Challenges for               Comparative Research               on Philanthropy in               Europe                Ren...
Research Questions               1.   How large are differences in                    philanthropy (incidence,            ...
What we have…                  Lots of data on volunteering, but                   much less on charitable giving        ...
We’re in big trouble.                  How many people report                   donations to various causes varies       ...
12 July 2012   ISTR Conference, Siena   5
What now?                  Let’s start all over again.                  And do it better.12 July 2012             ISTR C...
Prospects for Data               Access                  Tax data: legal definitions,                   thresholds, priva...
What we need…                  New data on giving, using:                    A clear definition of philanthropy.        ...
12 July 2012   ISTR Conference, Siena   9
Definitions                  Should be operationalized.                  Definitions should identify a                  ...
Conceptual model         Source                Channel                     Destination         Donor             Organizat...
The questionnaire               should identify                  Units of analysis: individuals,                   AND/OR...
European Social Survey      E1-12 a) CARD 43 For each of the voluntary organisations I will now mention,      please use t...
WARNING               DATA FROM THESE               MEASURES MAY BE               *VERY FAR*               FROM THE LIKELY...
Questionnaires on               household giving                  The Gold Standard: the ‘Method + Area                  ...
Donors per sector (%)                                                                     NL   US      a religious or chur...
Donors per sector in the          Netherlands in two data sources (%)                                                     ...
Philanthropy               European Social Survey, 2002                   50                   40                   30    ...
Giving is under-               reported in the ESS                   Direct Q             No         Yes                  ...
Correlates of giving                                                                 ESS               GINPS              ...
What we don’t know…                     How are France, Germany, Italy,                      Denmark, Switzerland doing? ...
Philanthropy               EuroBarometer 62.2, 2004                   100                    80                    60     ...
Donors per sector in the          Netherlands in two data sources (%)                                                     ...
Giving is likely to be               overreported in EB                  5% report giving to a ‘political                ...
Correlates of giving                                                                   EB              GINPS              ...
Why do countries differ?                                                            EB                      ESS           ...
What we want…                  Giving Europe, using:                    A clear definition of philanthropy.             ...
Thanks, says                          René Bekkers                        Head of Research                 Center for Phil...
Correlates of giving                                                              ESS          GINPS               Age 35-...
Volunteering               European Social Survey, 2002                   40                   35                   30    ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Challenges for Comparative Research on Philanthropy in Europe

235 views

Published on

How large are differences in philanthropy (incidence, amounts, causes) between nations in Europe? How can these differences be explained?

  • Be the first to comment

Challenges for Comparative Research on Philanthropy in Europe

  1. 1. Challenges for Comparative Research on Philanthropy in Europe René Bekkers Center for Philanthropic Studies, VU University Amsterdam ,The Netherlands R.Bekkers@vu.nl12 July 2012 ISTR Conference, Siena 1
  2. 2. Research Questions 1. How large are differences in philanthropy (incidence, amounts, causes) between nations in Europe? 2. How can these differences be explained?12 July 2012 ISTR Conference, Siena 2
  3. 3. What we have…  Lots of data on volunteering, but much less on charitable giving  Several datasets on giving using  Different definitions of philanthropy  Different questionnaire modules to measure philanthropy  Different survey methods12 July 2012 ISTR Conference, Siena 3
  4. 4. We’re in big trouble.  How many people report donations to various causes varies from one dataset to another.  Even differences in giving within the same country vary from one dataset to another.  Finally, differences between countries are explained by different variables in the two datasets.12 July 2012 ISTR Conference, Siena 4
  5. 5. 12 July 2012 ISTR Conference, Siena 5
  6. 6. What now?  Let’s start all over again.  And do it better.12 July 2012 ISTR Conference, Siena 6
  7. 7. Prospects for Data Access  Tax data: legal definitions, thresholds, privacy issues  Survey data on corporate philanthropy difficult to gather  Foundations even more difficult to get access to  Getting survey data on households least problematic  let’s do this!12 July 2012 ISTR Conference, Siena 7
  8. 8. What we need…  New data on giving, using:  A clear definition of philanthropy.  A validated, cross-nationally adequate instrument to measure philanthropy.  One single method of data collection; online is the only feasible option.12 July 2012 ISTR Conference, Siena 8
  9. 9. 12 July 2012 ISTR Conference, Siena 9
  10. 10. Definitions  Should be operationalized.  Definitions should identify a clearly delimited set of phenomena  Easy way out:  Exclude memberships and fees.  Exclude informal giving.  Avoid the word ‘voluntary’.12 July 2012 ISTR Conference, Siena 10
  11. 11. Conceptual model Source Channel Destination Donor Organization Cause Money Services Households, Churches, Groups, individuals, charities, Ideals corporations foundations12 July 2012 ISTR Conference, Siena 11
  12. 12. The questionnaire should identify  Units of analysis: individuals, AND/OR households, OR foundations, OR corporations  Channels: churches, charities, foundations, other nonprofit organizations  Destinations: causes and services  Resources: money, goods, labor12 July 2012 ISTR Conference, Siena 12
  13. 13. European Social Survey E1-12 a) CARD 43 For each of the voluntary organisations I will now mention, please use this card to tell me whether any of these things apply to you now or in the last 12 months, and, if so, which. E1-12 b) Do you have personal friends within this organisation? a) CODE ALL THAT APPLY FOR EACH b) ORGANISATION None Member Partici Donated Volun- Personal pated money teered friends? E1 .…Firstly, a sports Yes No D club or club for out- K door activities? 0 1 2 3 4 1 2 8 E2… an organisation 0 1 2 3 4 1 2 8 for cultural or hobby activities?12 July 2012 ISTR Conference, Siena 13
  14. 14. WARNING DATA FROM THESE MEASURES MAY BE *VERY FAR* FROM THE LIKELY TRUE VALUES12 July 2012 ISTR Conference, Siena 14
  15. 15. Questionnaires on household giving  The Gold Standard: the ‘Method + Area Module’ (e.g., GINPS)  Incomplete coverage: ‘Area’ (ESS2002, EB 62.2)  Severely limited: (Very) ‘Short’  “Methodology is Destiny”: shorter questionnaires yield (strong) underestimates of giving volume and bias parameter estimates Source: Bekkers, R., & Wiepking, P. (2006). ‘To Give or Not to Give… That’s the Question’. Nonprofit & Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 35 (3): 533‐ 540.12 July 2012 ISTR Conference, Siena 15
  16. 16. Donors per sector (%) NL US a religious or church organization 19 19 humanitarian aid, human rights, minorities, immigrants 20 5 environmental protection, peace or animal rights 23 5 science, education, or teachers and parents 2 5 cultural or hobby activities 4 3 sports club or club for outdoor activities 8 4 social club, club for the young, the retired/ elderly, women 3 4 political party 2 5 trade union 2 1 business, professional, or farmers’ organization 1 2 consumer or automobile organization 2 1 any other voluntary organization 4 2 Donates money to at least one sector 45 2912 July 2012 ISTR Conference, Siena 16
  17. 17. Donors per sector in the Netherlands in two data sources (%) ESS GINPS a religious or church organization 19 39 humanitarian aid, human rights, minorities, immigrants 20 21 environmental protection, (peace) or animal rights 23 (7) health NA 13 science, education, or teachers and parents 2 2 cultural or hobby activities 4 2 sports club or club for outdoor activities 8 5 social club, club for the young, the retired/ elderly, 3 10 women political party 2 NA trade union 2 NA business, professional, or farmers’ organization 1 NA consumer or automobile organization 2 NA any other voluntary organization 4 4 Donates money to at least one sector 45 8212 July 2012 ISTR Conference, Siena 17
  18. 18. Philanthropy European Social Survey, 2002 50 40 30 20 10 0 Hungary Greece Poland Czech Republic Israel Spain Portugal Finland USA Slovenia Ireland UK Norway Sweden Netherlands12 July 2012 ISTR Conference, Siena 18
  19. 19. Giving is under- reported in the ESS Direct Q No Yes 88% 12% Matrix No 2947 307 97% Yes 13 89 3% Cross tabulation of ESS direct question on political giving and marking ‘donated’ for ‘political party’ in the matrix question (US+NL)12 July 2012 ISTR Conference, Siena 19
  20. 20. Correlates of giving ESS GINPS Age 35-65 1.19 1.13 Age>65 1.82 ** 0.80 Secondary education 1.60 ** 1.05 Tertiary education 3.50 ** 1.30 Big city 0.89 0.55 ** Suburb 0.79 (*) 0.75 (*) Generalized social trust 1.20 ** 1.34 ** Right wing political self-placement 1.25 * 1.50 ** Volunteered last year 3.33 ** 1.76 ** Coefficients in bold are significantly different from each other (p<.05)12 July 2012 ISTR Conference, Siena 20
  21. 21. What we don’t know…  How are France, Germany, Italy, Denmark, Switzerland doing?  How much is donated to charity?  How do countries differ in the composition of philanthropy?  How do countries differ in the characteristics of donors?  Where do all these country differences come from?12 July 2012 ISTR Conference, Siena 21
  22. 22. Philanthropy EuroBarometer 62.2, 2004 100 80 60 40 20 0 Hungary Greece Poland Czech Republic Israel Spain Portugal Finland France Slovenia Ireland UK Germany West Sweden Netherlands Luxemburg Malta12 July 2012 ISTR Conference, Siena 22
  23. 23. Donors per sector in the Netherlands in two data sources (%) EB GINPS a religious or church organization 29 39 humanitarian aid, human rights, minorities, immigrants 41 21 environmental protection, (peace) or animal rights 40 (7) Patients organization [and health] 30 [13] Education (arts, culture) 13 2 Recreational organization [and sports] 20 5 Leisure organization for the elderly 3 NA Rights for the elderly 3 NA political party 5 NA trade union 4 NA business, professional, or farmers’ organization 1 NA consumer or automobile organization 2 NA any other voluntary organization 7 4 Donates money to at least one sector 81 8212 July 2012 ISTR Conference, Siena 23
  24. 24. Giving is likely to be overreported in EB  5% report giving to a ‘political party or organization’; but only 2.5% is a member and only a fraction donate  40% report giving to an environmental organization; at best, 28% is a member  Humanitarian aid is way too high (41%)12 July 2012 ISTR Conference, Siena 24
  25. 25. Correlates of giving EB GINPS Big city 0.60 * 0.55 ** Suburb 0.78 0.75 (*) Age 35-65 2.41 ** 1.13 Age>65 2.66 ** 0.80 Secondary education 1.85 ** 1.05 Tertiary education 1.56 1.30 Generalized social trust 1.21 * 1.34 ** Right wing political self-placement 0.87 1.50 ** Volunteered last year 3.33 *** 1.76 ** Coefficients in bold are significantly different from each other (p<.05)12 July 2012 ISTR Conference, Siena 25
  26. 26. Why do countries differ? EB ESS Individual level variables YES YES YES YES Country level variables NO YES NO YES Country level variance 3.27% 5.45% 3.27% 9.97% Secondary education 1.321** 1.305** 1.491 1.555** % Secondary education 0.031** 25.744* Generalized trust 1.075 1.075 1.109 1.120** Mean Generalized trust 2.096** 1.098NS Observations 16,279 16,279 32,905 32,905 Countries 17 17 17 1712 July 2012 ISTR Conference, Siena 26
  27. 27. What we want…  Giving Europe, using:  A clear definition of philanthropy.  A validated, cross-nationally adequate instrument to measure philanthropy, based on GINPS.  One single method of data collection; online is the only feasible option.12 July 2012 ISTR Conference, Siena 27
  28. 28. Thanks, says René Bekkers Head of Research Center for Philanthropic Studies VU University Amsterdam r.bekkers@vu.nl Twitter: @renebekkers http://renebekkers.wordpress.com12 July 2012 ISTR Conference, Siena 28
  29. 29. Correlates of giving ESS GINPS Age 35-65 1.16 1.09 Age>65 1.59 ** 0.64 * Secondary education 1.71 ** 1.07 Tertiary education 3.84 ** 1.35 Big city 0.97 0.56 ** Suburb 0.84 0.80 Catholic 1.25 (*) 2.18 ** Protestant 2.02 ** 2.27 ** Other Christian 1.21 0.46 Other religion 0.90 4.66 Church attendance (times per year) 1.01 ** 1.01 Generalized social trust 1.19 ** 1.33 ** Right wing political self-placement 1.12 1.40 * Volunteering 3.15 ** 1.55 **12 July 2012 ISTR Conference, Siena 29
  30. 30. Volunteering European Social Survey, 2002 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Hungary Greece Poland Czech Republic Israel Spain Portugal Finland Slovenia Ireland UK Norway Sweden Netherlands12 July 2012 ISTR Conference, Siena 30

×