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What Teachers and Students Need to Thrive in a Digital Age

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Professor Renee Hobbs addresses German educators, students and scholars at the University of Cologne's Diggi17 conference, September 29, 2017.

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What Teachers and Students Need to Thrive in a Digital Age

  1. 1. Renee Hobbs Professor of Communication Studies Director, Media Education Lab University of Rhode Island USA Twitter: @reneehobbs What Teachers and Students Need to Thrive in a Digital Age Diggi 17 Conference University of Cologne September 29, 2017
  2. 2. www.mediaeducationlab.com
  3. 3.  Professional development  Multimedia curriculum resources  Community engagement  Research
  4. 4. Teachers need to reflect deeply on their complex motives for using digital media and technology for learning purposes Students need opportunities to critically examine the changing information and media landscape that is contributing to new forms of “fake news” Teachers and students need to ask critical questions about new forms contemporary propaganda and use digital tools to activate critical thinking and inspire people to be media creators themselves PREVIEW
  5. 5. LOVE HATE PRINT VISUAL SOUND DIGITAL Educators have a love-hate relationship with media, technology and popular culture
  6. 6. LOVE HATE SMARTBOARDS PLATFORMS MULTIMEDIA CREATIVE TOOLS Educators have a love-hate relationship with educational technology
  7. 7. Are media formats & digital technologies reproducing or challenging the educational status quo?
  8. 8. Rhetoric Print Literacy Visual Literacy Information Literacy Media Literacy Computer Literacy Critical Literacy News Literacy Digital Literacy Putting Literacy into Historical Context
  9. 9. Literacy is the sharing of meaning through symbols
  10. 10. SKILLS & ABILITIES ➢ Computer Use and Knowledge ➢ ICT Skills & Digital Skills LITERACY ➢ Online Reading & New Literacies ➢ Media Production / Youth Media ➢ Coding & Programming TEACHING WITH ➢ Technology Integration ➢ Digital Learning ➢ Online Learning TEACHING ABOUT ➢ Information Literacy ➢ Media Literacy ➢ Internet Safety ➢ Digital Citizenship expanding variety of approaches and terms
  11. 11. SKILLS & ABILITIES ➢ Computer Use and Knowledge ➢ ICT Skills & Digital Skills LITERACY ➢ Online Reading & New Literacies ➢ Media Production / Youth Media ➢ Coding & Programming TEACHING WITH ➢ Technology Integration ➢ Digital Platforms ➢ Online Learning TEACHING ABOUT ➢ Information Literacy ➢ Media Literacy ➢ Internet Safety ➢ Digital Citizenship expanding variety of approaches and terms
  12. 12. Theory of Media Literacy
  13. 13. Digital & Media Literacy Learning Process Hobbs, R. (2010). Digital and Media Literacy: A Plan of Action. Washington DC: Aspen Institute and Knight Foundation.
  14. 14. expanding the concept of literacy open access multitasking transmediation curation play data ownership identity representation privacy addiction Hobbs, R. (2010). Digital and Media Literacy: A Plan of Action. Washington DC: Aspen Institute and Knight Foundation.
  15. 15. There is an Art to Creating a Media Literacy Learning Environment
  16. 16. What Teachers Want Students to Know and Be Able To Do Find, comprehend and interpret content Gain knowledge and information Examine the quality of information resources Share ideas through dialogue & discussion Create, build or make something Reflect on expected and unanticipated consequences Plan and implement action to effect social change Critically analyze how messages are constructed Use digital tools & activate skills
  17. 17. Hobbs, R. (2013). Improvization and strategic risk taking in informal learning with digital media literacy. Learning, Media and Technology, 38(2), 182-197. Grade 3 students in the US research the topic of homelessness and produce a 14-page comic book using digital tools.
  18. 18. Brazilian children strengthen reading comprehension by exploring marketing and branding
  19. 19. German students in Grade 10 learn about contemporary propaganda in the context of political science and English education
  20. 20. US high school students work collaboratively to create infographics to compare & contrast what they are learning about nutrition, health & social studies
  21. 21. What’s Your Motivation? TAKE THE QUIZ www.discovermedialiteracy.com
  22. 22. What’s Your Motivation? TAKE THE QUIZ www.discovermedialiteracy.com
  23. 23. Hobbs, R. & Tuzel, S. (2017). Teacher motivations for digital and media literacy: An examination of Turkish educators. British Journal of Educational Technology 48(1),7 - 22. DOI: 10.1111/bjet.12326
  24. 24. Hobbs, R. & Tuzel, S. (2017). Teacher motivations for digital and media literacy: An examination of Turkish educators. British Journal of Educational Technology 48(1),7 - 22. DOI: 10.1111/bjet.12326
  25. 25. Hobbs, R. & Tuzel, S. (2017). Teacher motivations for digital and media literacy: An examination of Turkish educators. British Journal of Educational Technology 48(1),7 - 22. DOI: 10.1111/bjet.12326
  26. 26.  42-hour intensive week-long program for K-12 and college educators, librarians, and youth media professionals  Hands-on, minds-on learning in digital literacy  Part of a 12-credit post-graduate Certificate in Digital Literacy  Combines summer face-to-face experiences with online learning during the academic school year Sensitivity to teacher motivations may improve the quality of professional development
  27. 27. KEY IDEAS Teachers need to reflect deeply on their complex motives for using media and technology for learning purposes
  28. 28. New Realities in a Networked Global Society  Cost to produce content is low  Massive fragmentation of content for niche audiences  Viral sharing means popularity = profit  Content is consumed as unbundled snippets on social media
  29. 29. New Forms of Authority Attention economics is surpassing traditional forms of authority and expertise our attention — and most of it free — being found is valuable."  Immediacy  Personalization  Interpretation  Findability
  30. 30. It’s time to reject the term “fake news” The Term that Conceals More than it Reveals
  31. 31. European Association for Viewers Interests (2017). Beyond Fake News Poster. journalistic error partisan news Engaging the Public
  32. 32. European Association for Viewers Interests (2017). Beyond Fake News Poster. journalistic error Informing the Public
  33. 33. European Association for Viewers Interests (2017). Beyond Fake News Poster. disinformation Controlling Beliefs, Emotions and Attitudes
  34. 34. European Association for Viewers Interests (2017). Beyond Fake News Poster. Misinforming the Public
  35. 35. European Association for Viewers Interests (2017). Beyond Fake News Poster. Profiting from the Public
  36. 36. Media and information literacy helps to bridge the gap between the classroom and the living room
  37. 37. Online Sharing Shapes Public Opinion AfD is the first openly nationalist party to enter the German Parliament since WWII.
  38. 38. Students need opportunities to critically examine the changing information and media landscape that is contributing to new forms of “fake news” KEY IDEAS
  39. 39. re Sample: A representative sample of 1,684 UK adults Method. Participants were shown 6 news stories: 3 were true, 3 were false Findings: • Only 4% accurately identified the stories that were accurate and those which were fake • 49% thought at least one of the fake stories was true • Among those who consider Facebook a primary source of news, 71% thought at least one of the fake stories was true SOURCE: Channel 4, UK. Fake News Research, February 7, 2017.
  40. 40. re Sample: A representative sample of 1,684 UK adults Method. Participants were shown 6 news stories: 3 were true, 3 were false Findings: • Only 4% accurately identified the stories that were accurate and those which were fake • 49% thought at least one of the fake stories was true • Among those who consider Facebook a primary source of news, 71% thought at least one of the fake stories was true SOURCE: Channel 4, UK. Fake News Research, February 7, 2017. Only 20% of American HS students questioned the photo’s source Stanford History Education Group, 2016
  41. 41. re Sample: A representative sample of 1,684 UK adults Method. Participants were shown 6 news stories: 3 were true, 3 were false Findings: • Only 4% accurately identified the stories that were accurate and those which were fake • 49% thought at least one of the fake stories was true • Among those who consider Facebook a primary source of news, 71% thought at least one of the fake stories was true SOURCE: Channel 4, UK. Fake News Research, February 7, 2017. People can’t tell the difference between fake news and real news
  42. 42. re Sample: A representative sample of 1,501 US young adults ages 15 - 27 Method. Experimental design Findings: • Participants evaluated the accuracy of misinformation, emotional & evidence- based arguments • Assessments of accuracy depend on the participant’s political knowledge • Participants who reported more exposure to media literacy education make a clear distinction between evidence-based arguments and misinformation even when arguments are aligned with existing beliefs Exposure to media literacy education improves judgments of accuracy Kahne & Bowyer, AERJ, 2017
  43. 43. re Respondents were asked about their school experiences: • How often have you discussed how to tell if the information you find online is trustworthy? • How often have you discussed the importance of evaluating the evidence that backs up people’s opinions? Measure of Exposure to Media and Information Literacy
  44. 44. Media Literacy: A Pedagogy of Inquiry
  45. 45. www.mindovermedia.tv
  46. 46. www.mindovermedia.tv
  47. 47. Recognizing Propaganda ACTIVATE STRONG EMOTIONS ATTACK OPPONENTS SIMPLIFY INFORMATION & IDEAS RESPOND TO AUDIENCE NEEDS
  48. 48. Propaganda can be Beneficial Activists create propaganda to raise awareness, evoke strong emotions, and inspire people to action. Animal Captivity is Slavery PETA
  49. 49. Propaganda can be Harmful By activating strong emotion, activists can simplify complex issues in ways that encourage people to act without critical thinking. Animal Captivity is Slavery PETA
  50. 50. In Considering Whether Propaganda is Beneficial or Harmful, Consider: Message: What is the nature of the information and ideas being expressed? Techniques: What symbols and rhetorical strategies are used to attract attention and activate emotional response? What makes them effective Means of Communication & Format: How did the message reach people and what form does it take? Environment: Where, when and how may people have encountered the message? Audience Receptivity: How may people think and feel about the message and how free they are to accept or reject it? CONTEXT
  51. 51. Media Literacy: A Pedagogy of Inquiry Asking Critical Questions
  52. 52. KEY IDEAS Teachers and students need to ask critical questions about new forms of contemporary propaganda and use digital tools to activate critical thinking and inspire people to be media creators themselves
  53. 53. Online Dialogue Promotes Respect for Diverse Interpretations Flipgrid.com
  54. 54. Video Annotation is a Powerful Tool for Critically Analyzing Propaganda and “Fake News” www.ant.umn.edu
  55. 55. Critically analyzing propaganda can activate intellectual curiosity
  56. 56. Cross cultural dialogue about contemporary propaganda deepens students’ understanding of how context shapes meaning-making and interpretation
  57. 57. Strong Feelings Taking Action
  58. 58. Strong Feelings Taking Action THINKING & REASONING
  59. 59. Teachers need to reflect deeply on their complex motives for using media and technology for learning purposes Students need opportunities to critically examine the changing information and media landscape that is contributing to new forms of “fake news” Teachers and students need to ask critical questions about new forms contemporary propaganda and use digital tools to activate critical thinking and inspire people to be media creators themselves REVIEW
  60. 60. Teachers and students are both responsible for advancing digital and media literacy and the future of democratic self-governance depends on it
  61. 61. o Hobbs R. & Tuzel, S. (2017). The Use of Social Media and Popular Culture to Advance Cross Cultural Understanding. Communicar. o Hobbs, R. & Tuzel, S. (2017). Teacher motivations for digital and media literacy: An examination of Turkish educators. British Journal of Educational Technology 48(1),7 - 22. DOI: 10.1111/bjet.12326 o Media Education Lab (2016). Mind Over Media: Analyzing Contemporary Propaganda. [Interactive media.] www.mindovermedia.tv o Martens, H. & Hobbs, R. (2015). How media literacy supports civic engagement in a digital age. Atlantic Journal of Communication 23(2), 120 – 137. o Hobbs, R. & McGee, S. (2014). Teaching about propaganda: An examination of the historical roots of media literacy. Journal of Media Literacy Education 6(2), 56 – 67. o Hobbs, R. (2013). Improvization and strategic risk taking in informal learning with digital media literacy. Learning, Media and Technology, 38(2), 182-197. o Hobbs, R. (2013). The blurring of art, journalism and advocacy: Confronting 21st century propaganda in a world of online journalism. I/S: A Journal of Law and Policy for the Information Society 8(3), 625 – 638. o Hobbs, R., Yoon, J., Al-Humaidan, R., Ebrahimi, A. & Cabral, N. (2011). Online digital media in elementary school. Journal of Middle East Media 7(1), 1 – 23. o Hobbs, R., Ebrahimi, A., Cabral, N., Yoon, J., & Al-Humaidan, R. (2011). Field-based teacher education in elementary media literacy as a means to promote global understanding. Action for Teacher Education 33, 144 – 156. o Hobbs, R. (2011). A snapshot of multinational media education in six European countries. Trans: Un’istantanea multinazionale sulla ME in sei paesi europei. Media Education. Studi, ricerche, buone pratiche [Italy] 1(1), 53 – 70. o Hobbs, R., Cohn-Geltner, H. & Landis, J. (2011). Views on the news: Media literacy empowerment competencies in the elementary grades. In C. Von Feilitzen, U. Carlsson & C. Bucht (Eds.). New questions, new insights, new approaches. The International Clearinghouse on Children, Youth and Media. NORDICOM. University of Gothenburg, Sweden (pp. 43 – 56). www.mediaeducationlab.com
  62. 62. CONTACT INFORMATION: Renee Hobbs Professor of Communication Studies Director, Media Education Lab Harrington School of Communication & Media University of Rhode Island USA Email: hobbs@uri.edu Twitter: @reneehobbs LEARN MORE Web: www.mediaeducationlab.com

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