Sharing 2.0 - collaborative consumption. The need to reinvent the personal Mobility systems in urban areas. Brief discription of Mobility sharing Systems and the importance of Shared Space and Public Space
sharing space & timefor a better urban mobility environment JUN’12
Why do we need to change our mobility paradigm?
Some data to think about... Over 6.7 billion people live on Earth with more than half living in urban areas. These include 26 cities with a population over ten million inhabitants each. Istanbul, Turkey: 14.3 mil. people Cairo, Egypt: 13.1 mil. people
Some data to think about... The world vehicle fleet is 850 million cars and trucks It represents 1 motor vehicle for each 8 inhabitants. If all these vehicles park bumper to bumper they will create a circle 100 times the diameter of the Earth.
Some data to think about... Most of the world’s urban spaces were not originally designed to support the present day car pressure – both in terms of space and time spent in urban trips. Worldwide, motor vehicles consume 18 million barrels of petrol a day. Each year these vehicles produce an emission of 2.7 billion tons of carbon dioxide. Road accidents claim 1.2 million lives each year.
The attempt to adapt cities to cars andtransit would led us to the destruction of public space and urban realm
the need for change oil production is limited new energy alternatives oil prices are growing faster than economy are needed
Forecasted oil consumption, production and discovery
the need for change time spent in everyday trips is growing A more efficient use of cars is Most part of car daylife is needed spent in parking facilities
the need for changeexisting urban space is scarce andurbanization is expensive A more rational land usegrowing of motorized mobility is distribution isconsuming more and more space, neededboth when vehicles are mooving or forparking purposes
Sharing & the new “we+me” mentality (good for society + saving money) global recession technology sharing community drivers sharing as a facilitator tosharing as an old market make new human bondsbehavior being reinvented because of technology environmental concerns sharing & sustainability
share… “(…) young people are beginning to think differently about car ownership. Unlike earlier generations, for whom owning a car was a signal of independence, of having arrived, young people these days are showing much less inclination to possess their own car – and, empowered by mobile phones, apps, social networks and start- ups like Streetcar, Zipcar, WhipCar and City Car Club, they are increasingly opting for car sharing.” John Elkington, The Guardian, June 2011
personal urban mobility systemsTrip Length high Carpool middle Carsharing taxi Bike-sharing Taxi-share short Private pedestrian Bike Low middle high Trip Cost
Bicycle Sharing [Paris.FR] What is? Velib’ - Large-scale public bicycle-sharing system in Paris, created by a public-private partnership between Paris Municipality and JCDecaux. How it works? _Commuters register first to have unlimited journeys with the first 30min free _ unlock a bike in a station by passing membership card or credit card if you are not member - Ride and lock the bike in any station you like Costs? Users: registration membership fee with unlimited 30min journey at €1.70 per day, €8/week, €29/year) Provider: €73 Mio (capital costs) + €28 Million (operating costs) , €1400/bicycle Advantages: Problems: -speed of implementation, - high maintenance costs - flexibility of use (return in different station) - redistribution of - users can be held responsible (credit- bicycles in stations card/membership mandatory) (manual) - Online availability of bikes and parking - thefts/vandalism (80% spaces in stations – real time information of the total—have beenRenting stations: 1.200 replaced due toBikes: 18.000 vandalism or theft)
Why Bicycle-sharing systems? The ultimate goal of bicycle-sharing is to expand and integrate cycling into transportation systems, so that it can more readily become a daily transportation mode (Shaheen, 2010), favoring intermodality. In general, the rationale for introducing bicycle-sharing is to promote cycling, increase mobility choices, improve air quality and reduce congestion, and increase public transport attractiveness. It is also seen as a means to promote the viability of public transport by providing an “extension service” for the “first/ last mile” - the distance which many consider to be too far to walk between home and public transport and/or public transport and the workplace (Shaheen, 2010).
Capital costs of Bycicle-sharing systems Capital costs per unit grows significantly when the number of bicycles are reduced (<1000) or when its very large (>1000), namely due to station costs
Operating costs of Bycicle-sharing systems Operating costs per unit seems to be constant independtly of the number of bicycles. It’s directly proportional to the size of the system
Comparision of operating and financing structures
Comparision of operating and financing structures
Bicycle share: Park & Bike [Lisboa.PT] What is? B’INA – Park & Bike, created in 2010 by EMEL (Municipality parking and mobility company) as a park&Ride system, now extended to all users in the city. How it works? _Parking users in the city of Lisbon (and other city users) can book a folding bicycle in advance (phone/e-mail) or directly in parking lot booth (2011 – target extended to all city users), _Return of the bicycle in same place where the user initiated the renting Costs? Users: park users pay a surplus over car parking fee for renting the bike (€3,5/day) Advantages: Problems: -Easy to use with public transport -Limited bicycles - Quick stock out (foldable bike) -Long time with no use (one user - flexible door-to-door last mile at a time) part of the journey -Unflexible returning point - allows all users, and not just park usersRenting spots: 12 public owned parksBikes: 20 folding bicycles
New electric bicycles sharing system: 20131st phase: 100 electric bikes, 20 stations + partners
Bike sharing schemes around the worldgenerate more than 2.2 millions trips per month.In Hangzou, China, the biggest bike-sharingcommunity in the world, more than 240 000 tripsare made each day thanks to 50,000 bikes (morethan twice the number of Paris’ Velib’).
Taxi Sharing [London.UK] What is? Regulated private sector by Transport for London, door-to-door transport with a fixed-fare according to the destination zone. How it works?_Commuters pick up a destination zone ticket from a taxi share marshal_Central London divided into seven zones, each with a corresponding flat fareper passenger_Marshal shows commuter to taxi, which they share with four other passengers_As each passenger is dropped off, they pay a flat fare, stated on their ticket Costs?The system promises fares per head of around a third of the meteredprice, not to mention less noise, disruption, congestion and pollution Advantages: Problems:- Fixed-fare cheaper than the metered price, -Limited spots to enter-less noise, disruption, congestion and the systempollution -Need to have a prepaid- Taxi owner: total charge per journey will be destination tickethigher once the individual fares are addedtogether-If there is a long queue of passengers or alocal shortage of taxis, passenger waitingtimes will be reduced
Electric Car Sharing [Paris.FR] What is? Autolib’ - self-servicing electric car service with no obligation to return the vehicle to the point of departure, provided by the City of Paris and private company Bolloré Group, since 2011. How it works? _ pre-register online & full registration completed in an Autolib Embassy Station _ rent an electric car in an Autolib station near by (online app) _ park it in any autolib station Costs? Users: membership available for €144 a year, €15 a week or €10 a day (extra €5 fee will be charged for every 30 minutes of travel), Investment : €250 Million (€100million invested by Bolloré Group that will collect profits + €35 Million invested by Paris Municipality, that built rental stations + €50.000 contribution per station by suburban authorities) Advantages: Problems: - autonomy: 250km without charging -Limited use to Paris Ille -No need to return in the pick up station the France Region (flexible trips) - if there’s no parking - estimated reduction equivalent to 22,500 available, the user has to privately owned vehicles or 164,500,000 return the bluecar to an fewer km’s driven per year by more polluting autolib center (8 in total)Stations: 1000 (Paris + 44 suburbs) vehicles.Blue cars: 3000 (2012) , 5000 (2013) - less pollution & less congestion
Car Sharing Lisboa.PT] What is? MobCar sharing - Renting car service with parking fee included (limited to 4h), available troughouty the city on and off-street parking places, runned by Lisbon Bus Public Transport Operator CARRIS since 2008. How it works? _Subscription of the service online and payment of annual membership fee _ reservation of the vehicle by dedicated phone number or online _ unlocking of car with “Public Transport Card”: “Lisboa Viva” or company card (that allows multiple users) _ return point at same place where the rental begun Costs? Users: Private or Company, annual membership fee (€50/ €100) plus a cost by each renting: €1,9/hour + €0,33/km (depending on vehicle) Provider: Not known (leasing vehicles/company own vehicles) Advantages: Problems: -Parking included on-street in entire city (4h) -Limited spots to enter -Carsharing for companies (special card – the system multiple users) -Only available for usersRenting spots: 8 parking locations -All driving costs included (fuel & parking);Cars: 10 (smart, hybrids, diesel) of public transport or for -Easy to use unlock system co-workers of companyClients: 100 private + 150 companies(100 shares/month, 3to4h use/each) that is part of the system
Peugeot sees a new attitude emerging among its consumers,with a clear demand for new forms of mobility. These reflect adesire to have access to a wider range of mobility solutions, agrowing need to cut back on the growing cost of owning a car(including depreciation, tax, insurance, parking and congestion charges),and an appetite to shrink carbon footprints – plus, no doubt, aquest for the cool new thing.Peugeots Mu is already operating in eight EU countries, includingBritain, with 80 rental locations and 15,000 users – 1,000 of them inLondon and Bristol.
DriveNow is the innovative car-sharing project from BMWi, MINI and SIXT.DriveNow is accessible to registered members, i.e. you must report once to a registration station.DriveNow offers modern, well-equipped MINI and BMW vehicles, which are available around the city,for spontaneous journeys from A to B. The vehicles can be reserved for a short period via our smartphone application or online.
P2P Car Sharing [USA] What is? Getaround – peer-to-peer networking private car rental system, matching drivers with renters trough an aplication (app) or website, created by a Silicon Valley start-up in May 2011. How it works? _ register online (as a renter or with your vehicle) _ proposal of vehicle renatl online according to the best suited location (vehicle near the customer) Costs? Owner of vehicle: free to register the vehicle in the system User: free to join the system – you just pay the fee to rent the vehicle Advantages: Problems: -Flexible sharing profile (you can choose - Key inside the vehicle authorised group of renters) or the need to arrange - high potencial matching connections time for the delivery of between owners/renters the key - efficient use of idle cars (that spent 90% of - returning vehicle in the the time stoped) same place where youMembers: 30.000 (Mar2012, one year) - easy to use & unlock vehicle system rentedVehicles: 8.000 - investment in “car kit” to allow wireless unlock
Car Pool [USA] What is? Carpooling.com – Biggest european online platform that allows drivers to match with other users according to their destination, since 2001. How it works? _ register online _ Driver offers seats in car & passenger car books a ride (and pays) Costs? Passenger car : pays for the ride according to driver conditions Advantages: Problems: -600.000 rides available -Limited to the driver - you can rate users/and choose according to journey and time -Save gas &toll money -Flexible access to the sistem (online, mobilie phone, social network)Members: 3.5 Million users (2010)Trips: 5.9 Million trips (2010)Where: 9 Countries (7 languages)
Key issues on shared systems1. Operation and maintenance costs2. Integration with public transport3. Access and type of users (only residents, pre-registered, pre-paid or free access)6. Area served (CBD or all the urban area)
Mobility is arguably the most vibrant sector of the sharing economy.