support systems. years. But in many economically vision of implementing technology Alvarado ISD recognized that disadvantaged school districts, the one-to-one became a reality. there is much more to good imple- promise has remained out of reach Preparing for one-to-one: The dis- mentation than simply putting a PC because of lack of funding. trict built toward the first one-to-one in a student’s hands and hoping to The HP Mini PC has helped extend technology deployment slowly.  It get expected results.Technology for Learning: A Guidebook for Change 20
  21. 21. Chapter 2: Planning for E-learning 8. What will be the processes for recharging and storage? At least two classrooms are recommended as a starting 9. What data is collected that helps create measure- point for a proof of concept. ment criteria and determine program benchmarking? A key professional-learning activity for teachers is mapping curriculum standards and benchmarks for Action Plans technology integration, a process that takes time and Once the task force has conducted a needs assessment collaboration. Teachers will use the technology not just and gap analysis, its members can look at the district’s for the sake of using it but will integrate technology into objectives to determine short- and long-term project the instructional program where it is relevant and appli- goals and timelines. They have to align student-achieve- cable. Understanding where technology can be used well ment goals with curriculum, instruction, and technology requires a significant transformation of pedagogy, higher- standards. Then they can determine and assign specific order skill development, and time and practice. While tasks, benchmarks, and timelines. The main task force and most of today’s teachers were taught in teacher-centric task-oriented subgroups should meet regularly to dis- classrooms, technology use will drive today’s classrooms cuss and solve problems, monitor progress, adjust goals into a learner-centric model. or timelines, provide updates to constituent groups, and seek additional support when needed. At its core the program will have Actionable steps should be aligned with short- and long-term goals and assigned to specific personnel, who people, processes, technology, must follow timelines or communicate reasons for timing and data. It is important to do adjustments. The identification process includes: Ÿ determining groups’ and individuals’ readiness a gap analysis to determine if for robust technology integration and assigning development of professional-learning activities. each core area has the capacity Ÿ mapping curriculum standards with technology- to deliver its component to integration expectations Ÿ aligning and communicating about policies ensure a successful program. and procedures Ÿ defining how each stakeholder’s role and In addition to the above, the following are major responsibility will change to accommodate components of a strategic action plan: the transformation Ensure teacher buy-in: Ÿ assessing human resources and technology Ÿ Systemic change begins in the classroom, and infrastructures to determine the capacity of teachers are key. They need a voice, ongoing input, the transformation to be successful and opportunity for feedback. They will integrate Using a phase-in approach is a way to achieve the technology and change teaching methods based overall desired scale, and action plans for a number of on readiness, attitude, and aptitude. Principals states and districts have included small proofs of concept. should support teachers through open and ongo- The small settings provide an opportunity to monitor, sup- ing discussions to help them understand and move port, and adjust through ongoing formative assessments forward with the transformation. of the program and students’ progress. Lessons learned Establish consistent, ongoing professional learning for all: over a defined period help adjust future program expan- Ÿ Professional learning should make change coher- sion. It is easier to make the changes required for day- ent and relevant for meaningful technology to-day success in a small pilot program than in a larger integration and overall educational transforma- one. However, there is much evidence that using a single tion. Ongoing professional-growth activities and classroom as proof of concept is not broad enough to personal-learning networks are necessary and show return on investment and determine best practices. include the kind of coaching and mentoring frame-Technology for Learning: A Guidebook for Change 21
  22. 22. Chapter 2: Planning for E-learning work that differentiates for the adult learner. develop a consistent communication plan: Ÿ Ongoing communication with stakeholder groups is essential. Each person with responsibility for communication should provide accurate, updated, and honest information and report on both suc- cesses and pitfalls, which will lead the community to embrace and engage with the program. Ÿ Social networks, Web 2.0 tools (e.g., online user groups, learning communities, wikis, collaborative documents, blogs) can become standard means of communicating, modeling the expectation that the school community will become adept in the use of technology and benefit from its efficiencies. Engage an outside program evaluator: Ÿ Planners should determine specific criteria for success that are related to the project’s goals, and the best way to ensure an objective program assessment is to hire a third-party evaluator who can align assessment with the project’s goals. Publicly reporting the findings is important to the program’s success and accountability. create sustainable program plans: Ÿ Determining short- and long-term program fund- ing is critical to planning in this era of declin- ing education budgets, and relying on internal for success. If adjustments are needed, time is also resources is important for building long-term needed, for review and adoption by legal and the capacity. School leaders should examine existing board. expenditures and the return on those investments. Ÿ An orientation process will help all involved under- They can often find legacy expenditures that are stand the program and the power and commit- inefficient and outdated and that they can use ments that accompany use and/or ownership of the to support short- and long-term budgets for the technology. They will sign contracts that identify technology-integration program. policies, practices, and expectations for and conse- Identify procurement policies quences of use/misuse, damage, and other factors. and processes for the program: Chapter 3 addresses policies and procedures in Ÿ Most organizations have in place policies and pro- greater detail. cedures for technology purchases and use. Lead- Ÿ School leaders must enforce the policies for par- ers can examine the current language to ensure ents, students, and teachers, and not upholding security, infrastructure, and other requirements these policies must have consequences. It is clear that change without technology is not real change and that advances to meet future needs will depend on using technology in creative new ways. Understanding all the facets of what matters and how to plan for it is critical in forging new outcomes for all learners.Technology for Learning: A Guidebook for Change 22
  23. 23. Chapter 2: Planning for E-learning Generate policies that guide the program “Building capacity for transformation also will and inform participants: require investment. But we must resolve to spend invest- Ÿ Security and acceptable-use policies will guide ment dollars wisely, with clear expectations about what participants in all aspects of the use of technolo- we expect in terms of learning outcomes and process gies and must include parents/caregivers, stu- improvements…As we enter the second decade of the dents, educators, and support staff. The purpose 21st century, there has never been a more pressing need is to safeguard expensive equipment, ensure stu- to transform American education, and there will never be dents’ safety online and with their devices, and a better time to act.” communicate the value of and expectations for Education in the U.S. is primarily a state and local involvement with the program. responsibility, and leaders at all levels have a serious chal- The National Education Technology Plan 2010 says, lenge ahead. Yet it is clear that change without technology “Transforming U.S. education is no small task, and accom- is not real change and that advances to meet future needs plishing it will take leadership throughout our education will depend on using technology in creative new ways. system—states, districts, schools, and the federal govern- Understanding all the facets of what matters and how to ment—as well as partnerships with higher-education insti- plan for it is critical in forging new outcomes for all learners. tutions, private enterprises, and not-for-profit entities.Technology for Learning: A Guidebook for Change 23
  24. 24. Chapter 2: Planning for E-learning Summary REnsure that action plans are tied to benchmarked goals. This chapter addressed the following essential compo- Ÿ short- and long-term nents in planning an e-learning environment: §§ project-planning software, e.g., Gantt Use Ÿ Components of effective e-learning environment charts for tracking and accountability. planning: §§Define policies and procedures to guide §§leadership implementation and practices. §§vision §§Delineate expected outcomes; set goals. §§elements of strategic action planning w students w teachers Checklist Ÿ mapping of curriculum and standards to The following checklist is an inventory of important action technology integration and activities for planning an e-learning environment: Ÿ ongoing determination of and experi- mentation with best practices Runderstand the current digital w timelines learning environment. §§teaching and learning environment Ÿ leadership w physical §§administrators w pedagogy §§teachers w platforms §§school board §§communication plans §§community w internal Ÿ shared vision w external Ÿ engagement and buy-in of all stakeholders w use of social media §§teachers w on-point, consistent messaging §§administrators w honest §§community and business community §§students REstablish professional learning for all stakeholders. §§parents/caregivers Ÿ built into the life of the organization §§support staff Ÿ regularly scheduled Ÿ organic, just-in-time component Rdefine strategic action plan. Ÿ coaching/mentoring framework Ÿ project manager Ÿ communities of practice Ÿ task force §§representation from each stakeholder group RArrange for program evaluation. §§needs assessment and gap analysis Ÿ external, third-party, reputable organization w people w processes Rcreate sustainability plans. w technology Ÿ financial w data Ÿ human resources §§regularly scheduled meetings Ÿ redundancy practices Ÿ procurement policies and practicesTechnology for Learning: A Guidebook for Change 24
  25. 25. Chapter 3: Establishing Policies and Procedures S tate and local governments as well as school dis- tricts determine policies regarding such issues as the mission of education, social and academic objec- stakeholders’ behavior. The key question for governing bodies is not whether the benefits of technology out- weigh the costs (research and best practices bear this tives, methods of attaining goals, and the tools for out) but how to implement programs to ensure effective- measuring whether and to what extent those goals ness and results. have been achieved. Use of technology for learning The National Education Technology Plan 2010 and data is an area that has driven much recent conver- encourages educators to be clear about outcomes; col- sation about policy. laborate to redesign structures and processes for effec- Policy is defined as a principle or rule that drives tiveness, efficiency, and flexibility; monitor and measure decision making and practice. Policies and procedures performance; and be accountable for progress and results. enable districts to carry out their plans. Technology poli- Since the first large-scale educational-technology cies are important drivers of practice, expectations, and programs began, in the 1990s, technology prices haveTechnology for Learning: A Guidebook for Change 25

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