Ancient Egyptian Art
 
<ul><li>Sunken reliefs on columns : In the hypostyle hall at Karnak, the columns are indispensable structurally, unlike th...
3-28: Temple of Horus, Edfu, Egypt, ca. 237-47 BCE.
Image gallery Temple of Horus, Edfu, Egypt, ca 237-47 bc ANCIENT EGYPT The façade of this temple depicts Horus and Hathor ...
 
Temple of Amen-Re Karnak, Egypt ca. 15th century B.C.E.
Model of Hypostyle hall Temple of Amen-Re Karnak, Egypt, Dynasty XIX ca. 1290-1224 B.C.E.
Hypostyle hall Temple of Amen-Re Karnak, Egypt, Dynasty XIX ca. 1290-1224 B.C.E.
Image gallery Temple of Amen-Re, Karnak, Egypt, Dynasty XIX Ca 1290-1224 bc ANCIENT EGYPT This temple is mainly the produc...
Sculpture and Painting <ul><li>Sculpture and Painting Senmut and Nefrua : Extremely popular during the Middle and New King...
Semnut with Princess Nefrua from Thebes, Egypt ca. 1470-1460 B.C.E. granite 36 1/2 in. high
Semnut with Princess Nefrua from Thebes, Egypt ca. 1470-1460 B.C.E. granite 36 1/2 in. high
Painting and the Tomb of Nebamun <ul><li>Examine materials and methods of painting in the New Kingdom.  Compare the style ...
Image gallery Fowling scene, from the tomb of Nebamun,  Thebes, Egypt, Dynasty XVIII, ca 1400-1350 bc ANCIENT EGYPT Nebamu...
Fowling Scene from the tomb of Nebamun, Thebes, Egypt ca. 1,400-1,350 B.C.E. fresco secco 32 in. high
New Kingdom 1550-1075 BCE <ul><li>Ahmose I expelled the invading Hyksos and reunited Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Known as the ...
Ahmose I leading Egyptians against the Hyksos
New Kingdom 1550-1075 BCE <ul><li>Characterized by a more militaristic and imperialistic nature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>inco...
Threats to Tradition <ul><li>Amenhotep IV (c. 1362-1347 B.C.) introduced the worship of Aton, god of the sun disk, as the ...
Image gallery Akhenaton, From the temple of Amen-Re,  Karnak, Egypt, Dyanasty XVIII 1353-1335 BC ANCIENT EGYPT New Kingdom...
Akhenaton from the temple of Amen-Re, Karnak, Egypt ca. 1,353-1,335 B.C.E. sandstone approximately 13 ft. high
Akhenaton sacrificing a duck ca. 1,353-1,335 B.C.E. limestone 9 5/8 in. high
Image gallery Nefertiti, Tell el-Amarna, Egypt, Dynasty XVIII 1353-1335,  ANCIENT EGYPT Nefertiti, the queen of Akhenaton,...
Threats to Tradition 1355-1335 BCE <ul><li>Nefertiti </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wife of Akhenaton the only pharaoh to even part...
Thutmose Nefertiti from Tell el-Amarna, Egypt ca. 1,353-1,335 B.C.E. painted limestone 20 in. high
Image gallery Tiye,  Gurob, Egypt, Dynasty XVIII ca 1353-1335 bc ANCIENT EGYPT Tiye was the mother of Akhenaton. The depic...
Tiye from Gurob, Egypt ca. 1,353-1,335 B.C.E. wood with gold, silver, alabaster, & lapis 3 3/4 in. high
Canopic jar from Thebes, Egypt ca. 1,349-1,336 B.C.E. alabaster with stone and glass inlay 20 1/2 in. high
3-35: Akhenaton, Nefertiti, and three daughters, from Tell el-Amarna, Egypt, Dynasty XVIII, ca. 1353-1335 BCE. Limestone, ...
 
Tutankhamen  1335-1325 BCE <ul><li>(King Tut) </li></ul><ul><li>child ruler </li></ul><ul><li>ruled nine years, died at 18...
Death Mask of Tutankhamen from Thebes, Egypt ca. 1,323 B.C.E. gold with semiprecious stones 21 1/4 in. high
Image gallery Death mask and innermost coffin of Tutankhamen Thebes, Egypt, Dynasty XVIII 1323 BC ANCIENT EGYPT Tutankhame...
Image gallery Death mask and innermost coffin of Tutankhamen Thebes, Egypt, Dynasty XVIII 1323 BC ANCIENT EGYPT Scientific...
Innermost coffin of Tutankhamen from Thebes, Egypt ca. 1,323 B.C.E. gold with semiprecious stones 73 in. high
3-36: Innermost coffin of Tutankhamen, from his tomb at Thebes, Egypt, Dynasty XVIII, ca. 1323 BCE. Gold with inlay of ena...
Painted chest  of Tutankhamen from Thebes, Egypt ca. 1,333-1,323 B.C.E. painted wood 20 in. long
Image gallery Last Judgment of Hu-Nefer, Thebes, Egypt Dynasty XIX 1290-1280 bc ANCIENT EGYPT Hu-Nefer was the royal scrib...
Wedjat Eye of Tutankhamen from Thebes, Egypt ca. 1,333-1,323 B.C.E. gold and precious stones 2 in. wide
Last judgment of Hu-Nefer from Thebes, Egypt ca. 1,290-1280 B.C.E. painted papyrus scroll 18 in. high
Book of the Dead from Thebes, Egypt ca. 1,040-945 B.C.E. painted and inscribed papyrus 13 3/4 in. high
3-39: Last judgment of Hu-Nefer, from his tomb at Thebes, Egypt, Dynasty XIX, ca. 1290-1280 BCE. Painted papyrus scroll,  ...
Book of the Dead <ul><li>The  book of the dead : Tutankhamen's mummy case shows the boy king in the guise of Osiris, god o...
The Late Period <ul><li>THE LATE PERIOD Egypt in decline : During the last millennium BCE, Egypt lost the commanding role ...
Discussion Questions <ul><li>How do you speculate the great pyramids were built? What would have been some specific proble...
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  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Some of the slide concept presented are by William V. Ganis, PhD. Some of the slides are from other sources. FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • 03 powerpoint p2b

    1. 1. Ancient Egyptian Art
    2. 3. <ul><li>Sunken reliefs on columns : In the hypostyle hall at Karnak, the columns are indispensable structurally, unlike the rock-cut columns of the tombs at Beni Hasan and Abu Simbel. But their function as vertical supports is almost hidden by horizontal bands of painted sunken relief sculpture. </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture after Alexander : Once formulated, Egyptian traditions tended to have very long lives, in architecture as in other arts. The pylon temple of Horus at Edfu, built during the third, second, and first centuries BCE, after Alexander the Great's conquest of Egypt, still follows the basic scheme architects worked out more than a thousand years before. </li></ul>
    3. 4. 3-28: Temple of Horus, Edfu, Egypt, ca. 237-47 BCE.
    4. 5. Image gallery Temple of Horus, Edfu, Egypt, ca 237-47 bc ANCIENT EGYPT The façade of this temple depicts Horus and Hathor witnessing an oversized King Ptolemy XIII striking down undesired enemies. The architecture of this temple is still rooted in the basic scheme that architects had worked out more than a thousand years before. This demonstrates the traditional nature of Egyptian art and architecture. This type of temple with a simple massive gateway or pylon with sloping walls is known as a pylon temple
    5. 7. Temple of Amen-Re Karnak, Egypt ca. 15th century B.C.E.
    6. 8. Model of Hypostyle hall Temple of Amen-Re Karnak, Egypt, Dynasty XIX ca. 1290-1224 B.C.E.
    7. 9. Hypostyle hall Temple of Amen-Re Karnak, Egypt, Dynasty XIX ca. 1290-1224 B.C.E.
    8. 10. Image gallery Temple of Amen-Re, Karnak, Egypt, Dynasty XIX Ca 1290-1224 bc ANCIENT EGYPT This temple is mainly the product of the Eithteenth Dynasty pharaohs, but some of the Nineteenth Dynasty pharaohs contributed to it as well. Contributers include: Thutmose I and II, Hatshepsut, and Ramses II. This temple is a great example of the hypostyle hall . ( One roof supported by many columns) Look on page 65 of the text for further illustrations of this architectural feature. The central section of the roof is raised. This architectural feature is called a clerestory. The function of this was to allow light to filter into the interior. The columns were decorated with a series of sunken relief sculpture.
    9. 11. Sculpture and Painting <ul><li>Sculpture and Painting Senmut and Nefrua : Extremely popular during the Middle and New Kingdoms were block statues . In these works the idea that the ka could find an eternal home in the cubic stone image of the deceased was expressed in an even more radical simplification of form than was common in Old Kingdom statuary. </li></ul>
    10. 12. Semnut with Princess Nefrua from Thebes, Egypt ca. 1470-1460 B.C.E. granite 36 1/2 in. high
    11. 13. Semnut with Princess Nefrua from Thebes, Egypt ca. 1470-1460 B.C.E. granite 36 1/2 in. high
    12. 14. Painting and the Tomb of Nebamun <ul><li>Examine materials and methods of painting in the New Kingdom. Compare the style to the earlier Egyptian conventions. </li></ul>
    13. 15. Image gallery Fowling scene, from the tomb of Nebamun, Thebes, Egypt, Dynasty XVIII, ca 1400-1350 bc ANCIENT EGYPT Nebamun’s official title in Egypt was “scribe and counter of grain” Here he is shown standing in his boat, hunting birds in a papyrus swamp. Notice the hierarchy of scale and how the artist emphasized the important character. This was created in the tomb to ensure the recreational enjoyment in the afterlife. Notice the contrast between this work and that of the relief sculpture in the tomb of Ti. ( how are their poses different, and how does it speak to their importance) The technique used in the creation of this painting is known as Fresco Secco. The artists would let the plaster dry prior to painting on it. This contrasts the true fresco technique on wet plaster.
    14. 16. Fowling Scene from the tomb of Nebamun, Thebes, Egypt ca. 1,400-1,350 B.C.E. fresco secco 32 in. high
    15. 17. New Kingdom 1550-1075 BCE <ul><li>Ahmose I expelled the invading Hyksos and reunited Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Known as the Empire period </li></ul><ul><li>development of “public” and “private” zones at temples. </li></ul>
    16. 18. Ahmose I leading Egyptians against the Hyksos
    17. 19. New Kingdom 1550-1075 BCE <ul><li>Characterized by a more militaristic and imperialistic nature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>incorporated chariot, bronze working, horses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>development of a professional army </li></ul></ul><ul><li>became a slave based economy fueled by war and expansion </li></ul>
    18. 20. Threats to Tradition <ul><li>Amenhotep IV (c. 1362-1347 B.C.) introduced the worship of Aton, god of the sun disk, as the chief god and pursued his worship with enthusiasm. </li></ul><ul><li>Changed name to Akhenaten (“It is well with Aton”) </li></ul><ul><li>He closed the temples of other gods and especially endeavored to lessen the power of Amon-Re and his priesthood at Thebes. </li></ul>
    19. 21. Image gallery Akhenaton, From the temple of Amen-Re, Karnak, Egypt, Dyanasty XVIII 1353-1335 BC ANCIENT EGYPT New Kingdom Akhenaton is infamous for his religious revolution in Egypt during the eighteenth Dynasty. The revolution in religion gave way to an artistic revolution in which the figures became elongated and androgynous in their appearance. The pharaoh Amenhotep IV abandonded the worship of most of the Egyptian Gods in favor of the God Aton ( the god of the Sun). In honor of the new monotheistic religion, Amenhotep IV changed his name to Akhenaton. He then moved the capital city of Egypt down the Nile River to the city of Thebes, now called Tell el-Amarna, where he built his own city and shrines.
    20. 22. Akhenaton from the temple of Amen-Re, Karnak, Egypt ca. 1,353-1,335 B.C.E. sandstone approximately 13 ft. high
    21. 23. Akhenaton sacrificing a duck ca. 1,353-1,335 B.C.E. limestone 9 5/8 in. high
    22. 24. Image gallery Nefertiti, Tell el-Amarna, Egypt, Dynasty XVIII 1353-1335, ANCIENT EGYPT Nefertiti, the queen of Akhenaton, exhibits the features indicative of the Amarna Style. The delicate curving contours demonstrate a clear stylistic difference from that of the traditional Egyptian depiction of royalty. Nefertiti’s name means “The Beautiful One is Here”. The subject’s likeness has been adjusted to the new standard of spiritual beauty. Features to be noted in this piece are the serpentine narrow neck that supports the heavy weight of the royal crown.
    23. 25. Threats to Tradition 1355-1335 BCE <ul><li>Nefertiti </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wife of Akhenaton the only pharaoh to even partially reject polytheism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>political move against priests of Amon-Re </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>moved capital to Amarna </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>worshipped Aton, the sun disk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>royal inbreeding. </li></ul>
    24. 26. Thutmose Nefertiti from Tell el-Amarna, Egypt ca. 1,353-1,335 B.C.E. painted limestone 20 in. high
    25. 27. Image gallery Tiye, Gurob, Egypt, Dynasty XVIII ca 1353-1335 bc ANCIENT EGYPT Tiye was the mother of Akhenaton. The depiction of age is present here which is a new development in the style of art. Depictions of royalty did not illustrate the age of the subject prior to the Amarna period. This image clearly demonstrates the relaxation of the artistic rules.
    26. 28. Tiye from Gurob, Egypt ca. 1,353-1,335 B.C.E. wood with gold, silver, alabaster, & lapis 3 3/4 in. high
    27. 29. Canopic jar from Thebes, Egypt ca. 1,349-1,336 B.C.E. alabaster with stone and glass inlay 20 1/2 in. high
    28. 30. 3-35: Akhenaton, Nefertiti, and three daughters, from Tell el-Amarna, Egypt, Dynasty XVIII, ca. 1353-1335 BCE. Limestone, approx. 12 1/4 high. Ägyptisches Museum, Berlin. Royal intimacy: Such an intimate portrayal of the pharaoh and his family is unprecedented in Egyptian art, however, the style is familiar. We see the undulating curves and prominent bellies that characterize figures of the Amarna school.
    29. 32. Tutankhamen 1335-1325 BCE <ul><li>(King Tut) </li></ul><ul><li>child ruler </li></ul><ul><li>ruled nine years, died at 18 </li></ul><ul><li>young death meant burial in the tomb of a lesser person (noble) resulting in preservation </li></ul>
    30. 33. Death Mask of Tutankhamen from Thebes, Egypt ca. 1,323 B.C.E. gold with semiprecious stones 21 1/4 in. high
    31. 34. Image gallery Death mask and innermost coffin of Tutankhamen Thebes, Egypt, Dynasty XVIII 1323 BC ANCIENT EGYPT Tutankhamen inherited the throne when he was only eight years old. The high officials associated with the young pharaoh made many of the decisions for the young ruler. The first order of business for Tutankhamen was to reestablish the cult and priesthood of Amen and restore the temples and inscriptions of his name. Once Akhenaton’s religious revolution was undone, artist returned to the old conservative manner. Tutankhamen only ruled for only 10 years, and died when he was 18 years old. His death and funeral were sudden, and many scholars believe that it was no accident. The evidence of his murder lies in bone fragments found in his skull, and the lacking attention to detail in his burial tomb. The lacking detail suggests a hurried burial, which is a suspicious considering the status of Tutankhaman.
    32. 35. Image gallery Death mask and innermost coffin of Tutankhamen Thebes, Egypt, Dynasty XVIII 1323 BC ANCIENT EGYPT Scientific studies of the remains of Tutankhamen have lead researchers to believe that he had two rare spinal cord diseases. His spinal cord had a slight curve to it and the vertebrate were non-flexible where they met his skull. The result of these rare diseases caused the pharaoh to need a walking stick as well as restricted the turning of his head. Many depictions of the pharaoh illustrate him using a cane with his feet twisted beneath his body.
    33. 36. Innermost coffin of Tutankhamen from Thebes, Egypt ca. 1,323 B.C.E. gold with semiprecious stones 73 in. high
    34. 37. 3-36: Innermost coffin of Tutankhamen, from his tomb at Thebes, Egypt, Dynasty XVIII, ca. 1323 BCE. Gold with inlay of enamel and semiprecious stones, approx. 6' 1 long. Egyptian Museum, Cairo.
    35. 38. Painted chest of Tutankhamen from Thebes, Egypt ca. 1,333-1,323 B.C.E. painted wood 20 in. long
    36. 39. Image gallery Last Judgment of Hu-Nefer, Thebes, Egypt Dynasty XIX 1290-1280 bc ANCIENT EGYPT Hu-Nefer was the royal scribe to the pharaoh Seti I. This tomb painting depicts the jackal-headed god, Anubis, leading Hu-Nefer down the hall of judgment. His soul has been favorably weighed and he is being brought by Horus to the presence of the green-faced Osiris. This formula for imagery in Hu-Nefer’s tomb demonstrates a return to the Old Kingdom funerary illustrations
    37. 40. Wedjat Eye of Tutankhamen from Thebes, Egypt ca. 1,333-1,323 B.C.E. gold and precious stones 2 in. wide
    38. 41. Last judgment of Hu-Nefer from Thebes, Egypt ca. 1,290-1280 B.C.E. painted papyrus scroll 18 in. high
    39. 42. Book of the Dead from Thebes, Egypt ca. 1,040-945 B.C.E. painted and inscribed papyrus 13 3/4 in. high
    40. 43. 3-39: Last judgment of Hu-Nefer, from his tomb at Thebes, Egypt, Dynasty XIX, ca. 1290-1280 BCE. Painted papyrus scroll, approx. 1' 6 high. British Museum, London. <ul><li>The book of the dead : Tutankhamen's mummy case shows the boy king in the guise of Osiris, god of the dead and king of the underworld, as well as giver of eternal life. </li></ul>
    41. 44. Book of the Dead <ul><li>The book of the dead : Tutankhamen's mummy case shows the boy king in the guise of Osiris, god of the dead and king of the underworld, as well as giver of eternal life. </li></ul>
    42. 45. The Late Period <ul><li>THE LATE PERIOD Egypt in decline : During the last millennium BCE, Egypt lost the commanding role it once had played in the ancient Near East. </li></ul>3-40: Mentuemhet, from Karnak, Egypt, Dynasty XXVI, ca. 650 BCE. Granite, approx. 4' 5 high. Egyptian Museum, Cairo.
    43. 46. Discussion Questions <ul><li>How do you speculate the great pyramids were built? What would have been some specific problems to consider? </li></ul><ul><li>Is Egyptian art similar stylistically to any Mesopotamian culture from that time? Which culture and how are they similar or different in style and cultural context? </li></ul><ul><li>What would be some reasons for the modification of pyramid scale and institution of rock-cut tombs as seen at Beni Hasan? </li></ul><ul><li>Why does a change in religion bring about a change in art in ancient Egypt? Describe some specific changes in the presentation of the human figure. </li></ul>

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