Tools for evaluating the effectiveness of your teaching technique 1
Tools for Evaluating Your Teaching Technique By Renee Macdonald University of Central Florida ECT 4384 - Professor Robin Weber
ObjectivesAt the end of this presentation, teachers should beable to:O Describe summative and formative assessment.O Explain the key parts of a rubric.O Identify tools for evaluating the effectiveness of a teaching technique.O Summarize the steps of Gagne’s “Nine Events of Learning”.University of Florida, Center for Instructional Knowledge and Training.(10/3/2011). Gagnes 9 Events of Instruction. Retrieved Oct 12, 2012 from:http://www.citt.ufl.edu/toolbox/toolbox_gagne9Events.php
Did your teaching technique work?What worked and what needs improvement?How do you evaluate learning outcomes?Tools for evaluating your teachingtechnique:1. Instructional Design Checklist:Gagne’s 9 Steps of Learning2. Summative (Traditional) Assessment.Examples are multiple choice, fill-in-the blank,true/false, short answer and essay questions.3. Formative (Alternative or Authentic) Assessment. Examples areproject-based, portfolio, checklists, rating scales, rubrics, andteacher observation.4. Marzano’s “Evidence” of Learning.5. Kilpatrick’s Revised Evaluation Model
Gagne’s 9 Steps of LearningEffective teaching begins with effective lesson design, whichbenefits from the research about how people learn. UtilizingGagne’s 9 Events of Instruction provides a guide to developing asuccessful lesson and a logical way to evaluate teachingstrategies.. Gagne’s theory is used today to design instruction for the military, medical and engineering fields.
Step 1: Gain Student’s AttentionExamples of ways to present new knowledge:One-minute headlinesWebquestsBelieve it or notGuest speakersPowerPoint presentationVideo or movieScavenger Hunt Ask students what they need to know or be able to do when they finish their training?
Step 2: Inform Students of GoalsAn effective teaching technique provides clear learninggoals. Identify state or employer standards and goals.Student will be able to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Example: Post learning goals for students to view. Use asyllabus, lecture slide, or handout. Review the goal of the lesson (from Step 1) in simple language.
Step 3: Connect Prior Learning to New KnowledgeEngage students in activities (scaffolding) that help themlink previous knowledge to new material and facilitateslearning.Examples:Preview questionsOvert linkagesConcept mapsGraphic Representations Ask students to recall prior relevant learning and skills.
Step 4: Present the New Material EffectivelyO Present new knowledge in small chunks or “digestible bites” for students.O Review Skinner’s “Sequenced Learning Events” and Bloom’s Taxonomy to sequence the lesson.Examples:O Present key ideas or brief summary of materialO Skim material with studentsO Provide guided discoveryO Use graphic organizers, K-W-L strategy (Know, Want to Know, Learn)O Assign individual and group researchO Use blogs, wikis, podcasts or YouTube to present material
Step 5: Provide learning guidance.Help students process, elaborate, record, reflect,and reinforce new knowledge. Give instructions tostudents on how to learn.Examples:Process: Collaborative learning activities, role playElaborate: Probing questions, compareRecord: Graphic organizers, diagramsReflect: Reflective journals, logs, two-column notes
Step 6: Practice, Presentation and PerformanceProvide students with the opportunity to use and reinforce whatthey have learned. Give students a choice to work by themselvesor with a partner or group.Examples:O HomeworkO Cooperative learning activitiesO DemonstrationO Practice quiz or exerciseO Think-pair-shareO Observation and Modeling, Bandura’s “Social Learning Theory” Practice makes perfect.
Step 7: Provide FeedbackMonitor student actions and learning closely forerrors and misunderstandings. Be specific.Examples:O Frequent practice prior to testing, quiz, verbal commentsO Provide examples of correct procedure or skillO Review sessionsO Peer feedbackO Provide resources and guidanceO Change trackingTell students why they are doing a good job.
Step 8. AssessmentThe effectiveness of a teaching technique isevaluated in terms of improving student achievementand identifies causes of success or difficulty.Assessments help teachers adjust their teachingpractice for individual students and for the class as awhole.Example: Standardized testsare an example of summativeassessment. Test to determine if the lesson has been learned.
Formative assessment is self-monitoring, encourages students to improve and promotes life-long learning. http://www.khanacademy.org/Formative assessment is interactive during the learning processin order to modify teaching and provide frequent feedback tostudents.
Examples of Formative AssessmentO Checklists, Rating Scales, RubricsO Project, Collaborative LearningO Experiment or ProblemO Development of a ProductO Performance or PresentationO Community Based Experience, Service LearningO Case Study or Clinical EvaluationO Interview or SurveyO Portfolio, Reflective Journal
Rubrics explain to students the criteria against which their work will be judged or the “scoring rules”.
Rubrics deliver both a grade summative and formative feedback to improve future student learning.
Parts of a RubricO Criteria –Define the goals (content objectives) to be met and describe the criteria for judging the task or project (process objectives), what you want graded. (Left column of rubric)O Scale-Levels of competency-Set the scale for student’s competency from successful to unsuccessful or excellent to poor, for each required criteria. (Top row of rubric)O Assignment of value-Describe the characteristics of behavior, assignment or project to be completed and assign a numeric or grade for each level. (The rows)
Step 9: Retention and TransferMake the link to the real world or workplace byapplying new knowledge to real life connectionswhich increases retention by personalizinginformation.Examples: Provide opportunities to practice work placeknowledge and skills.Authentic learning provides experiences that demonstrate real- life connections between lessons and the world.
Teaching Evaluation TechniquesUse checklists, student assessments, student surveys,videoing your teaching, and peer coaching to evaluate your teaching.
Peer Coaching: TeachingObservation and DiscussionWatch Videos-Teachers watch videos of other teachers in pairsor small groups and look for instructional techniques that workand don’t work to discuss. (Examples: Robin Williams, DeadPoets Society)Coaching Colleagues-Teachers observe each other and meettogether for suggestions and feedback.Instructional Rounds-Organized teacher observation to observecolleagues and reflect on their own practice.Marzano, Robert J. (with Tina Boogren, Tammy Heflebower, Jessica Kanold-McIntyre andDebra Pickering). ( 2012). Becoming a Reflective Teacher. (pp. 75-81.) Bloomington, IN:Marzano Research Laboratory.
Learning assessment is an ongoing process.When students succeed in achieving goals and objectives,you might assume that your teaching technique worked.
Make ChangesWhen students do not achieve goals and objectives,changes should be made in teaching and learningprocess.Reevaluation after changes are made will ensurethat the changes were helpful to student learning.
Three Quick and Easy Classroom Assessment Techniques1. Muddiest Point-ask students to jot down a quick response to one question.2. One Sentence Summary-challenges students to answer questions about a given topic.3. One Minute Paper-What was the most important thing you learned during class today?Visit:http://www.marzanoresearch.com/classroomstrategies
Marzano’s Evidence of Effective Teaching and LearningO Students can explain the learning goal and how their activity relates to the goal.O Students can explain the levels of performance communicated in the scale or rubric.O Students are working on task.O Students can provide a purpose for what they are doing and are actively engaged.O Students provide explanations and confirmation of what they learned.O Students can explain main points of the lesson and summarize what they learned from the activity.O Marzano, Robert J. (with Tina Boogren, Tammy Heflebower, Jessica Kanold- McIntyre and Debra Pickering). ( 2012). Becoming a Reflective Teacher. Bloomington, IN: Marzano Research Laboratory. www.ascd.org
Kilpatrick’s Revised Evaluation ModelGoals (Planning) Level of Evaluation ResultsWhat is the objective (to improve What is the desired outcome?organization or business)? PerformanceWhat must the learners be able to Did they transfer their skills to theperform in order to achieve workplace or organization?objective? LearningWhat new knowledge, skills, and Did the learners acquire theresources do they need to perform? needed skills? MotivationWhat must the learners perceive in Are they motivated to learn andorder to learn or perform? perform?Big Dog & little Dog’s Performance Juxtaposition. (2012). Kilpatrick’s Four Level EvaluationModel. Retrieved October 16, 2012 from: www.nwlink.com/-donclark/hrd/lsd/kirkpatrick.html
Checklist for Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Yes NoLesson/Teaching Technique1. Student’s attention is focused on learning activity.2. Goals are clear and significant to students and meet content standards.3. Student’s relate previous information to current topic.4. Lesson is presented in meaningful and relevant way.5. Students are guided through problems and examples.6. Students are engaged and actively involved in authentic learning.7. Students receive appropriate feedback.8. Students are checked for understanding using rubrics and formative assessments.9. Students identify important concepts and skills they learned from the lesson.Reflection: What teaching technique was most effective?What would you do differently to make the lesson more effective?RMC Denver (n.d.) “Evaluating the effectiveness of the lesson.” RetrievedOctober 12, 2012, 2008 fromhttp://www.rmcdenver.com/useguide/lessons/eval.htm &”Have You ThoughtAbout This?" http://www.rmcdenver.com/useguide/lessons/anita.htm
ReferencesO Brookhart, Susan M. (2010). How to Assess Higher-Order Thinking Skills in Your Classroom. Alexandria, VA : Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.This book describes methods for assessing analysis, logic and reasoning,judgment, problem solving and creative thinking.O Dodge, Judith. (2009). 25 Quick Formative Assessments for a Differentiated Classroom. USA: Scholastic.O Fisher, Douglas and Frey, Nancy. (2007). Check for Understanding. Formative Assessment Techniques for Your Classroom. Alexandria, VA : Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.O Marzano, Robert J. (with Tina Boogren, Tammy Heflebower, Jessica Kanold-McIntyre and Debra Pickering). ( 2012). Becoming a Reflective Teacher. Bloomington, IN: Marzano Research Laboratory.O Wiggins, Grant and McTighe, Jay., (2005). Understanding by Design. Alexandria, VA : Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.