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Novas formas de pensar cidade

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Apresentação realizada no âmbito de uma acção de formação FUNDEC (Instituto Superior Técnico, Dez.2008), com o tema: "Os Modos suaves na mobilidade urbana".
A transformação da paisagem urbana, das vias rápidas ao desaparecer da rua e a reinvenção da cidade de hoje, através do retorno à rua, através da promoção da multifuncionalidade dos espaços urbanos, são alguns temas sobre os quais se desenvolve a narrativa que nos levam a "novas formas de pensar cidade".

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Novas formas de pensar cidade

  1. 1. suaves na Mobilidade Urbana | Curso FUNDEC | Os modos suaves na Mobilidade Urbana | Curso FUNDEC | Os modos suaves na Mo novas abordagens: pensar a cidade de hoje Renata Lajas | Eng. Território _ Bolseira de Investigação CESUR Renata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  2. 2. Olhar para trás…Renata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  3. 3. “Is possible that no invention of such a large influence have had once been spread out so quickly or so instantly that had created influences that grow trough our national culture, transforming also our thoughts and language habits” “Recent Social Trends in the United States”. Report of the President’s Research Comitee on Social Trends, 2 vols. McGraw Hill, 1933, pág. 172 os modelos que mudaram a popularidade do automóvel: Peugeot (1905), Ford T (1909) and VW (1938) Bardou, Jean Pierre et al (1982), The automobile revolution. The Univ. North Carolina Press, USARenata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  4. 4. a explosão da produção e da taxa de motorização vai modificar profundamente o equilibrio urbano Produção automóvel mundial 1950-2004 Fonte: Mastny, Lisa (org.) (2005), Vital Signs 2005, the trends that are shaping our future, Norton, NY/LondonRenata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  5. 5. das parkways Bronx River, 1922 às vias rápidas Le Corbusier, 1929 Toronto, CanadáFonte: Relph, Edward (1987), “Paisagem Urbana Moderna”, Edições 70Renata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  6. 6. até ao desaparecer da rua desenho das estradas e a mecanização das ruasRenata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  7. 7. a lógica “Predict & Provide”Renata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  8. 8. Renata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  9. 9. Dispersão urbana AML (1965) AML (1992-2001)Renata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  10. 10. A mudança generalizada para a rodovia e o automóvel enquanto sistema de transporte dominante, fomentou a alteração mais profunda em termos de fragmentação urbana e social, comuma segregação horizontal de usos do solo no interior da extensa região metropolitana”. Fonte: Stephan Graham, in “Redes, territorio y gobierno”, Joan Subirats Ed. UIMP, Barcelona, 2002. Renata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  11. 11. Bairro de Alvalade Ainda hoje um bom exemplo de urbanismo de proximidade e de mistura social e funcional Lagoas Parque Parque de escritórios isolado do espaço urbano, e com acessibilidade exclusivamente dependente do transporte individual23 Renata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  12. 12. “The trend from living to lifeless cities and residential areas that as accompanied industrialization, segregation of various city functions, and reliance on the automobile also has caused cities to become duller and more monotonous. This points up another important need, namelly the need for stimulation. Fonte: Jan Gehl, in “Life between buildings”, Arkitektens Forlag, 1986.Renata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  13. 13. Tracy Metz_observações do exemplo Americano “Further and fatter” & “Drive till you qualify” Fonte: Tracy Metz, “On the ground”, 2007. “ Ever more Americans spend an increasing amount of time travelling between work and home. This has a lot to do with the phenomenon “Drive till you qualify”: you drive away from the city until you reach the houses you can afford. Each highway exit you pass can save you tens of thousands of dollars. “Renata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  14. 14. Tagus Park Carnaxide Lagoas Park Montijo Q.ta da FonteRenata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  15. 15. a Carnaxid Quinta da Lagoas Tagus Do Montijo e Fonte Parque Park Distância (km)* 40 50 55 55 Custo em TI** 4,53 5,64 5,86 6,19 Custo em TC (€) *** 4,81 4,64 4,96 5,22 Tempo em TI (min.) * 40 min. 45 min. 45 min. 50 min. Tempo TC *** >1h25 >1h35 >1h40 >1h35 N.º transbordos mínimo 3 3 3 3 (TC) **Considerando Gasolina s/chumbo 95 (1,228€/litro, em* www.viamichelin.com 29/09/2006)*** www.transpor.pt ; Vimeca; TST **Considerando um consumo de 9 litros/100km ***Ligação mais directa (c/ bilhetes pré-comprados)Renata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  16. 16. uma questão de escala (e velocidade) Fonte: Mario J. AlvesRenata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  17. 17. Fonte: Mario J. Alves X 31Renata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  18. 18. Mobilidade vs. acessibilidade Fonte: Mario J. Alves, baseado no trabalho de Jan Gehl, 2007. Segundo o Livro verde sobre mobilidade urbana a acessibilidade “diz respeito, em primeiro lugar, às pessoas de mobilidade reduzida, aos deficientes, aos idosos, às famílias com crianças ou às próprias crianças: todas devem dispor de acesso fácil às infra-estruturas de transportes urbanos.Renata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  19. 19. REDE VIÁRIA ESPAÇO PÚBLICO linear espacial impessoal pessoal único propósito multi-propósito previsivel imprevisivel sistemático Contextual regulamentado definido culturalmente +mobilidade +acessibilidade ( ex: nº de escolas que estão ( ex: km/ano_movimento) acessíveis a 20 min. de casa_ acesso )Renata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  20. 20. A redução da velocidade e do número de veículos motorizados que entram na cidade, são dois aspectos fundamentais para o início da mudança dos padrões de mobilidade numa cidade. Segundo as Nações Unidas (2007) uma “Cidade Segura” é uma “Cidade Justa”, e tal só é possível se as pessoas forem o elemento central do desenho urbano, traduzindo-se então esta ordem de prioridades na qualidade do espaço público.Renata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  21. 21. Renata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  22. 22. a rua de modo (entre transportes… •Função de trocas/câmbios de estado (parado/movimento •Função Deslocaçao o eixo entre o ponto A e B, pode ser também utilizado para estadia •Funçao Social Zona de encontro e de actividadesRenata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  23. 23. A rua como matriz do espaço publico •Necessárias as que os peões não tem escolha, independente do meio exterior •Opcionais as que fazemos se as condições do espaço permitirem (apanhar sol, passear, relaxar) •Sociais dependem da presença do outro no espaço publico Jan GehlRenata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  24. 24. 1900 2000 Car invasion mid 1950´sRenata Lajas Perth, West Australia Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  25. 25. “Num espaço exterior sem qualidade as pessoas apressam-se a ir para casa.” “People atract people” Jan GehlRenata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  26. 26. ContactosAppleyard andLintell“The EnvironmentalQuality of CityStreets”Renata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  27. 27. SentidosRenata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  28. 28. As distancias sociais “The hidden dimension”, Edward T.Hall •Íntima (0 a 45 cm) a distância a que sentimentos intensos são partilhados: carinho, conforto, raiva, amor… •Pessoal (0,45 a 1,30m) a distância de conversação entre amigos próximos e família… •Social (1,30 a 3,75m) a distância de uma conversa banal entre amigos, conhecidos, vizinhos, etc… •Pública (maior que 3,75m) distancia de situações mais formais (figuras publicas, palestras, etc)Renata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  29. 29. Renata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  30. 30. Av. Defensores Chaves (obras do metro, um dos sentidos esta cortado)Renata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  31. 31. rede incoerente (os paraísos e os infernos dos modos suaves)Não se pode falar de cidade acessível enquanto esta for assimRenata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  32. 32. Renata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  33. 33. •+Congestionamento •Aquecimento global, emissões e Poluição •Aumento do preço do petróleo • aumento do sedentarismo e obesidade •Envelhecimento da população •Desertificação do centro da cidadeRenata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  34. 34. Como fazer? ou Integrar SegregarRenata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  35. 35. O código da rua The principle behind the “street code” is that the streets can no longer be only associated with the circulation function. Instead the aim is to give back the streets for people by: •Approaching the public space as a undeniable truth that it is public domain for all (and not only motorists); •Assuring the coherence of the whole (planning, see the city as a system, connected by public space); •Promote effective planning oriented by road safety principles •Reducing the differences of speeds between the users of the street, as well as the differences of vulnerability and the amount of cars in the city are three factors important to achieve cohabitation in the public space;Renata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  36. 36. “Pensar em termos de rede é mudar radicalmente certos paradigmas no novo ordenamento do território: • Do zonamento à mistura (de usos do solo) • Da homogeneização, equidade e standardização à diversidade • Do equilíbrio à complementaridade • Da hierarquia à colaboração e cooperação • Da delimitação à abertura • Da auto-suficiência à inter-relação”. Fonte: Ricard Pié, “El territorio en la sociedad de las redes”. UIMP, Barcelona, 2002.42 Renata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  37. 37. “Numa sociedade competitiva, ordenar e orientar as dinâmicas territoriais a partir de um conceito de funcionamento em rede, de integração, de inter- relação multidireccional, pressupõe contrapor os valores sociais da cooperação aos da concorrência e do enfrentamento”. Fonte: Ricard Pié, “El territorio en la sociedad de las redes”. UIMP, Barcelona, 2002.43 Renata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  38. 38. Abordagem a partir das pessoas •(a)diagnostico: Espaços públicos, utilizações dos •Conhecer os problemas edifícios, pontos de conflito, acidentes, peão, •(b)Ouvir as pessoas (o que ambicionam, o que queriam, onde estão os problemas) •Perceber as potencialidades •(mapa de frio/quente, actividades, clusters de actividades, etc) •Peão/bicicleta (redes naturais) •Montar uma estratégia com os diversos actores/interlocutores •Identificar prioridades para a concretização do conceito de intervenção •Subdividir a actuação nas diversas acçõesRenata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  39. 39. algumas notas 1 acessibilidade condiçãotodos comopúblico, em vez de, na prática, sea lógica actual e elevar a para do transporte política pública, implica inverter continuar a privilegiar o transporte individual 2 promover um novo conceito de mobilidade urbana, passa por favorecer a acessibilidade em detrimento da mobilidade, o que implica uma articulação mais forte entre o planeamento do transporte e os usos do solo 3 a combinação de medidas de acalmia de tráfego, modos suaves, educação e a introdução de zonas 30 e partilhadas nas áreas residenciais, são exemplos de gestão de tráfego através do desenho urbano, que contribuem para uma maior utilização do espaço público, o que é essencial para uma maior integração social.Renata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  40. 40. Diagnóstico: Bio mapping “Stress Maps”, “Emotional maps”, etc.Renata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  41. 41. Project Concept: “By recording our own bodys bio data along with our geographic location we can review the information and make meaningful decisions about our life.” How it works: “The Galvanic Skin Response sensor measures the amount of skin conductivity. Im suggesting that a change in skin conductivity not only tells something about your body, but also suggests an emotive event. Im plotting the amount of change in the skin resistance level versus location.” “Measured from the palm or fingertips, there are changes in the relative conductance of a small electrical current between the electrodes. The activity of the sweat glands in response to sympathetic nervous stimulation ( Increased sympathetic activation ) results in an increase in the level of conductance. There ia a relationship between sympathetic activity and emotional arousal (… )”Renata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  42. 42. Medidas: Zonas 30/20 km/h The objective of instituting 30-km/h zones is to limit the adverse effects of motorized traffic in the living environment. The exclusion of through traffic and the imposition of a low speed limit on local traffic achieve the following goals: • Improving traffic safety • Improving liveability • Protecting the environment.Renata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  43. 43. Medidas: “Urban Lounge”Renata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  44. 44. “Streets are the living rooms of cities” Jane JacobsRenata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  45. 45. Renata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  46. 46. Renata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  47. 47. Medidas: pedonalização em CopenhagaAmagertov (1962 e 1993) Fonte: Jan Gehl, in “Public Spaces, Public Life”, Dep.Urban Design, 2004. Renata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  48. 48. Medidas: pedonalização em Copenhaga Straedet (1992) Fonte: Jan Gehl, in “Public Spaces, Public Life”, Dep.Urban Design, 2004.Renata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  49. 49. Medidas: Seul - Cheonggyecheon Fonte: Mário J. AlvesRenata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  50. 50. Fonte: Office fédéral des routes (OFROU) ser respeitado Todos devemos ser respeitados Mais velhos, mais novos, com mobilidade reduzida ou não, motorizados ou não …o respeito mútuo e a serenidade são 2 aspectos importantes para uma melhor qualidade de vida Renata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  51. 51. A “good” city is a city where people can move from one place to another in different ways, according to their preferences, physical capacities, and activities to do, according to their needs, hurries, places and neighbourhoods to cross, the time of the day or the season of the year. The city is a chain of rhythms, individual or collectives, with an extraordinary diversity. To each activity, occupation, sequence in life, corresponds a particular rhythm, a singular composition of movement and quietness. “Mobilités Urbaines”, Georges Armar [2004], Ed. de l’Aube, Paris.Renata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  52. 52. Due to the complexity inherent to the needs of moving people and goods;the importance of social, cultural, economic and political aspects are crucial;every policy drawn to fight this problem has to be simultaneously: 1 Integrated; in relation to several modes of transport (including soft modes), and at urban planning, land management and transports level. 2 Coherent; in order to not present contradictory measures in itself, those will annulated the good measures or favoured wrong signs to the different agents to be mobilize for its concretisation. 3 Continuous; because the results are only seen in a medium-long term, so it is necessary to maintain the right course to insure that the applied measures will work. 4 Clear and participated; changing habits and the acceptation of individual sacrifices in the name of a collective interest – as is the case of better environment and urban quality - are only possible if the population understands what are the challenges and the benefits, as well as it feels itself part of the solution and not only of the problem. Renata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008
  53. 53. Renata Lajas Lisboa | Dezembro 2008

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