What The Research Says, 2007


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What The Research Says, 2007

  1. 1. What the Research Says Renee Hobbs Professor, Temple University Philadelphia PA USA HOME Inc Conference Cambridge, MA October 27, 2007
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>The state of media literacy education today </li></ul><ul><li>The research process </li></ul><ul><li>What we think we know– emerging findings </li></ul><ul><li>What we need to know </li></ul><ul><li>The challenges of research in MLE </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  3. 3. Media Literacy Education <ul><li>An expanded conceptualization of literacy , </li></ul><ul><li>emphasizing the ability to </li></ul><ul><li>access, analyze, evaluate and </li></ul><ul><li>communicate messages </li></ul><ul><li>in a wide variety of forms . </li></ul>Media Studies Education, Learning & Literacy
  4. 5. Media Literacy Education <ul><li>The purpose of media literacy education is to help individuals of all ages develop the habits of inquiry and skills of expression that they need to be critical thinkers, effective communicators and active citizens in today’s world. </li></ul><ul><li>--Core Principles of Media Literacy Education, AMLA, St. Louis, (2007) </li></ul>
  5. 6. Why it Matters <ul><li>Citizenship. The creation of a public sphere greatly depends upon an engaged citizenry, whose members are interested, willing and able to access information, evaluate it, and make decisions in a collaborative fashion in order to participate in civic and cultural life. </li></ul><ul><li>Media Saturation/Identity Development. Children and adolescents spend more and more time consuming entertainment media, including television, popular music, movies, and participatory media like Internet, text messaging and videogames. </li></ul><ul><li>Information Society . Knowledge workers use, manipulate and create information. Visual, electronic and digital media and technologies of communication (as new forms of ‘text’) are emerging as the dominant representational systems in the context of both school and daily life. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Diverse Theoretical Frameworks <ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>adolescent literacy, critical literacy, multiliteracies, constructivism </li></ul><ul><li>Public Health </li></ul><ul><li>media effects on youth, program evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Media Studies/Cultural Studies </li></ul><ul><li>semiotics, media ecology, ideology/institutions, interpretive communities , youth media </li></ul>
  7. 8. Core Instructional Practices <ul><li>Reflection on Media Consumption Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Close Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Creative Media Production </li></ul>
  8. 9. Continuing Progress in MLE <ul><li>increasing diversity of media content, formats and genres </li></ul><ul><li>widespread access to digital tools for authorship and new forms of distribution and exhibition </li></ul><ul><li>increased public awareness of need for critical thinking about new forms of digital media </li></ul><ul><li>state curriculum standards (now in almost every U.S. state) </li></ul><ul><li>diverse stakeholders--- including academics, policymakers, business leaders </li></ul><ul><li>recognized instructional practices </li></ul><ul><li>emerging scholarly literature and empirical research </li></ul><ul><li>implementation processes & models for teacher education </li></ul><ul><li>case studies of practice in school & after-school </li></ul><ul><li>graduate programs & coursework </li></ul>
  9. 10. Overview <ul><li>The state of media literacy education today </li></ul><ul><li>What we think we know– emerging findings </li></ul><ul><li>The research process </li></ul><ul><li>What we need to know </li></ul><ul><li>The challenges of research in MLE </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  10. 11. What research findings are emerging? <ul><li>A. Media literacy education has varied characteristics based on program design, learning outcomes, setting, teacher qualifications, and the perceptions of the value of the program by participating teachers and students. </li></ul>Kist, New Literacies in Action , 2005
  11. 12. What research findings are emerging? <ul><li>B. Cultural experiences with contemporary media and popular culture provide the “juice” for MLE. Motivation and engagement are increased when students get opportunities to analyze and manipulate familiar texts. </li></ul>Michie, Holler if You Hear Me , 1999
  12. 13. What research findings are emerging? <ul><li>C. MLE strengthens literacy learning, including reading comprehension, textual analysis, and writing skills. </li></ul>Hobbs, Reading the Media , 2007
  13. 14. What research findings are emerging? <ul><li>D. Media production can be understood as a form of composition with discernable similarities to the writing process. </li></ul>Bruce, “Multimedia production as composition,” Research on Teaching Literacy Through the Visual and Communicative Arts , (in press).
  14. 15. What research findings are emerging? <ul><li>E. MLE involves students in collaborative work that may benefit students’ communication skills and socio-emotional development. </li></ul>Goodman, Teaching Youth Media , 2003
  15. 16. What research findings are emerging? <ul><li>F. Media literacy can improve understanding of distinctions between real life experiences and media representations. MLE can alter expectations concerning alcohol and tobacco use among school-age youth. </li></ul>Austin, Pinkleton, Hust & Cohen, Health Communication , 2004
  16. 17. What research findings are emerging? <ul><li>G. Media literacy programs can cause lowered internalization of the beauty standard and lower perceived realism of media images for adolescent females. </li></ul>Irving, DuPen & Berel, 1998; Neumark-Sztainer et al, 2000
  17. 18. Outline <ul><li>The state of media literacy education today </li></ul><ul><li>What we think we know– emerging findings </li></ul><ul><li>The research process </li></ul><ul><li>What we need to know </li></ul><ul><li>The challenges of research in MLE </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  18. 19. The Process Up Close High school English teachers Concord High School, Concord New Hampshire MY GOALS: 1.) Describe the development of the innovative curriculum that incorporates popular media, television, journalism, film, and new media into the required English curriculum 2.) Gather empirical evidence of the impact of media literacy on the academic achievement of adolescents
  19. 20. Research Methods QUALITATIVE: 21 hours of transcribed interviews with teachers and students; student writing samples, curriculum materials QUANTITATVE: quasi-experimental pre-post design with matched control group with measures of reading, listening, viewing and media analysis skills
  20. 21. The Curriculum BOOKS: Orwell, 1984 Shelley, Frankenstein Stark, Glued to the Set Kesey, One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest Junger, The Perfect Storm Hamill, News is a Verb Anderson, Feed Faulkner, As I Lay Dying FILMS: Tough Guise, All the President’s Men High Fidelity, Bamboozled
  21. 22. Multimodal Texts MAGAZINES: Adbusters, Brill’s Content The New Yorker, Time, US News & World Report NEWSPAPERS: Concord Monitor, Boston Globe, New York Times TV: Burden of Proof, 60 Minutes 20/20
  22. 23. Instructional Methods <ul><li>Activation of prior knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Close reading & textual analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion connects text to text, text to self & text to world </li></ul><ul><li>Informal pre-writing </li></ul><ul><li>Small-group activities </li></ul><ul><li>Research and information gathering </li></ul><ul><li>Writing for specific purposes to varied audiences </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of writing styles and genres </li></ul><ul><li>Focus correcting (grammar, spelling) </li></ul>
  23. 24. Measuring Program Impact <ul><li>Advertising Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Viewing Skills </li></ul><ul><li>3. Civic Engagement </li></ul><ul><li>4. Reading Comprehension & Analysis </li></ul>
  24. 25. A Performance-Based Measure of Media Text Analysis (MTA) Skills <ul><li>Students read, view or listen to a media text and then answer critical questions in response. </li></ul><ul><li>Who is the author and what is the purpose? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is the target audience and how do </li></ul><ul><li>you know? </li></ul><ul><li>What construction techniques were </li></ul><ul><li>used to attract and hold attention? </li></ul><ul><li>What values and points of view were represented? </li></ul><ul><li>What is omitted? </li></ul>
  25. 26. Measuring Program Impact <ul><li>Advertising Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased understanding of the complex purposes of advertising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognition of unstated subtext messages in advertising </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Increased Understanding of the Complex Purposes of Advertising $$$ = purpose is a business reason per = purpose is a persuasive reason psych = purpose strategically links product to emotion
  27. 28. Recognition of an Unstated Subtext Message in Advertising 1 = “be cool” 2 = “change your lifestyle by consumption” 3 = “be responsible”
  28. 29. Measuring Program Impact <ul><li>Critical Viewing Skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased skills in analyzing purpose, point of view, subtext & construction techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Civic Engagement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased reading and viewing of news </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and current events </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. Critical Viewing of Television News POV = number of multiple points of view identified tech = creative construction techniques identified omit = omitted information supplied comp = points of comparison/contrast
  30. 31. Increased Numbers of Students Choosing News & Current Events Percent who watch or read news and current events every day
  31. 32. Measuring Program Impact <ul><li>Impact on Print Literacy Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Increased ability to summarize non-fiction informational text and recall details </li></ul><ul><li>Increased ability to analyze author’s </li></ul><ul><li>purpose, point of view, subtext </li></ul><ul><li>and creative construction techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Writing skills improve </li></ul>
  32. 33. Increased Reading Comprehension Skills Main Idea = number of key points identified in summary Info Detail = number of specific details recalled
  33. 34. Increased Non-Fiction Reading Analysis Skills tech = number of creative construction techniques identified POV = multiple points of view identified omit = omitted information supplied
  34. 35. Writing Skills Quality = holistic score (1 – 5) evaluating clarity, coherence, and sentence structure
  35. 36. Student Voices “ Creators of books and movies have to make critical decisions about how to construct a story just like newspaper editors and TV news directors.” “ I found myself wondering about the intentions of things that in the past I would have ignored or absorbed at face value.”
  36. 37. Student Voices “ Though I considered myself a critical thinker prior to the course, I don’t think that label fit my reading style at the time… I had been trained to passively read a book with a ridiculously obvious theme, come up with the thesis statement, and crank out a paper. This course made that impossible.”
  37. 38. Why so Effective? The Learning Environment Curriculum reform initiated by faculty Block scheduling, heterogeneous grouping & common planning time Vibrant school library media center Support from school administration High quality local newspaper
  38. 39. Why so Effective? The Learning Process High levels of student engagement result from perceived relevance of curriculum to life outside of school Critical questioning supports reading comprehension by creating active learners Instruction activates metacognitive scaffolding of analysis skills from familiar texts (films/TV) to literature
  39. 40. Challenges for the Future RELEVANCE: Continuing to be responsive to students’ lived experience with media and popular culture INTERNET ANALYSIS: Critical thinking about online media and technology AUTHORSHIP: Providing multimodal production opportunities for all students OUTREACH: Implications for education policy statewide
  40. 41. Overview <ul><li>The state of media literacy education today </li></ul><ul><li>The research process </li></ul><ul><li>What we think we know– emerging findings </li></ul><ul><li>What we need to know </li></ul><ul><li>The challenges of research in MLE </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  41. 42. What Works in Teacher Education? <ul><li>Self-taught </li></ul><ul><li>Staff-development training </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum-, text- or tool-based approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Mentoring and partnerships </li></ul><ul><li>University coursework </li></ul>
  42. 43. What issues face current and future researchers? <ul><li>Examining short-term and long-term outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Developing reliable, valid instruments to measure ML skills </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding what people already know and think </li></ul><ul><li>Creating theoretical models to account for the complex relationships between attitudes, knowledge, skills, and behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Exploring conditions that promote transfer of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Exploring unintended consequences of media literacy education </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding how ML skills can be activated in online environments </li></ul><ul><li>Examining the relationship between ML education and activism/advocacy </li></ul>
  43. 44. Overview <ul><li>The state of media literacy education today </li></ul><ul><li>The research process </li></ul><ul><li>What we think we know– emerging findings </li></ul><ul><li>What we need to know </li></ul><ul><li>The challenges of research in MLE </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  44. 45. What Works? Areas of Emphasis 1. A LIFE PRACTICE. Focus on the processes involved in accessing and using media and technology in daily life. 2. A LEARNED SKILL. Focus on critically analyzing and evaluating the content, form and contexts of media messages and media systems and institutions. 3. A FORM OF COMPOSITION. The ability to compose or create messages using digital, visual and electronic tools for purposes of self-expression, communication and advocacy.
  45. 46. Three Challenges <ul><li>1. ML replaces print literacy for students labelled “at risk” </li></ul><ul><li>2. ML contributes to cynicism because anti-media attitudes replace critical thinking </li></ul><ul><li>3. Growing imbalance and disconnect between media practice, analysis and production </li></ul>
  46. 47. Overview <ul><li>The state of media literacy education today </li></ul><ul><li>The research process </li></ul><ul><li>What we think we know– emerging findings </li></ul><ul><li>What we need to know </li></ul><ul><li>The challenges of research in MLE </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>
  47. 48. <ul><li>Renee Hobbs </li></ul><ul><li>Professor </li></ul><ul><li>Temple University </li></ul><ul><li>School of Communications and Theater </li></ul><ul><li>Media Education Lab </li></ul><ul><li>http://mediaeducationlab.com </li></ul><ul><li>Email : renee.hobbs@temple.edu </li></ul>