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Digital Literacy - Propaganda ESPM

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Renee Hobbs visits Escola Superior de Propaganda e Marketing (ESPM) in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

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Digital Literacy - Propaganda ESPM

  1. 1. Renee Hobbs Professor of Communication Studies Director, Media Education Lab University of Rhode Island USA Twitter: @reneehobbs Media Literacy in an Age of Digital Propaganda
  2. 2. Rising inequality is contributing to increased political polarization, nationalism, violent extremism and hate speech
  3. 3. www.mediaeducationlab.com
  4. 4. What’s Needed to Advance Media Literacy Education in Elementary & Secondary Schools 1. Curriculum Standards and Frameworks 2. Teacher Education and Professional Development 3. Professional Networks for Information Sharing 4. Curricular Resources, Instructional Strategies and Materials 5. Support for Program Evaluation and Research on Effectiveness 6. Supportive Implementation Climate
  5. 5. Why is digital propaganda rising around the world?
  6. 6. A lie can get around the world while truth is still putting on its shoes. - Mark Twain
  7. 7. Sponsored Content Clickbait PR Stunts Trolls & Bots Sock Puppets Hoaxes Conspiracy Theories
  8. 8. Coordinated use of social media by American white-nationalist groups on Twitter have increased by 600% since 2012
  9. 9. In just one month, ISIL released 1,150 propaganda events – batches of related videos, articles, photos, essays – originating from 35 different production units
  10. 10. New Realities in a Networked Global Society  Cost to produce content is low  Massive fragmentation of production & consumption  Viral sharing means popularity = profit  Content is consumed as unbundled snippets on social media
  11. 11.  Selective exposure  Confirmation bias  Performative sharing 60% of people share content without reading/viewing it Essentials of Human Information Processing
  12. 12. New Forms of Authority Attention economics are surpassing traditional forms of authority and expertise our attention — and most of it free — being found is valuable."  Immediacy  Personalization  Interpretation  Findability
  13. 13. What instructional strategies help us find truth in an age of digital propaganda?
  14. 14. Build awareness & understanding of many forms of digital media Critically analyze how stories are presented in entertainment & non- fiction media Engage in global & multi-perspectival dialogue Use the power of social media to speak out on behalf of truth Instructional Strategies
  15. 15. Build Awareness and Understanding of Many Forms of Media
  16. 16. Build Awareness and Understanding of Many Forms of Media BBC INTERVIEW MEME
  17. 17. @reneehobbs It’s time to stop using the term “fake news”
  18. 18. Six Types of “Fake News” Disinformation Propaganda Hoax Parody/Satire Errors in Journalism Partisanship
  19. 19. Six Types of “Fake News” Disinformation Propaganda Hoax Parody/Satire Errors in Journalism Partisanship Informing and Engaging the Public Controlling Knowledge, Attitudes & Values Cultural Criticism or Creative Expression
  20. 20. Propaganda 1622 Congregatio de Propaganda Fide
  21. 21. What is Propaganda? • Propaganda appears in a variety of forms • Propaganda is strategic and intentional • Propaganda aims to influence attitudes, opinions and behaviors • Propaganda can be beneficial or harmful • Propaganda may use truth, half-truths or lies • To be successful, propaganda taps into our deepest values, fears, hopes and dreams Hobbs, R. (2013). The blurring of art, journalism and advocacy: Confronting 21st century propaganda in a world of online journalism. I/S: A Journal of Law and Policy for the Information Society 8(3), 625 – 638.
  22. 22. Media Literacy Education has its Roots in Propaganda Education Hobbs, R. & McGee, S. (2014). Teaching about propaganda: An examination of the historical roots of media literacy. Journal of Media Literacy Education 6(2), 56 – 67.
  23. 23. Where is Propaganda Found? Advertising Journalism & Public Relations Political Communication Education Entertainment Activism Religion
  24. 24. Creating Propaganda Hoaxes Parody/Satire ACTIVATE STRONG EMOTIONS USE “US VS THEM” FRAMING SIMPLIFY INFORMATION & IDEAS RESPOND TO AUDIENCE NEEDS
  25. 25. VIRALITY when information, an image or video gets circulated rapidly and widely from one Internet user to another
  26. 26. The Most Viral Video of All Time Jason Russell, director and producer of KONY 2012 Hobbs, R. (2013). The blurring of art, journalism and advocacy: Confronting 21st century propaganda in a world of online journalism. I/S: A Journal of Law and Policy for the Information Society 8(3), 625 – 638.
  27. 27. MEDIA LITERACY SMARTPHONE
  28. 28. KONY 2012
  29. 29. People Have an Increased Choice of Thought Leaders
  30. 30. Who are Your Thought Leaders? Who Do You Influence?
  31. 31. Sharing is a Practice of Digital Authorship
  32. 32. Critically Analyze How Stories are Presented in Entertainment & Non-Fiction Media Suffragette (2015) Dir: Sarah Gavron HERO VILLAIN VICTIM
  33. 33. Suffragette (2015) Dir: Sarah Gavron
  34. 34. Critically Analyze How Stories are Presented in Entertainment & Non-Fiction Media Suffragette (2015) Dir: Sarah Gavron HERO VILLAIN VICTIM When emotional are activated, it can be difficult to analyze media messages. Dialogue and discussion are vital tools of inquiry.
  35. 35. Dialogue and Critical Analysis Through Digital Annotation Video ANT www.ant.umn.edu
  36. 36. Message: What is the nature of the information and ideas being expressed? Techniques: What symbols and rhetorical strategies are used to attract attention and activate emotional response? What makes them effective? Means of Communication & Format: How did the message reach people and what form does it take? Environment: Where, when and how may people have encountered the message? Audience Receptivity: How may people think and feel about the message and how free they are to accept or reject it? CONTEXT
  37. 37. Engage in Global & Multi-Perspectival Dialogue
  38. 38. Engage in Global & Multi-Perspectival Dialogue MIND OVER MEDIA INTERCULTURAL ENCOUNTER THROUGH SOCIAL MEDIA
  39. 39. www.mindovermedia.eu
  40. 40. www.mindovermedia.tv 1,200+ examples of contemporary propaganda from all over the world
  41. 41. Recognize and Resist Propaganda and Hate Speech
  42. 42. Recognize and Resist Propaganda and Hate Speech
  43. 43. Recognize and Resist Propaganda and Hate Speech
  44. 44. www.mindovermedia.tv  Increases awareness of contemporary propaganda  Promotes reflective & critical thinking  Activates intellectual curiosity  Increases awareness of multiperspectival interpretations
  45. 45. MIDDLE SCHOOL INTERCULTURAL ENCOUNTER Lessons Include:  Getting to Know You  Learning About Two Countries  Analyzing TV Shows that Feature High School  Discussing Current Events  Exchanging Student Videos about Daily Life Tuzel, S. & Hobbs, R. (2017). The use of social media and popular culture to advance cross-cultural understanding. Communicar 25(51), 63 – 72.
  46. 46. Sharing ideas about war and peace
  47. 47. Information sharing includes student-curated images and links As they discusssed American & Turkish popular culture, students gained deeper awareness of structural inequalities in global information flows
  48. 48. Use the Power of Social Media to Speak out on Behalf of Truth Instagram Sharing GrGRATITUDE
  49. 49. Youth Media Making is a Vital Component of Media Literacy Education
  50. 50. Youth Media Making is a Vital Component of Media Literacy Education
  51. 51. Use the Power of Social Media to Speak out on Behalf of Truth
  52. 52. Use the Power of Communication to Speak out on Behalf of Truth Flipgrid.com
  53. 53. Flipgrid.com Use the Power of Social Media to Speak out on Behalf of Truth
  54. 54. Sharing Diverse Points of View Helps People Address Fallacies of the “Post-Truth Era”
  55. 55. Build awareness & understanding of many forms of digital media Critically analyze how stories are presented in entertainment & non- fiction media Engage in global & multi-perspectival dialogue Use the power of social media to speak out on behalf of truth How to Advance Media Literacy Competencies
  56. 56. Heightened awareness of media use Balances benefits & risks by using using media content in socially responsible ways Critically analyzes messages to evaluate credibility & quality Creates media for self-expression, communication & advocacy Reflects on how media influence attitudes & behaviors Understands media systems & the political economy of the media Aware of how media constructs representations of ideas, events & people in ways that impact democratic processes Participates in a collaborative digital knowledge community Uses digital texts, tools & technologies for inquiry learning Gains competence and confidence with digital technologies by practicing & self- learning Literacy is Expanding DIGITAL LITERACY MEDIA LITERACY Aware of interpretation processes at work in the sharing of meaning Aware of how digital texts circulate as culture
  57. 57. A democratic civilization will save itself only if it makes the language of the image into a stimulus for critical reflection, not an invitation to hypnosis. -- Umberto Eco
  58. 58. Renee Hobbs Professor of Communication Studies Director, Media Education Lab Harrington School of Communication & Media University of Rhode Island USA Email: hobbs@uri.edu Twitter: @reneehobbs LEARN MORE Web: www.mediaeducationlab.com
  59. 59. www.mediaeducationlab.com

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