03 powerpoint p1b


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03 powerpoint p1b

  1. 1. Ancient Egyptian Art
  2. 2. Early Pyramids Zozer’s stepped pyramid - similar to Babylonian ziggurats
  3. 3. Why build Pyramids? <ul><li>Belief in the afterlife demanded: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bodies be interred whole </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Material goods for use in afterlife be present </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The need to protect the bodies demands good burial tombs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First were mastabas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then pyramids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then later… hidden tombs </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Mastaba
  5. 5. 3-3: Section (top), plan (middle), and restored view (bottom) of typical Egyptian mastaba tombs. <ul><li>The First Pyramid: One of the most renowned figures in Egyptian history is Imhotep, the royal builder for King Djoser (r. 2630-2611 BCE) of the Third Dynasty. </li></ul>
  6. 6.
  7. 7. Image gallery Imhotep, Stepped Pyramid and mortuary precint of Djoser, Saquara Egypt Dynasty III Each person must provide for the happiness of his afterlife- would reproduce daily life in tombs for their Ka (spirit) to enjoy- blurring of line between life and death Tomb was like afterlife insurance 3000 BC -the start of the old kingdom Pharaoh was supreme ruler and a god- basis of all civilization and of artwork Knowledge of civilization rest solely in tombs Imhotep : Doctor, Architect, High Priest, Scribe and Vizier to King Djoser ANCIENT EGYPT Built on a mastaba , burial chamber deep underground with a shaft linking it to the pyramid, meant to serve as a great monument Part of a huge funerary district with temples and other buildings, scenes of religious celebration before and after death
  8. 8. Image gallery Imhotep, restored plan Information goes here ANCIENT EGYPT
  9. 9. The Djoser Complex When it was complete, the complex covered just over 15 hectares and contained a number of different elements. Obviously, the step pyramid was the dominant element, towering some 60 meters above the plain. At the time of its completion, it was the tallest structure in Egypt, perhaps even in the world, and would have dominated the western skyline when view from the capital city of Memphis. In addition, there were large courtyards to the north and south of the pyramid, a number of temples, shrines and other buildings, and a southern tomb. The whole thing was enclosed by massive limestone walls over 10 meters high and studded with towers.
  10. 10. <ul><li>Djoser's funerary temple was one of many buildings arranged around several courts. Most were dummy structures with stone walls enclosing fills of rubble, sand, or gravel. The buildings imitated in stone masonry various types of temporary structures made of plant stems and mats erected in Upper and lower Egypt to celebrate the Jubilee Festival. The translation into stone of structural forms previously made out of plants may be seen in the long entrance corridor to Djoser's funerary precinct. </li></ul>From plant to stone:
  11. 11. Old Kingdom Art
  12. 13. The Great Pyramid <ul><li>Tomb for Khufu </li></ul><ul><li>an almost perfect square (deviation .05%) </li></ul><ul><li>Orientation is exactly North, South, East West </li></ul><ul><li>2,300,000 blocks, 500ft high </li></ul><ul><li>20 years to build </li></ul><ul><li>Average block weighs 2.5 tons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some weigh 9 tons! </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Great Pyramids Gizeh, Egypt Pyramids of Menkaure, ca. 3,000-2,920 B.C.E.; Khafre, ca. 2520-2494 B.C.E.; Khufu ca. 2551-2528 B.C.E. limestone largest (Khufu) approximately 450 ft. high
  14. 15. Great Pyramids Gizeh, Egypt Pyramids of Menkaure, ca. 3,000-2,920 B.C.E.; Khafre, ca. 2520-2494 B.C.E.; Khufu ca. 2551-2528 B.C.E. limestone largest (Khufu) approximately 450 ft. high
  15. 18. Image gallery Great Pyramids, Gizeh, Egypt, Dynasty IV Burial Chamber is in the center of the pyramid rather than underneath Originally covered in smooth stone that would be reflective in the sun. (Almost blinding to the eyes.) Funerary district is much more organized than Djoser- surrounded by mastabas and smaller pyramids These pyramids take the shape of the pyramidal stone ben-ben which is known to have been associated with the sun god Re . Fourth Dynasty pharaohs considered themselves to be the sons of Re and his incarnation on earth. Egyptians always buried their dead on the west side of the Nile, where the sun sets. The largest of the pyramids is about 450 feet tall and has an area of almost 13 acres. It contains almost 2.3 million blocks of stone, each weighing about 1.5 tons. ANCIENT EGYPT The Great Pyramids at Gizeh are the oldest of the seven wonders of the ancient world
  16. 19. Image gallery Section of the Pyramid of Khufu, Gizeh, Egypt Tomb Raiders tunnels are marked in this schematic drawing by the dotted lines. The thieves were unable to locate the carefully sealed and hidden entrance, so they started their tunneling about 40 feet above the base and worked their way into the structure until they found the ascending corridor. Many of the royal tombs were plundered almost immediately after the funeral ceremonies had ended. The immense size of these pyramids was an invitation to looting. ANCIENT EGYPT
  17. 21. 3-9: Section of the Pyramid of Khufu, Gizeh, Egypt. The Great Pyramid of Khufu Khufu Belongs to the Horizon Original Height: 146.6 m (480.96 ft) Current Height: 138.75 m (455.21 ft) Length of Side: 230.37 (755.8 ft) Angle: 51º 50’ 40” Estimated Volume: 2,521,000 cu m
  18. 22. Image gallery Reconstruction of the Dynasty IV Pyramids ANCIENT EGYPT
  19. 23. <ul><li>Khafre and the Sprinx: </li></ul><ul><li>The funerary complex at the Pyramid of Khafre at Gizeh included the pyramid itself with the pharaoh's burial chamber, the mortuary temple, the causeway , and the valley temple . According to one theory, the complex served not only as the king's tomb and temple, but also as his palace in the afterlife. </li></ul>
  20. 24. Image gallery Great Spinx, Gizeh, Egypt, Dynasty IV ca. 2520-2494 bc 65 feet tall The Spinx commemorated the pharaoh and served as an immovable, eternal silent guardian of his tomb. This guardian stood watch at the entrances to the palaces of their kings. It gives visitors coming from the east the illusion that it rests on a great pedestal. The face of the Spinx is thought to be an image of the pharaoh Kafre. ANCIENT EGYPT
  21. 25. Great Sphinx Gizeh, Egypt ca. 2520-2494 B.C.E. sandstone approximately 65 ft. high
  22. 26. Great Sphinx
  23. 27. Pyramids of Menkaure, Khafre and Khufu Queen Pyramids in front
  24. 28. Pyramid of Khufu http://www.guardians.net/egypt/gp1.htm
  25. 29. Figure 3-9 Section of the Pyramid of Khufu, Gizeh, Egypt.
  26. 30. Figure 3-5 Restored plan (top) and view (bottom) of the mortuary precinct of Djoser, Saqqara, Egypt, Dynasty III, ca. 2630–2611 BCE.
  27. 31. II. Mummies <ul><li>Not known when it started in Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Perfected by time of New Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>How to make a mummy: 70 steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) Removal of the brain through the nostrils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) Removal of the intestines through an incision in the side </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3) Sterilization of the body and intestines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4) Treating, cleaning, dehydrating the intestines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5) Packing the body with natron (a natural dehydrating agent) and leaving for 40 days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6) Removal of the natron agent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7) Packing the limbs with clay or sand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8) Packing the body with linen (soaked in resin), myrrh and cinnamon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9) Treating the body with ointments and finally wrapping with a fine linen gauze, not less than 1000 square yards . </li></ul></ul>
  28. 32. Canopic Jars made of alabaster for storage of heart, stomach, intestines and liver which were also treated
  29. 33. Inner coffin Mummy
  30. 34. Second inner coffin lid Second inner coffin
  31. 35. Funerary Gifts Shawabti box Gift bearers Model boat