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Educational Strategies for the Prevention of Violent Extremism

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Professor Renee Hobbs identifies five instructional strategies for addressing the prevention of violent extremism based on the practice of digital and media literacy education.

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Educational Strategies for the Prevention of Violent Extremism

  1. 1. Renee Hobbs Professor of Communication Studies Director, Media Education Lab University of Rhode Island USA Twitter: @reneehobbs Media and Information Literacy: Educational Strategies for the Prevention of Violent Extremism February 9, 2017 United National Headquarters
  2. 2. Rising inequality is contributing to increased political polarization, nationalism, violent extremism and hate speech
  3. 3. 160 deaths due to terrorism in the month of JANUARY 2017
  4. 4. Violent Extremism Around the World Focus on Prevention
  5. 5. Coordinated use of social media by American white-nationalist groups on Twitter have increased by 600% since 2012
  6. 6. In just one month, ISIL released 1,150 propaganda events – batches of related videos, articles, photos, essays – originating from 35 different production units
  7. 7. Who is a violent extremist? • An ISIS fighter? • An abortion-clinic bomber? • An alt-right neo-Nazi? • An activist from China’s Uighur minority? • A Black Lives Matter protester?
  8. 8. Violent extremism includes beliefs and actions of people who use illegal force or violence to achieve political, economic, ideological, religious or political goals through fear, coercion or intimidation
  9. 9. ProblemsofDefinition
  10. 10. How can media and information literacy prevent violent extremism? What instructional strategies are effective?
  11. 11. Media and Information Literacy Involves Questioning All Forms of Authority Media literacy, because it emphasizes a critique of textual authority, invites students to identify the cultural codes that structure an author’s work, understand how these codes function as part of a social system, and disrupt the text through alternative interpretations. In learning to critically read media messages, citizens are developing the abilities to gather accurate, relevant information about their society and to question authority (both textual and, by implication, institutional). - Renee Hobbs, 1998
  12. 12. Media and Information Literacy is a Civic Competency Media education is an essential step in the long march towards a truly participatory democracy, and the democratization of our institutions. Widespread media literacy is essential if all citizens are to wield power, make rational decisions, become effective change agents, and have an effective involvement with the media. -Len Masterman, 1985
  13. 13. Media and Information Literacy Encourages People to be Agents of Social Change When people have digital and media literacy competencies, they recognize personal, corporate and political agendas and are empowered to speak out on behalf of the missing voices and omitted perspectives in our communities. By identifying and attempting to solve problems, people use their powerful voices and their rights under law to improve the world around them. -Renee Hobbs, 2010
  14. 14. Key Concepts of Media Literacy
  15. 15. What’s Needed for Media and Information Literacy to Thrive 1. Curriculum Standards and Frameworks 2. Teacher Education and Professional Development 3. Professional Networks for Information Sharing 4. Curricular Resources, Instructional Strategies and Materials 5. Supportive Implementation Climate 6. Support for Program Evaluation and Research on Effectiveness
  16. 16. Build Awareness of Media Messages about Violent Extremism Critically Analyze How Violent Extremism is Presented in Entertainment & Non-Fiction Media Recognize Propaganda and Hate Speech Form Authentic Relationships with People From Other Countries Use the Power of Communication to Speak Out
  17. 17. Build Awareness of Media Messages about Violent Extremism
  18. 18. Workshop How Iranians are Represented in Mass Media
  19. 19. Critically Analyze How Violent Extremism is Presented in Entertainment & Non-Fiction Media Cleanskin (2012) Dir: Hadi Hajaig Suffragette (2015) Dir: Sarah Gavron
  20. 20. HERO VILLAIN VICTIM Critically Analyze How Violent Extremism is Presented in Entertainment & Non-Fiction Media
  21. 21. Cleanskin (2012) Dir: Hadi Hajaig
  22. 22. Compare and Contrast: How Violent Extremism is Presented in Entertainment & Non-Fiction Media HERO VILLAIN VICTIM
  23. 23. Suffragette (2015) Dir: Sarah Gavron
  24. 24. Compare and Contrast: How Violent Extremism is Presented in Entertainment & Non-Fiction Media HERO VILLAIN VICTIM
  25. 25. Recognize Propaganda & Hate Speech www.mindovermedia.tv
  26. 26. Recognize Propaganda & Hate Speech
  27. 27. Recognize and Resist Propaganda and Hate Speech
  28. 28. Recognize and Resist Propaganda and Hate Speech
  29. 29. Recognize and Resist Propaganda and Hate Speech
  30. 30. Recognize and Resist Propaganda and Hate Speech
  31. 31. Recognize and Resist Propaganda and Hate Speech
  32. 32. Recognize Propaganda & Hate Speech
  33. 33. Recognize Propaganda & Hate Speech
  34. 34. Form Authentic Relationships with People From Other Countries ACTIVITIES: 1. Getting to Know You 2. Learning about Two Countries 3. Analyzing TV Shows that Feature High School 4. Discussing Current Events 5. Exchanging Student Videos about Daily Life
  35. 35. Information sharing about Turkey includes student- curated images and links
  36. 36. Use the Power of Communication to Speak Out
  37. 37. Use the Power of Communication to Speak Out
  38. 38. Build Awareness of Media Messages about Violent Extremism Compare and Contrast: How Justified Violence is Presented in Entertainment and Non-Fiction Media Recognize Propaganda & Hate Speech Form Authentic Relationships with People From Other Countries Use the Power of Communication to Speak Out
  39. 39. What’s Needed for Media and Information Literacy to Thrive 1. Curriculum Standards and Frameworks 2. Teacher Education and Professional Development 3. Professional Networks for Information Sharing 4. Curricular Resources, Instructional Strategies and Materials 5. Supportive Implementation Climate 6. Support for Program Evaluation and Research on Effectiveness
  40. 40. MIL education advances critical thinking, reduces political polarization and inspires civic engagement
  41. 41. The highest result of education is tolerance. ~ Helen Keller
  42. 42. SOURCES Bazaz, Aggie Ebrahimi (2009). Iranian Youth & Media Literacy Workshop. http://mediaeducationlab.com/iranian-youth-and-media- literacy Brooking,E. & Singer, P. (2016). War Goes Viral. Atlantic Magazine. Gordon, E. & Mihailidis, P. (2016). The Civic Media Project. Cambridge: MIT Press. Hobbs R. & Tuzel, S. (2017). The Use of Social Media and Popular Culture to Advance Cross Cultural Understanding. Communicar. Hobbs, R. & McGee, S. (2014). Teaching about propaganda: An examination of the historical roots of media literacy. Journal of Media Literacy Education 6(2), 56 – 67. Hobbs, R. (2013). The blurring of art, journalism and advocacy: Confronting 21st century propaganda in a world of online journalism. I/S: A Journal of Law and Policy for the Information Society 8(3), 625 – 638. Hobbs, R., Yoon, J., Al-Humaidan,R., Ebrahimi, A. & Cabral, N. (2011). Online digital media in elementary school. Journal of Middle East Media 7(1), 1 – 23. Hobbs, R., Ebrahimi, A., Cabral, N., Yoon, J., & Al-Humaidan, R. (2011). Field-based teacher education in elementary media literacy as a means to promote global understanding. Action for Teacher Education 33, 144 – 156. Hobbs, R. (2011). A snapshot of multinational media education in six European countries. Trans: Un’istantanea multinazionale sulla ME in sei paesi europei. Media Education. Studi, ricerche, buone pratiche [Italy] 1(1), 53 – 70 Martens, H. & Hobbs, R. (2015). How media literacy supports civic engagement in a digital age. Atlantic Journal of Communication 23(2), 120 – 137. DOI:10.1080/15456870.2014.961636 Media Education Lab (2016). Mind Over Media: Analyzing Contemporary Propaganda. [Interactive media.] www.mindovermedia.tv
  43. 43. Renee Hobbs Professor of Communication Studies Director, Media Education Lab Harrington School of Communication & Media University of Rhode Island USA Email: hobbs@uri.edu Twitter: @reneehobbs LEARN MORE Web: www.mediaeducationlab.com

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