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  • Danielle Krucker
  • 4588e674d3f0faf

    1. 1. ADHD<br />By Danielle Krucker<br /> Music by Pat Kelly<br />
    2. 2. What is ADHD<br />Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a <br />condition of the brain that makes it <br />difficult for children to control their behavior. <br />ADHD is a neuro-psychiatric (behavioral)<br />condition. Doctors and researchers are still <br />unclear of what causes ADHD but they do have<br />evidence linking it to a genetic disorder. Children <br />with ADHD usually have a close relative with the <br />same disorder. Cigarette smoking during <br />pregnancy, premature delivery, low birth weight<br />and injuries to the brain are all contributing <br />factors to this disorder. Research has indicated <br />that children with ADHD do not produce enough <br />chemicals that control organized thought. These<br />chemicals called Neurotransmitters are <br />responsible for sending messages between<br />nerve cells in the brain. The neurotransmitter <br />dopamine stimulates the brains attention centers. <br />So, a person with low amounts of this chemical <br />may show symptoms of ADHD.<br />
    3. 3. <ul><li>Inattentive only</li></ul>Children with this form of ADHD are not overly active. Because they do not disrupt the classroom or other activities, their symptoms may not be noticed. Among girls with ADHD, this form is most common<br /><ul><li>Hyperactive/Impulsive</li></ul>Children with this type of ADHD show both hyperactive and impulsive behavior, but can pay attention. They are the least common group and are frequently younger<br /><ul><li>Combined Inattentive/Hyperactive/Impulsive</li></ul>Children with this type of ADHD show a number of symptoms in all 3 dimensions. This is the most common type of ADHD.<br />Types of ADHD<br />
    4. 4. Symptoms of ADHD<br />Hyperactivity<br />Is in constant motion, as if &quot;driven by a motor”<br />Cannot stay seated<br />Frequently squirms and fidgets<br />Talks too much<br />Often runs, jumps, and climbs when this is not permitted<br />Cannot play quietly<br />Impulsivity<br />Frequently acts and speaks without thinking<br />May run into the street without looking for traffic first<br />Frequently has trouble taking turns<br />Cannot wait for things<br />Often calls out answers before the question is complete<br />Frequently interrupts others<br />Inattention<br />Often has a very hard time paying attention, daydreams<br />Does not listen <br />Is easily distracted from work or play<br />Does not seem to care about details, makes careless mistakes<br />Frequently does not follow through on instructions or finish tasks<br />Is disorganized<br />Loses important things such as homework<br />Often forgets things<br />Avoids doing things that require ongoing mental effort<br />
    5. 5. Coexisting Conditions<br />Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) <br />At least 35% of kids with ADHD also have oppositional defiant disorder, which is characterized by stubbornness, outbursts of temper, acts of defiance and rule breaking. Conduct disorder is similar to ODD but it deals with excessive hostility and aggression. Kids who have conduct disorder are more likely to get in trouble with authority figures <br />Mood Disorders <br />About 18% of kids with ADHD also experience depression. They may feel inadequate, isolated, frustrated by school failures and social problems, and have low self-esteem<br />Anxiety Disorders <br /> Anxiety disorders affect about 25% of kids with ADHD. Symptoms include excessive worry, fear, or panic, which can also lead to physical symptoms such as a racing heart, sweating and stomach pains. Other forms of anxiety that can accompany ADHD are obsessive-compulsive disorder and Tourette syndrome<br />Emotional or Behavioral Disorders<br /><ul><li>ADHD often coexists with EBD, 42% of children receive services under the EBD category. Students must receive mental health services to help with internalizing, externalizing and low incidence behaviors. Examples are temper tantrums, being hostile or defiant, threatening others, depressed, socially withdrawn and excessive worrying.</li></ul>Learning Disabilities<br />About half of all kids with ADHD also have a specific learning disability. The most common learning problems are with reading (dyslexia) and handwriting. <br />
    6. 6. Myths about ADHD<br /> Myth #1: All kids with ADHD are hyperactive<br /><ul><li>Myth #2: Kids with ADHD can never pay attention
    7. 7. Myth #3: Kids with ADHD choose to be difficult, they could behave better if they wanted to
    8. 8. Myth #4: Kids will eventually grow out of ADHD
    9. 9. Myth #5: Medication is the best treatment option for ADHD
    10. 10. Myth#6: Only boys have ADHD
    11. 11. Myth#7: Bad Parenting
    12. 12. Myth#8: Children who take ADHD medication are more likely to abuse drugs when they become teenagers</li></li></ul><li>Positive Effects of ADHD<br />Creativity – Children who have ADHD can be creative and imaginative. The child who daydreams can have ten different thoughts at once. These children can become a master problem-solver or a great artist. Children with ADHD may sometimes notice what others don’t see<br />Flexibility – Children with ADHD consider many different options at once. They are more open to different ideas<br />Enthusiasm and spontaneity – Children with ADHD are rarely boring! They’re interested in many different things and have lively personalities.<br />Energy and drive – When kids with ADHD are motivated, they work or play hard and strive to succeed. It may be difficult to distract them from a task that interests them, especially if the activity is interactive or hands-on.<br />
    13. 13. Surprising Facts Out of 100 People with ADHD<br />40 have tried alcohol at an early age <br /> 25 will repeat at least one grade<br /> 30 have engaged in theft <br /> 75 have interpersonal problems<br />52 are abusing drugs and alcohol <br /> 20 have set fires<br /> 25 will be expelled from high school for misconduct <br />Studies show that approximately 50% of inmates have been found to have ADHD<br />People with ADHD have a higher percentage of motor vehicle accidents, speeding tickets, citations for driving without a license, suspended or revoked licenses, medical visits, and emergency room visits<br />Parents of ADHD children divorce three times more often than the general population<br />Teenagers with ADHD are six times more likely to have adversarial contact with the law and five times more likely to spend time in a juvenile justice facility<br />Between 40% and 59% of the children diagnosed with ADHD will eventually develop behaviors that meet the criteria for a diagnosis of oppositional defiant disorder<br />Studies have found that nearly 40% of all cocaine and opiate abusers meet the diagnostic criteria for ADHD<br />
    14. 14. Assessment<br />
    15. 15. Tips for Effective Teaching <br /><ul><li>Set expectations and define goals clearly by providing concrete examples
    16. 16. Provide step by step directions orally and in print
    17. 17. Work on the most difficult concepts early in the day
    18. 18. Simplify instructions and give directions to one assignment at a time instead of directions to multiple tasks all at once
    19. 19. Help students manage time by using egg timers and daily activity schedules
    20. 20. Vary the pace and type of activity to maximize the student’s attention
    21. 21. Assign classmates to help student stay on task
    22. 22. Have students evaluate their own work so they can correct their own mistakes
    23. 23. Monitor and modify instruction if student is having a difficult time
    24. 24. Use audiovisual materials and AT devices
    25. 25. Use behavioral prompts such as visual cues, hand gestures and proximity control</li></li></ul><li>Classroom Management Tips<br />Physical Environment<br />Structure the student’s environment to accommodate his or her special needs<br />Monitor noise level within the classroom<br />Student should be placed next to the teacher’s desk (This allows teacher to catch any off task behaviors before they become a problem)<br />Student’s desk can also be placed next to a model student, this will help keep student on task<br />Desk should not be near a high traffic area or near distractions such as pencil sharpeners, doorways or windows<br />Consistency<br />Teachers need to clarify rules, students need to fully understand your expectations from the beginning<br />Routines and procedures need to be enforced during the first weeks of school (ex. passing out papers, taking attendance or lining up) <br />Teachers have to be consistent when enforcing classroom rules, minimal rules and minimal choices are best for these children<br />Enforce rules on an everyday basis so the student will know your behavior as well as your response to inappropriate behavior. <br />Transition skills <br />Provide students advance warnings each time a new activity will begin<br />Students need to be taught how to move from one activity to another<br />
    26. 26. Verbal reinforcement through praise<br />Immediate, sincere and consistent praise increases the chances of positive behavior<br /> Provide constant feedback with detailed explanation telling the student what they did right and discuss why their behavior was appropriate when rewarding good behavior<br /> Effective teachers should consistently praise children with ADHD by looking for behavior to praise before they get off task<br />Behavior Management Techniques<br />
    27. 27. Reward Systems<br /> Motivate students by using token economy and/or tangible rewards<br /> Teachers can set goals for behavior based on time on task and academic performance. Children can earn or lose points depending on whether they completed an assignment on time. After earning a considerable amount of points, the student can receive a reward such as extra time on the computer or receive a prize <br />Self-Management System<br /> Allow student to self monitor, record and reward their own behavior. <br /> Tape a behavior chart to the students desk.The chart can have a happy or sad face that also includes anumber rating scale. These charts allow students to recognize their own behaviors and teach them to face their own positive or negative consequences. <br />Behavior Management Techniques<br />
    28. 28. Collaboration<br />
    29. 29. Thank you for watchingI hope you enjoyed my presentation<br />