Vegetable Production Handbook for Florida 2012-2013 EDITORS: Stephen M. Olson, Ph.D. Bielinski Santos, Ph.D. University of Floridas North Florida University of Floridas Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, Quincy Research and Education Center, WimaumaCitrus & Vegetable MA G A Z I N E
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Vegetable Production Handbook for Florida 2012-2013 Editors: Stephen M. Olson, Ph.D. Bielinski Santos, Ph.D. University of Floridas North Florida University of Floridas Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, Quincy Research and Education Center, WimaumaCitrus & Vegetable MA G A Z I N E
AUTHORS D aniel A. Botts, Director, Environmental and Pest Management Division, Florida Fruit Vegetable Association - Maitland Peter J. Dittmar, Assistant Professor, Horticultural Sciences Department - Gainesville Michael D. Dukes, Associate Professor, Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department - Gainesville Mary L. Lamberts, Extension Agent IV, District V - Miami-Dade County - Homestead Andrew W. MacRae, Assistant Professor, Gulf Coast Research and Education Center - Wimauma Eugene McAvoy, Extension Agent IV, Hendry County, Labelle Joseph W. Noling, Professor, Citrus Research and Education Center - Lake Alfred Stephen M. Olson, Professor, North Florida Research and Education Center - Quincy Monica Ozores-Hampton, Assistant Professor, Southwest Florida Research and Education Center – Immokalee Natalia Peres, Associate Professor, Gulf Coast Research and Education Center - Wimauma James F. Price, Associate Professor, Gulf Coast Research and Education Center - Wimauma Richard N. Raid, Professor, Everglades Research and Education Center - Belle Glade Pam D. Roberts, Professor, Southwest Florida Research and Education Center - Immokalee Bielinski M. Santos, Assistant Professor, Gulf Coast Research and Education Center - Wimauma Eric H. Simonne, Professor, Office of District Directors - Gainesville Scott A. Smith, Coordinator, Economic Analysis, Food and Resource Economics Department - Gainesville Crystal A. Snodgrass, Extension Agent I, Manatee County - Palmetto David D. Sui, Extension Agent II, Palm Beach County - West Palm Beach Gary E. Vallad, Assistant Professsor, Gulf Coast Research and Education Center - Wimauma Susan E. Webb, Associate Professor, Entomology and Nematology Department - Gainesville Alicia J. Whidden, Extension Agent II, Hillsborough County, Seffner Vance M. Whitaker, Assistant Professor, Gulf Coast Research and Education Center – Wimauma Shouan Zhang, Assistant Professor, Tropical Research adn Education Center - Homestead Lincoln Zotarelli, Assistant Professor, Horticultural Sciences Department - Gainesville COVER PHOTOS Top left – umble bee visiting B Center right – lossom end rot and B Bottom left –Watermelon rind necrosis watermelon male flower poor pollination of Bottom right – outhern blight S Top right- Seedless watermelon fruit watermelon fruit (Sclerotium rolfsii) on Center left – Powdery mildew on cantaloupe fruit underside of cantoloupe leaf (photo credits Josh Freeman) (photo credits Mathews Paret) (photo credits Mathews Paret) ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The purpose of this book is to provide the best and most up-to-date information available to the primary users of thisbook - the Florida vegetable industry. This is possible because of the efforts of many University of Florida faculty in severallocations around the State. The editors gratefully acknowledge their contributions. The editors also wish to acknowledge thecontributions of the following faculty who have retired or are no longer involved in extension:Richard P. Cromwell George Hochmuth Thomas A. Kucharek O.N. Nesheim Bill M. StallKent E. Cushman Chad Hutchinson Kenneth D. Shuler Kenneth Pernezny Charles VavrinaCraig.K. Chandler Freddie Johnson Donald N. Maynard Allen G. Smajstrla Page ii
CONTENTSChapter 1. Introduction Chapter 14. Onion, Leek, and Chive Production in FloridaS.M. Olson........................................................................................... 1 S.M. Olson, P.J. Dittmar, N.A. Peres, S.E. Webb........................... 173Chapter 2. Soil and Fertilizer Management for Vegetable Chapter 15. Minor Vegetable Crops: Beets, Carrots, CeleryProduction in Florida and ParsleyG.D. Liu, E.H. Simonne and G.J. Hochmuth.................................... 3 M. Ozores-Hampton, P.J. Dittmar, S.E. Webb, R.N. Raid, S.M. Olson....................................................................................... 187Chapter 3. Principles and Practices of Irrigation Management forVegetables Chapter 16. Pepper Production in FloridaM.D. Dukes, L. Zotarelli, G.D. Liu and E.H. Simonne................... 17 S.M. Olson, P.J. Dittmar, G.E. Vallad, S.E. Webb, E.J. McAvoy, S.A. Smith, M. Ozores-Hampton, B.M Santos......... 223Chapter 4. Nematodes and Their ManagementJ.W. Noling........................................................................................ 29 Chapter 17. Potato Production in Florida L. Zotarelli, P.D. Roberts, P.J. Dittmar, S.E. Webb, S.A. Smith,Chapter 5. Weed Management B.M. Santos, S.M. Olson................................................................. 243P.J. Dittmar and A.W. MacRae......................................................... 39 Chapter 18. Radish Production in FloridaChapter 6. Alternative to Methyl Bromide Soil Fumigation for M. Ozores-Hampton, P.J. Dittmar, R.N. Raid, S.E. Webb,Florida Vegetable Production E.J. McAvoy..................................................................................... 261J.W. Noling, D.A. Botts and A. W. MacRae..................................... 47 Chapter 19. Spinach Production in FloridaChapter 7. Cole Crop Production in Florida S.M. Olson, P.J. Dittmar, S.E. Webb, R.N. Raid............................ 269S.M. Olson, P.J. Dittmar, G.E. Vallad, S.E. Webb, S.A. Smith........ 55 Chapter 20. Strawberry Production in FloridaChapter 8. Specialty Asian Vegetable Production in Florida B.M. Santos, N.A. Peres, J.F. Price, V.M. Whitaker, P.J. Dittmar,M.L. Lamberts, E.J. McAvoy, D.D. Sui, A.J. Whidden, S.M. Olson, S.A. Smith ................................................................... 281C.A. Snodgrass.................................................................................. 81 Chapter 21. Sweet Corn Production in FloridaChapter 9. Cucurbit Production in Florida M. Ozores-Hampton, P.J. Dittmar, S.M. Olson, S.E. Webb,S.M. Olson, P.J. Dittmar, P.D. Roberts, S.E. Webb, S.A. Smith...... 87 S.A. Smith, R.N. Raid, E.J. McAvoy............................................... 293Chapter 10. Eggplant Production in Florida Chapter 22. Sweetpotato Production in FloridaB.M. Santos, P.J. Dittmar, S. Zhang, S.E. Webb, S.M. Olson, M.L. Lamberts, P.J. Dittmar,S.A. Smith, E.J. McAvoy, M. Ozores-Hampton.............................. 111 S. Zhang, S.E. Webb........................................................................ 309Chapter 11. Legume Production in Florida: Snapbean, Lima Bean, Chapter 23. Tomato Production in FloridaSouthern pea, Snowpea S.M. Olson, P.J. Dittmar, G.E. Vallad, S.E. Webb, S.A. Smith,S.M. Olson, P.J. Dittmar, S.E. Webb, S. Zhang, E.J. McAvoy, B.M Santos, M. Ozores-Hampton............................ 321S.A. Smith, E.J. McAvoy, M. Ozores-Hampton.............................. 127 Chapter 24. Tropical Root Crop Production in FloridaChapter 12. Lettuce, Endive, Escarole Production in Florida M. L. Lamberts and S.M. Olson..................................................... 345B.M. Santos, P.J. Dittmar, R.N. Raid, S.E. Webb........................... 143Chapter 13. Okra Production in FloridaB.M. Santos, P.J. Dittmar, S.M. Olson, S.E. Webb, S. Zhang........ 163 Page iii
ADDITIONAL REFERENCESMore Information from the UF/IFAS Marketing Strategies for Vegetable Principles of micro irrigation:Electronic Database Information System Growers: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/WI007(EDIS, http://edis.ufas.ufl.edu): http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/document_cv116 Treating irrigation systems with chlorine:1. on-line Chapters of previous editions of Production Costs for Selected Florida http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AE080the Vegetable Production Handbook Vegetables: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/document_cv117 Water quality/quantity best managementVariety Selection: practices for Florida vegetable and agro-http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/document_cv102 Pesticide Provisions of the Florida nomic crops: Agricultural Worker Safety Act (FAWSA): http://www.floridaagwaterpolicy.com/PDF/Seed Quality and Seeding Technology: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/document_cv289 Bmps/Bmp_VeggieAgroCrops2005.pdfhttp://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/document_cv103 Principles and Practices of Food Safety for Water wells for Florida irrigation systems:Transplant Production: Vegetable Production in Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/WI002http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/document_cv104 http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/document_cv288 Weather and Climate Tools for AgriculturalMulching: Introduction to Organic Crop Production: Producers:http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/document_cv105 http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/document_cv118 http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AE440Row Covers for Growth Enhancement:http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/document_cv106 2. Additional References:Pesticide Safety: Automatic irrigation based on soil mois-http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/document_cv108 ture for vegetable crops: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AE354Interpreting PPE Statements on PesticideLabels: Causes and prevention of emitter plugginghttp://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/document_cv285 in microirrigation systems: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AE032The Worker Protection Standard:http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/document_cv138 Drip-irrigation Systems for Small Conventional Vegetable Farms andCalibration of Chemical Applicators Used Organic Vegetable Farms:in Vegetable Production: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/HS388http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/document_cv110 Field devices for monitoring soil waterInsects that Affect Vegetable Crops: content:http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/document_cv111 http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AE266Integrated Disease Management for Good worker health and hygiene practices:Vegetable Crops in Florida: Training manual for produce handlers:http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/document_cv291 http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/FY743Yields of Vegetables: http://edis.ifas.ufl. Guidelines for enrolling in Florida’s BMPedu/document_cv114 program for vegetable crops: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/HS367Handling, Cooling and SanitationTechniques for Maintaining Postharvest Injection of chemicals into irrigationQuality: systems: Rates, volumes and injectionhttp://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/document_cv115 periods: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/AE116 Page iv
CROP INDEXCrop Pages Crop Pages Crop Pages Crop PagesAsian vegetables 81-86 Tropical root crops 345-351 Lima bean 127-142 Southernpea 127-142Bean 127-142 Chive 173-185 Mustard 55-79 Spinach 269-279Beet 187-221 Collards 55-79 Okra 163-171 Squash 87-110Broccoli 55-79 Cucumber 87-110 Onion 173-185 Strawberry 281-291Cabbage 55-79 Eggplant 111-125 Parsley 187-221 Sweet corn 293-307Cantaloupe 87-110 Endive, Escarole 143-161 Pepper 223-242 Sweetpotato 309-319Carrot 187-221 Kale 55-79 Potato 243-259 Tomato 321-344Cauliflower 55-79 Leek 173-185 Radish 261-268 Turnip 55-79Celery 187-221 Lettuce 143-161 Snowpea 127-142 Watermelon 87-110 FLORIDA PESTICIDE EMERGENCY PHONE LIST Call 911 for pesticide emergencies or the appropriate contact below: * National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC), 800-858-7378, 9:30 a.m. through 6:30 p.m., 7 days a week. * The Poison Center Emergency Telephone Service, 800-222-1222 * The manufacturer of the pesticide in question. Their phone number is listed on the pesticide label. The information above was provided by the University of Florida’s Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Pesticide Information Office 352-392-4721. FLORIDA COUNTY COOPERATIVE EXTENSION OFFICESALACHUA COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE BREVARD COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE CITRUS COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE2800 NE 39th Avenue 3695 Lake Drive 3650 West Sovereign Path, Suite 1Gainesville, Florida 32609-2658 Cocoa, Florida 32926-4219 Lecanto, FL 34461-8070PH: (352) 955-2402 PH: (321) 633-1702 PH: (352) 527-5700FAX: (352) 334-0122 FAX: (321) 633-1890 FAX: (352) 527-5749E-MAIL: Alachua@ifas.ufl.edu EMAIL: Brevard@ifas.ufl.edu EMAIL: email@example.com://alachua.ifas.ufl.edu http://brevard.ifas.ufl.edu http://citrus.ifas.ufl.eduBAKER COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE BROWARD COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE CLAY COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE1025 West Macclenny Ave. 3245 College Avenue 2463 SR 16WMacclenny, Florida 32063-9640 Davie, Florida 33314-7719 P.O. Box 278PH: (904) 259-3520 PH: (954) 357-5270 Green Cove Springs, Florida 32043-0278FAX: (904) 259-9034 FAX: (954) 357-5271 PH: (904) 284-6355E-MAIL: Baker@ifas.ufl.edu EMAIL: Broward@ifas.ufl.edu FAX: (904) 529-9776http://baker.ifas.ufl.edu www.broward.org/extension EMAIL: Clay@ifas.ufl.edu http://clay.ifas.ufl.eduBAY COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE CALHOUN COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE2728 E. 14th Street 20816 Central Ave. East Suite1 COLLIER COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICEPanama City, Florida 32401-5022 Blountstown, Florida 32424-2292 14700 Immokalee RoadPH: (850) 784-6105 PH: (850) 674-8323 Naples, Florida 34120-1468FAX: (850) 784-6107 FAX: (850) 674-8353 PH: (239) 353-4244EMAIL: Bay@ifas.ufl.edu EMAIL: Calhoun@ifas.ufl.edu FAX: (239) 353-7127http://bay.ifas.ufl.edu http://calhoun.ifas.ufl.edu EMAIL: Collier@ifas.ufl.edu http://collier.ifas.ufl.eduBRADFORD COUNTY EXTENSION OFFFICE CHARLOTTE COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE2266 North Temple Avenue 25550 Harbor View Road, COLUMBIA COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICEStarke, Florida 32091-1612 Suite 3 164 SW Mary Ethel Ln,PH: (904) 966-6224 Port Charlotte, Florida 33980-2503 Lake City, Florida 32025-1597FAX: (904) 964-9283 PH: (941) 764-4340 PH: (386) 752-5384EMAIL: Bradford@ifas.ufl.edu FAX: (941) 764-4343 FAX: (386) 758-2173http://bradford.ifas.ufl.edu EMAIL: Charlotte@ifas.ufl.edu EMAIL: Columbia@ifas.ufl.edu http://charlotte.ifas.ufl.edu http://columbia.ifas.ufl.edu Page v
FLORIDA COUNTY COOPERATIVE EXTENSION OFFICESDESOSTO COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE GILCHRIST COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE HIGHLANDS COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE2150 Northeast Roan Street 125 East Wade Street P.O. Box 157 4509 George Blvd.Arcadia, Florida 34266-5025 Trenton, Florida 32693-0157 Sebring, Florida 33875-5837PH: (863) 993-4846 PH: (352) 463-3174 PH: (863) 402-6540FAX: (863) 993-4849 FAX: (352) 463-3197 FAX: (863) 402-6544EMAIL: Desoto@ifas.ufl.edu EMAIL: Gilchrist@ifas.ufl.edu EMAIL: Highlands@ifas.ufl.eduhttp://desoto.ifas.ufl.edu http://gilchrist.ifas.ufl.edu http://highlands.ifas.ufl.eduDIXIE COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE GLADES COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY EXTENSION99 Northeast 121st Street P.O. Box 640 900 US 27, SW OFFICECross City, Florida 32628-0640 P.O. Box 549 5339 County Road 579PH: (352) 498-1237 Moore Haven, Florida 33471-0549 Seffner, Florida 33584-3334FAX: (352) 498-1471 PH: (863) 946-0244 PH: (813) 744-5519EMAIL: Dixie@ifas.ufl.edu FAX: (863) 946-0629 FAX: (813) 744-5776http://dixie.ifas.ufl.edu EMAIL: Glades@ifas.ufl.edu EMAIL: Hillsborough@ifas.ufl.edu http://glades.ifas.ufl.edu http://hillsborough.ifas.ufl.eduDUVAL COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE1010 North McDuff Ave. GULF COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE HOLMES COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICEJacksonville, Florida 32254-2083 200 N 2nd Street 1169 East Hwy 90PH: (904) 387-8850 P.O. Box 250 Bonifay, Florida 32425-6012FAX: (904) 387-8902 Wewahitchka, Florida 32465-0250 PH: (850) 547-1108EMAIL: Duval@ifas.ufl.edu PH: (850) 639-3200 FAX: (850) 547-7433http://duval.ifas.ufl.edu FAX: (850) 639-3201 EMAIL: Holmes@ifas.ufl.edu EMAIL: Gulf@ifas.ufl.edu http://holmes.ifas.ufl.eduESCAMBIA COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE http://gulf.ifas.ufl.edu3740 Stefani Road INDIAN RIVER EXTENSION OFFICECantonment, Florida 32533-7792 HAMILTON COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE 1028 20th Place, Suite DPH: (850) 475-5230 1143 NW US Highway 41 Jasper, Florida Vero Beach, Florida 32960-5305FAX: (850) 475-5233 32052-5856 PH: (772) 770-5030EMAIL: Escambia@ifas.ufl.edu PH: (386) 792-1276 FAX: (772) 770-5148http://escambia.ifas.ufl.edu FAX: (386)792-6446 EMAIL: Indian@ifas.ufl.edu EMAIL: Hamilton@ifas.ufl.edu http://indian.ifas.ufl.eduFLAGLER COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE http://hamilton.ifas.ufl.edu150 Sawgrass Road JACKSON COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICEBunnell, Florida 32110-4325 HARDEE COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE 2741 Pennsylvania Avenue, Suite 3PH: (386) 437-7464 507 Civic Center Drive Marianna, Florida 32448-4022FAX: (386) 586-2102 Wauchula, Florida 33873-9460 PH: (850) 482-9620EMAIL: Flagler@ifas.ufl.edu PH: (863) 773-2164 FAX: (850) 482-9287http://www.flaglercounty.org FAX: (863) 773-6861 EMAIL: Jackson@ifas.ufl.edu EMAIL: Hardee@ifas.ufl.edu http://jackson.ifas.ufl.eduFRANKLIN COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE http://hardee.ifas.ufl.edu66 Fourth Street JEFFERSON COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICEApalachicola, Florida 32320-1775 HENDRY COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE 275 North Mulberry StreetPH: (850) 653-9337 1085 Pratt Blvd Monticello, Florida 32344-1423FAX: (850) 653-9447 P.O. Box 68 PH: (850) 342-0187EMAIL: Franklin@ifas.ufl.edu LaBelle, Florida 33975-0068 FAX: (850) 997-5260http://franklin.ifas.ufl.edu PH: (863) 674-4092 EMAIL: Jefferson@ifas.ufl.edu FAX: (863) 674-4637 http://jefferson.ifas.ufl.eduGADSDEN COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE EMAIL: Hendry@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu2140 West Jefferson Street http://hendry.ifas.ufl.edu LAFAYETTE COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICEQuincy, Florida 32351-1905 176 Southwest Community Circle, Suite DPH: (850) 875-7255 HERNANDO COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE Mayo, Florida 32066-4000FAX: (850) 875-7257 1653 Blaise Drive PH: (386) 294-1279EMAIL: Gadsden@ifas.ufl.edu Brooksville, Florida 34601 FAX: (386) 294-2016http://gadsden.ifas.ufl.edu PH: (352) 754-4433 EMAIL: Lafayette@ifas.ufl.edu FAX: (352) 754-4489 http://lafayette.ifas.ufl.edu EMAIL: Hernando@ifas.ufl.edu http://www.co.hernando.fl.us/county_exten- sion/ Page vi
FLORIDA COUNTY COOPERATIVE EXTENSION OFFICESLAKE COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE MARION COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE ORANGE COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE1951 Woodlea Road 2232 NE Jacksonville Rd. 6021 South Conway RoadTavares, Florida 32778-4407 Ocala, Florida 34470-3615 Orlando, Florida 32812-3604PH: (352) 343-4101 PH: (352) 671-8400 PH: (407) 254-9200FAX: (352) 343-2767 FAX: (352) 671-8420 FAX: (407) 850-5125EMAIL: Lake@ifas.ufl.edu EMAIL: Marion@ifas.ufl.edu EMAIL: Orange@ifas.ufl.eduhttp://lake.ifas.ufl.edu http:// marion.ifas.ufl.edu http://orange.ifas.ufl.edu/LEE COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE MARTIN COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE OSCEOLA COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE3406 Palm Beach Blvd. 2614 S.E. Dixie Hwy. 1921 Kissimmee Valley LaneFort Myers, Florida 33916-3736 Stuart, Florida 34996-4007 Kissimmee, Florida 34744-6107PH: (239) 533-4327 PH: (772) 288-5654 PH: (321) 697-3000FAX: (239) 485-2305 FAX: (772) 288-4354 FAX: (321) 697-3010EMAIL: Lee@ifas.ufl.edu EMAIL: Martin@ifas.ufl.edu EMAIL: Osceola@ifas.ufl.eduhttp://lee.ifas.ufl.edu http://martin.ifas.ufl.edu http://osceola.ifas.ufl.eduLEON COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE MIAMI-DADE COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE PALM BEACH COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE615 Paul Russell Road 18710 SW 288th Street 559 North Military TrailTallahassee, Florida 32301-7099 Homestead, Florida 33030-2309 West Palm Beach, Florida 33415-1311PH: (850) 606-5200 PH: (305) 248-3311 PH: (561) 233-1700FAX: (850) 606-5201 FAX: (305) 246-2932 FAX: (561) 233-1768EMAIL: firstname.lastname@example.org EMAIL: Miamiemail@example.com EMAIL: Palmbeach@ifas.ufl.eduhttp://leon.ifas.ufl.edu http://miami-dade.ifas.ufl.edu/ http://palm-beach.ifas.ufl.eduLEVY COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE MONROE COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE PASCO COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE625 North Hathaway Avenue, Alt 27 1100 Simonton Street, # 2-260 36702 SR 52P.O. Box 219 Key West, Florida 33040-3110 Dade City, Florida 33525-5198Bronson, Florida 32621-0219 PH: (305) 292-4501 PH: (352) 521-4288PH: (352) 486-5131 FAX: (305) 292-4415 FAX: (352) 523-1921FAX: (352) 486-5481 EMAIL: Monroe@ifas.ufl.edu EMAIL: Pasco@ifas.ufl.eduEMAIL: http://monroe.ifas.ufl.edu http://pasco.ifas.ufl.eduLevy@ifas.ufl.eduhttp://levy.ifas.ufl.edu NASSAU COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE PINELLAS COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE 543350 US Hwy. 1 12520 Ulmerton RoadLIBERTY COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE Callahan, Florida 32011-6486 Largo, Florida 33774-360210405 Northwest Theo Jacobs Way PH: (904) 879-1019 PH: (727) 582-2100Bristol, Florida 32321-3299 FAX: (904) 879-2097 FAX: (727) 582-2149PH: (850) 643-2229 EMAIL: Nassau@ifas.ufl.edu EMAIL: Pinellas@ifas.ufl.eduFAX: (850) 643-3584 http://nassau.ifas.ufl.edu http://pinellas.ifas.ufl.eduEMAIL: Liberty@ifas.ufl.eduhttp://liberty.ifas.ufl.edu OKALOOSA COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE POLK COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE 5479 Old Bethel Road 1702 Highway 17-98MADISON COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE Crestview, Florida 32536-5512 South Bartow, Florida 33830184 NW College Loop PH: (850) 689-5850 P.O. Box 9005 Drawer HS03Madison, Florida 32340-1412 FAX: (850) 689-5727 Bartow, FL 33831-9005PH: (850) 973-4138 EMAIL: firstname.lastname@example.org PH: (863) 519-8677FAX: (850) 973-2000 http://okaloosa.ifas.ufl.edu FAX: (863) 534-0001EMAIL: Madison@ifas.ufl.edu EMAIL: Polk@ifas.ufl.eduhttp://madison.ifas.ufl.edu OKEECHOBEE COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE http://polk.ifas.ufl.edu 458 Hwy. 98 North Okeechobee, FloridaMANATEE COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE 34972-2303 PUTNAM COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE1303 17th Street West PH: (863) 763-6469 111 Yelvington Road, Suite 1Palmetto, Florida 34221-2934 FAX: (863) 763-6745 East Palatka, Florida 32131-2114PH: (941) 722-4524 EMAIL: Okeechobee@ifas.ufl.edu PH: (386) 329-0318FAX: (941) 721-6608 http://okeechobee.ifas.ufl.edu FAX: (386) 329-1262EMAIL: Manatee@ifas.ufl.edu EMAIL: Putnam@ ifas.ufl.eduhttp://manatee.ifas.ufl.edu http://putnam.ifas.ufl.edu Page vii
FLORIDA COUNTY COOPERATIVE EXTENSION OFFICESSANTA ROSA COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE SUMTER COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE WAKULLA COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE6263 Dogwood Drive 7620 State Road 471, Suite 2 84 Cedar AvenueMilton, Florida 32570-3500 Bushnell, Florida 33513-8716 Crawfordville, Florida 32327-2063PH: (850) 623-3868 PH: (352) 793-2728 PH: (850) 926-3931FAX: (850) 623-6151 FAX: (352) 793-6376 FAX: (850) 926-8789EMAIL: Santarosa@ifas.ufl.edu EMAIL: Sumter@ifas.ufl.edu EMAIL: Wakulla@ifas.ufl.eduhttp://santarosa.ifas.ufl.edu http://sumter.ifas.ufl.edu http://wakulla.ifas.ufl.eduSARASOTA COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE SUWANNEE COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE WALTON COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE6700 Clark Road 1302 11th Street SW 732 North 9th StreetSarasota, Florida 34241-9328 Live Oak, Florida 32064-3600 DeFuniak Springs, FloridaPH: (941) 861-5000 PH: (386) 362-2771 32433-3804FAX: (941) 861-9886 FAX: (386) 364-1698 PH: (850) 892-8172EMAIL: Sarasota@ifas.ufl.edu EMAIL: Suwannee@ ifas.ufl.edu FAX: (850) 892-8443http://sarasota.ifas.ufl.edu http://suwannee.ifas.ufl.edu EMAIL: Walton@ ifas.ufl.edu http://walton.ifas.ufl.eduSEMINOLE COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE TAYLOR COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE250 W. County Home Rd. 203 Forest Park Drive WASHINGTON COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICESanford, Florida 32773-6189 Perry, Florida 32348-6340 1424 Jackson Ave., Suite APH: (407) 665-5551 PH: (850) 838-3508 Chipley, Florida 32428-1602FAX: (407) 665-5563 FAX: (850) 838-3546 PH: (850) 638-6180EMAIL: Seminole@ifas.ufl.edu EMAIL: email@example.com FAX: (850) 638-6181http://www.seminolecountyfl.gov/coopext/ http://taylor.ifas.ufl.edu EMAIL: Washington@ ifas.ufl.edu http://washington.ifas.ufl.eduST. JOHNS COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE UNION COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE3125 Agricultural Center Drive 25 NE 1st StreetSt. Augustine, Florida 32092-0572 Lake Butler, Florida 32054-1701PH: (904) 209-0430 PH: (386) 496-2321FAX: (904) 209-0431 FAX: (386) 496-1111EMAIL: Stjohns@ifas.ufl.edu EMAIL: Union@ifas.ufl.eduhttp://stjohns.ifas.ufl.edu http://union.ifas.ufl.eduST. LUCIE COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE VOLUSIA COUNTY EXTENSION OFFICE8400 Picos Road, Suite 101 3100 E New York Ave.Fort Pierce, Florida 34945-3045 Deland, Florida 32724-6497PH: (772) 462-1660 PH: (386) 822-5778FAX: (772) 462-1510 FAX: (386) 822-5767EMAIL: EMAIL:Stlucie@ ifas.ufl.edu Volusia@ ifas.ufl.eduhttp://stlucie.ifas.ufl.edu http://volusia.org/extension DISCLAIMER - We appreciate the financial support of Valent in the production of this publication. The use of trade names and advertisements in thispublication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information. It is not a guarantee or warranty of the products named, and doesnot signify that they are approved to the exclusion of others of suitable composition. Use pesticides safely. Read and follow directions onthe manufacturer’s label. IFAS INFO - The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer authorized to provide research,educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handi-cap, or national origin. For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension Serviceoffice/ Florida Cooperative Service/ Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences/ University of Florida/ Millie Ferrer-Chaney, Dean. See our web sites with electronic extension publications at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu and for more information visit Solutions for yourlife at http://solutionsforyourlife.ufl.edu Page viii
Chapter 1. 2012-2013IntroductionS.M. Olson Florida ranks second among the states in fresh market More than 40 different crops are grown commerciallyvegetable production on the basis of harvested acreage in Florida with 7 of these exceeding $100 million in value.(10.3 %), production (7.9%) and value (13.8 %) of the Harvest occurs in late fall, winter and spring when at timescrops grown (Table 1.). In 2010, vegetables were harvested the only available United States supply is from Florida.from 223,500 acres and had a farm value exceeding 2.0billion dollars. On the basis of value, in 2010 tomato production accounted for about 30.2% of the state’s total value. Other A more detailed analysis of the national importance of major crops with a lesser proportion of the 2010 cropFlorida production of specific vegetables indicates that value were strawberry (17.3 %), sweet pepper (14.2 %),Florida ranks first in fresh-market value of snap bean, sweet corn (9.0 %), potatoes (6.6 %), snap beans (6.5 %),squash, sweet corn, sweet pepper, tomatoes and watermel- watermelon (5.4 %), cabbage (3.3 %), squash (2.7 %) andons. Florida ranks second in fresh market value of cabbage, cucumber (2.3 %).cucumber and strawberry.Table 1. Leading fresh market vegetable producing states, 2010. Harvested acreage Production ValueRank State Percent of total State Percent of total State Percent of total 1 California 43.2 California 49.0 California 48.2 2 Florida 10.3 Florida 7.9 Florida 13.8 3 Arizona 6.6 Arizona 7.3 Arizona 8.1 4 Georgia 6.3 Georgia 5.1 Washington 5.0 5 New York 3.9 Washington 4.0 Georgia 4.3Source: Vegetables, USDA Ag Statistics, 2011. Page 1
Chapter 2. 2012-2013Soil and Fertilizer Management for Vegetable Production in FloridaG.D. Liu, E.H. Simonne and G.J. Hochmuth BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES applicable technical criteria together with additional refer- With the passage of the Federal Clean Water Act ences.(FCW in 1972, states were required to assess the A)impacts of non-point sources of pollution on surface and Vegetable growers may get one-on-one informationground waters, and establish programs to minimize them. on1) the benefits for joining the BMP program, 2) howSection 303(d) of the FWCA also requires states to iden- to join it, 3) how to select the BMPs that apply to theirtify impaired water bodies and establish total maximum operation and 4) record keeping requirements by gettingdaily loads (TMDLs) for pollutants entering these water in con- tact with their county extension agent or their localbodies. Water quality parameters targeted by the TMDLs implementation team (see the vegetable BMP website atand involving vegetable production are concentrations www. imok.ufl.edu/bmp/vegetable for more information).of nitrate, phosphate, and total dissolved solids in thesewaters. A TMDL establishes the maximum amount of pol- The vegetable BMPs have adopted all current UF/IFASlutant a water body can receive and still keep its water recommendations; including those for fertilizer and irriga-quality parameters consistent with its intended use (swim- tion management (see BMP no. 33 “Optimum Fertilizerming, fishing, or potable uses). The establishment of the Management” on pg. 93 of BMP manual). Through theTMDLs is currently underway and they will be imple- implementation of a series of targeted cultural practicesmented through a combination of regulatory, non-regu- (the BMPs), growers should be able to reconcile economi-latory, and incentive-based measures. Best Management cal profitability and responsible use of water and fertilizer.Practices (BMPs) are specific cultural practices aimed at At the field level, adequate fertilizer rates should be usedreducing the load of a specific compound, while maintain- together with irrigation scheduling techniques and croping or increasing economical yields. They are tools avail- nutritional status monitoring tools (leaf analysis, petioleable to vegetable growers to achieve the TMDLs. BMPs sap testing). In the BMP manual, adequate fertilizer ratesare intended to be educational, economically sound, envi- may be achieved by combinations of UF/IFAS recom-ronmentally effective, and based on science. It is impor- mended base rates and supplemental fertilizer applications.tant to recognize that BMPs do not aim at becoming anobstacle to vegetable production. Instead, they should beviewed as a means to balance economical vegetable pro- SOILSduction with environmental responsibility. Vegetables are grown on more than 300,000 acres in The BMPs that will apply to vegetable production in various soil types throughout the state. These soil typesFlorida are described in the ‘Agronomic and V egetable include sandy soils, sandy loam soils, Histosols (organicCrop Water Quality/Water Quantity BMP Manual for muck), and calcareous marl soils. Each soil group isFlorida’. This manual was developed between 2000 and described below.2005 through a cooperative effort between state agen-cies, water management districts and commodity groups, Sandsand under the scientific leadership of the University of Sandy soils make up the dominant soil type for veg-Florida’s Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/ etable production in Florida. Vegetables are produced onIFAS). The manual has undergone a thorough scientific sandy soils throughout the Florida peninsula and on sandyreview in 2003 and was presented to stakeholders and soils and sandy loams in the panhandle. Sandy soilsstate commodity groups for feed back in 2004. The manu- have the advantage of ease of tillage and they can produceal was adopted by reference in 2006 and by rule in Florida the earliest vegetable crops for a particular region. SandyStatutes (5M-8 Florida Administrative Code) and may be soils allow timely production operations such as plantingconsulted on-line at http://www.floridaagwaterpolicy.com/ and harvesting. Sandy soils, however, have the disadvan-PDFs/BMPs/vegetableagronomicCrops.pdf. BMPs are tage that mobile nutrients such as nitrogen, potassium and1-to-3 page long chapters that include a picture, a working even phosphorus can be leached by heavy rain or over irri-definition of the topic, list specific things to do (BMPs) gation. Therefore, sands must be managed carefully withas well as things to avoid (pitfalls), and present existing regard to fertility programs. Sands hold very little water; Page 3
Page 4 Vegetable Production Handbook Table 1. Nutrient elements required by plants. Nutrient Deficiency symptoms Occurrence Nitrogen (N) Stems thin, erect, hard. Leaves small, yellow; on some crops On sandy soils especially after heavy rain or after (tomatoes) undersides are reddish. overirrigation. Also on organic soils during cool Lower leaves affected first. growing seasons. Phosphorus (P) Stems thin and shortened. Leaves develop purple color. On acidic soils or very basic soils. Older leaves affected first. Plants stunted and maturity delayed. Also when soils are cool and wet. Potassium (K) Older leaves develop gray or tan areas on leaf margins. On sandy soils following leaching rains or Eventually a scorch appears on the entire margin. overirrigation. Boron (B) Growing tips die and leaves are distorted. Specific diseases On soils with pH above 6.8 or on sandy, leached caused by boron deficiency include brown curd and hollow stem soils, or on crops with very high demand such as of cauliflower, cracked stem of celery, blackheart of beet, and cole crops. internal browning of turnip. Calcium (Ca) Growing-point growth restricted on shoots and roots. Specific On strongly acidic soils, or during severe droughts. deficiencies include blossom-end rot of tomato, pepper and watermelon, brownheart of escarole, celery blackheart, and cauliflower or cabbage tipburn. Copper (Cu) Yellowing of young leaves, stunting of plants. Onion bulbs are On organic soils or occasionally new mineral soils. soft with thin, pale scales. Iron (Fe) Distinct yellow or white areas between veins on youngest leaves. On soils with pH above 6.8. Magnesium (Mg) Initially older leaves show yellowing between veins, followed by On strongly acidic soils, or on leached sandy soils. yellowing of young leaves. Older leaves soon fall. Manganese (Mn) Yellow mottled areas between veins on youngest leaves, not as On soils with pH above 6.4. intense as iron deficiency. Molybdenum (Mo) Pale, distorted, narrow leaves with some interveinal yellowing of On very acidic soils. older leaves, e.g. whiptail disease of cauliflower. Rare. Zinc (Zn) Small reddish spots on cotyledon leaves of beans; light areas On wet, cold soils in early spring or where excessive (white bud) of corn leaves. phosphorus is present. Sulfur (S) General yellowing of younger leaves and growth. On very sandy soils, low in organic matter, reduced especially following continued use of sulfur-free fertilizers and especially in areas that receive little atmospheric sulfur. Chlorine (Cl) Deficiencies very rare. Usually only under laboratory conditions.therefore, irrigation management is more critical com- Muck subsidence causes problems for water and nutrientpared to other soil types used for vegetable production in management. The increase in pH due to subsidence andFlorida. Nearly all vegetable crops produced in Florida can also to the practice of flooding the Histosols to reduce oxi-be successfully grown on sandy soils. The major vegetable dation can result in increased requirements of phosphoruscrops such as tomatoes, peppers, potatoes, watermelons, and micronutrients. These nutrients can be fixed by thestrawberries, and cabbage are grown commonly on sandy high pH of the soil. Nutrient management in these situa-soils tions should involve banding rather than increased rates of nutrients. Histosols Histosols are organic soils which occur in areas through- Calcareous Rock and Marlout the peninsula, especially in southern and central The calcareous soils in southern Florida (Miami-Florida. Large organic deposits used for vegetable pro- Dade County) consist of two phases, rockland and marl.duction occur south of Lake Okeechobee. Smaller pockets Rockland soils are calcium carbonate soils consistingofof “muck” occur throughout central and northern Florida. particles that range from sand-like in size to pebble andHistosols consist largely of decomposing plant material and gravel. The rockland soils are extremely shallow, about 4are largely underlain by calcareous deposits. Muck soils to 6 inches deep. The marl is the fine- textured, clay-likehave large water and nutrient holding capacities and are phase of the calcium carbonate soils. Tomatoes, beans,used to produce crops such as the leafy vegetables (leaf summer squash, okra, sweet corn, boniato, and strawber-lettuce, and various greens), celery, sweet corn, and rad- ries can be produced in the winter months on the rocklandishes. With time, the organic matter decomposes and the soils of Miami-Dade County. Potatoes, malanga, snapmuck subsides. Thus, the pH in the muck can increase beans and sweet corn are produced onthe marl. Bothbecause of proximity to the underlying calcareous material. soils have extremely high pH, therefore, nutrients such as
Chapter 2: Soil and Fertilizer Management for Vegetable Production in Florida Page 5 Table 2. Mehlich-1 (double-acid) interpretations for vegetable crops in Florida. Very low Low Medium High Very highElement Parts per million soilP 10 10-15 16-30 31-60 60K 20 20-35 36-60 61-125 125Mg1 10 10-20 21-40 41-60 60Ca2 100 100-200 201-300 301-400 4001 Up to 40 lbs/a may be needed when soil test results are medium or lower2 Ca levels are typically adequate when 300 ppm Table 3. Interpretations of Mehlich-1 soil tests for micronutrients. Soil pH (mineral soils only) 5.5 - 5.9 6.0 - 6.4 6.5 - 7.0 parts per million Test level below which there may be a crop response to applied copper. 0.1 - 0.3 0.3 - 0.5 0.5 Test level above which copper toxicity may occur. 2.0 - 3.0 3.0 - 5.0 5.0 Test level below which there may be a crop response to applied manganese. 3.0 - 5.0 5.0 - 7.0 7.0 - 9.0 Test level below which there may be a crop response to applied zinc. 0.5 0.5 - 1.0 1.0 - 3.0 When soil tests are low or known deficiencies exists, apply per acre 5 lbs Mn, 2 lbs Zn, 4 lbs Fe, 3 lb Cu and 1.5 lbs B (higher rate needed for cole crops).phosphorus and micronutrients must be banded to ensure izer. For example, a watermelon study involving K mightavailability. be conducted on a soil which tests very low in extractable K. In this situation, the soil can be expected to contrib- ute only a small amount of K for optimum watermelon growth and yield, and K must be supplied largely from SOIL TESTING fertilizer. The researcher plots the relationship between Plants require 17 elements for normal growth and crop yield and fertilizer rate. The CNR is equivalent toreproduction (Table 1). American Association of Plant the fertilizer rate above which no significant increases inFood Control officials have added nickel (Ni) to the list of yield are expected. The CNR values derived from suchessential elements in 2004. Nickel is the seventeenth ele- experiments take into account factors such as fertilizerment recognized as essential for plant growth and develop- efficiencies of the soils. These efficiencies include fertil-ment (EDIS publication on nickel essentiality is available izer leaching or fertilizer nutrient fixing capability of theonline at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1191). The crop nutrient soil. If data are available from several experiments, thenrequirement (CNR) for a particular element is defined as reliable estimates of CNR values can be made. Using thethe total amount in lb/A of that element needed by the CNR concept when developing a fertilizer program willcrop to pro- duce economic optimum yield. This concept ensure optimum, economic yields while minimizing bothof economic optimum yields is important for vegetables pollution from overfertilization and loss of yield due tobecause a cer- tain amount of nutrients might produce underfertilization.a moderate amount of biomass, but produce negligiblemarketable product due to small fruit size. Fruit size and The CNR values are those amounts of nutrients neededquality must be consid- ered in the CNR concept for veg- to produce optimum, economic yields from a fertilizationetables. standpoint. It is important to remember that these nutrient amounts are supplied to the crop from both the soil and The CNR can be satisfied from many sources, includ- the fertilizer. The amounts are applied as fertilizers onlying soil, water, air, organic matter, or fertilizer. For when a properly calibrated soil test indicates very smallexample, the CNR of potassium (K) can be supplied from extractable amounts of these nutrients to be present in theK-containing minerals in the soil, from K retained by soil soil. Therefore, soil testing must be conducted to deterorganic matter, or from K fertilizers. mine the exact contribution from the soil to the overall CNR. Based on such tests, the amount of fertilizer that The CNR for a crop is determined from field experi- is needed to supplement the nutrition component of thements that test the yield response to levels of added fertil- native soil can be calculated (Tables 2 and 3).
Page 6 Vegetable Production Handbook Table 4. A general guideline to crop tolerance of mineral soil acidity.1Slightly tolerant (pH 6.8-6.0) Moderately tolerant (pH 6.8-5.5) Very tolerant (pH 6.8-5.0)Beet Leek Bean, snap Mustard EndiveBroccoli Lettuce Bean, lima Pea PotatoCabbage Muskmelon Brussels sprouts Pepper ShallotCauliflower Okra Carrot Pumpkin SweetpotatoCelery Onion Collard Radish WatermelonChard Spinach Corn Squash Cucumber Strawberry Eggplant Tomato Kale Turnip1 From Donald N. Maynard and George J. Hochmuth, Knott’s Handbook For Vegetable Growers, 4th edition (1997). Reprinted by permission of John Wiley Sons, Inc. Table 5. Liming materials. Amount of Material to be used toMaterial Formula equal 1 ton of Calcium Carbonate1 Neutralizing value2(%)Calcium carbonate, calcite, hi-cal lime CaCO3 2,000 lbs 100Calcium-magnesium carbonate, dolomite CaCO3 , MgCO3 1,850 lbs 109Calcium oxide, burnt lime CaO 1,100 lbs 179Calcium hydroxide, hydrated lime Ca(OH)2 1,500 lbs 136Calcium silicate, slag CaSiO3 2,350 lbs 86Magnesium carbonate MgCO3 1,680 lbs 1191 Calcutated as (2000 x 100) / neutralizing value (%).2 The higher the neutralizing value, the greater the amount of acidity that is neutralized per unit weight of material. It is important that soil samples represent the field or nutrient-containing pesticide applications. When soil pHmanagement unit to be fertilized. A competent soil test- decreases in such soils, the solubility of micronutrientsing laboratory that uses calibrated methodologies should and probably aluminum (Al) can increase to levels thatanalyze the samples. Not all laboratories can provide may become toxic to plants.accurate fertilizer recommendations for Florida soils. TheBMP program for vegetables requires the importance of Irrigation water from wells in limestone aquifers is ancalibrated soil test. additional source of liming material usually not considered in many liming programs. The combination of routine additions of lime and use of alkaline irrigation water has resulted in soil pH greater than 8.0 for many sandy soils in LIMING south Florida. To measure the liming effect of irrigation, Current University of Florida standardized recommen- have a water sample analyzed for total bicarbonates anddations call for maintaining soil pH between 6.0 and 6.5 carbonates annually, and the results converted to pounds(Table 4). However, some vegetables, such as watermelon, of calcium carbonate per acre. Include this information inwill perform normally at lower soil pH as long as large your decisions concerning lime.amounts of micronutrients are not present in the soil. Acommon problem in Florida has been overliming, resulting It should be evident that liming (Table 5), fertilizationin high soil pH. Overliming and resulting high soil pH can (Table 6), and irrigation programs are closely related totie up micronutrients and phosphorus and restrict their each other. An adjustment in one program will often influ-availability to the crop. Overliming also can reduce the ence the other. To maximize overall production efficiency,accuracy with which a soil test can predict the fertilizer soil and water testing must be made a part of any fertilizercomponent of the CNR. management program. It is important, however, not to allow soil pH to drop Choosing ammoniacal fertilizers as nitrogen (N) sourcebelow approximately 5.5 for most vegetable production, can neutralize alkalinity in rootzone due to selective uptakeespecially where micronutrient levels in the soil may be of plants to different ions. Fertigation with ammonium-Nhigh due to a history of micronutrient fertilizer and micro- is effective for neutralization. If nitrification inhibitors are
Chapter 2: Soil and Fertilizer Management for Vegetable Production in Florida Page 7 Table 6. Effect of some fertilizer materials on soil pH. material analyses to determine specific nutrient contents. Approximate calcium Growers contemplating using organic materials as fertil-Fertilizer material carbonate equivalent (lb)1 izers should have an analysis of the material before deter-Ammonium nitrate -1200 mining the rate of application. In the case of materials such as sludges, it is important to have knowledge about theAmmonium sulfate -2200 type of sludge to be used. Certain classes of sludge are notAnhydrous ammonia -3000 appropriate for vegetable production, and in fact may notDiammonium phosphate -1250 to -1550 be permitted for land application. Decomposition rates ofPotassium chloride 0 organic materials in warm sandy soils in Florida are rapid. Therefore, there will be relatively small amounts of residu-Sodium-potassium nitrate +550 al nutrients remaining for succeeding crops. Organic mate-Nitrogen solutions -759 to -1800 rials are generally similar to mixed chemical fertilizers inNormal (ordinary) superphosphate 0 that the organic waste supplies an array of nutrients, somePotassium nitrate +520 of which may not be required on a par- ticular soil. ForPotassium sulfate 0 example, the P in poultry manure would not be required on a soil already testing high in phosphate. Usually appli-Potassium-magnesium sulfate 0 cation rates of organic wastes are determined largely byTriple (concentrated) superphosphate 0 the N content. Organic waste materials can con- tribute toUrea -1700 groundwater or surface water pollution if applied in rates1 minus sign indicates the number of pounds of calcium carbonate needed to A in excess of the crop nutrient requirement for a particular neutralize the acid formed when one ton of fertilizer is added to the soil. vegetable crop. Therefore, it is important to understand the nutrient content and the decomposition rate of the organic waste material, and the P-holding capacity of the soil. Table 7. verage nutrient concentration of selected A organic fertilizers. N P2O5 K2O N, P, K, NUTRIENT SOURCES Product % dry weight Nitrogen can be supplied in both nitrate and ammo- Blood 13 2 1 niacal forms (Table 8). Nitrate-nitrogen is generally the Fish meal 10 6 0 preferred form for plant uptake in most situations, but Bone meal 3 22 0 ammoniacal N can be absorbed directly or after conversion Cotton seed meal 6 3 1.5 to nitrate-N by soil microbes. Since this rate of conversion is reduced in cold, fumigated, or strongly acidic soils, it Peanut meal 7 1.5 1.2 is recommended that under such conditions 25% to 50% Soybean meal 7 1.2 1.5 of the N be supplied from nitrate sources. This ratio is not critical for unfumigated or warm soils. Dried commercial manure products Stockyard 1 1 2 Phosphorus (P) can be supplied from several sources, Cattle 2 3 3 including single and triple superphosphate, diammonium Chicken 1.5 1.5 2 phosphate and mono- ammonium phosphate, and mono- potassium phosphate. All sources can be effective for plant nutrition on sandy soil. However, on soils that testalso used with the fertilizers together, the neutralization very low in native micronutrient levels, diammoniumcan last much longer. Ammonium sulfate is one of the phosphate in mixtures containing micronutrients reducesmost effective fertilizers to lower rootzone pH. yields when banded in large amounts. Availability of P also can be reduced with use of diammonium phosphate compared to use of triple superphosphate. Negative effects of diammonium phosphate can be eliminated by MANURES using it for only a portion of the P requirement and by Waste organic products, including animal manures and broadcasting this material in the bed.composted organic matter, contain nutrients (Table 7) thatcan enhance plant growth. These materials decompose Potassium (K) can also be supplied from severalwhen applied to the soil, releasing nutrients that vegetable sources, including potassium chloride, potassium sulfate,crops can absorb and utilize in plant growth. The key to potassium nitrate, and potassium-magnesium sulfate. Ifproper use of organic materials as fertilizers comes in the soil-test-predicted amounts of K fertilizer are adhered to,knowledge of the nutrient content and the decomposi- there should be no concern about the K source or its rela-tion rate of the material. Many laboratories offer organic tive salt index.
Page 8 Vegetable Production HandbookTable 8. Some commonly used fertilizer sources.Nutrient Fertilizer source Nutrient content (%)Nitrogen (N) Ammonium nitrate 34 Ammonium sulfate 21 Calcium nitrate 15.5 Diammonium phosphate 18 Potassium nitrate (nitrate of potash) 13 Urea 46 Sodium-potassium nitrate (nitrate of soda-potash) 13Phosphorus (P2O5) Normal (ordinary) superphosphate 20 Triple (concentrated) superphosphate 46 Diammonium phosphate 46 Monopotassium phosphate 53Potassium (K2O) Potassium chloride (muriate of potash) 60 Potassium nitrate 44 Potassium sulfate (sulfate of potash) 50 Potassium-magnesium sulfate (sulfate of potash-magnesia) 22 Sodium-potassium nitrate 14 Monopotassium phosphate 34Calcium (Ca) Calcic limestone 32 Dolomite 22 Gypsum 23 Calcium nitrate 19 Normal superphosphate 20 Triple superphosphate 14Magnesium (Mg) Dolomite 11 Magnesium sulfate 10 Magnesium oxide 55 Potassium-magnesium sulfate 11Sulfur (S) Elemental sulfur 97 Ammonium sulfate 24 Gypsum 18 Normal superphosphate 12 Magnesium sulfate 14 Potassium-magnesium sulfate 22 Potassium sulfate 18Boron (B) Borax 11 Fertibor1 14.9 Granubor1 14.3 Solubor1 20.5Copper (Cu) Copper sulfate, monohydrate 35 Copper sulfate, pentahydrate 25 Cupric oxide 75 Cuprous oxide 89 Copper chloride 17 Chelates (CuEDTA) 13 (CuHEDTA) 6Iron (Fe) Ferrous sulfate 20 Ferric sulfate 20 Chelates (FeHEDTA) 5 to 12Manganese (Mn) Manganous sulfate 28 Manganous oxide 68 Chelates (MnEDTA) 5 to 12Molybdenum (Mo) Ammonium molybdate 54 Sodium molybdate 39Zinc (Zn) Zinc sulfate 36 Zinc oxide 80 Zinc chloride 50 Chelates (ZnEDTA) 6 to 14 (ZnHEDTA) 6 to 101Mention of a trade name does not imply a recommendation over similar materials.
Chapter 2: Soil and Fertilizer Management for Vegetable Production in Florida Page 9 Table 9. Recommendations for foliar applications of plant nutri- MICRONUTRIENTS ents. Foliar application It has been common in Florida vegetable production toNutrient Source (lb product per acre) routinely apply a micronutrient package. This practice hasBoron Borax 2 to 5 been justified on the basis that these nutrients were inex- pensive and their application appeared to be insurance for Solubor1 1 to 1.5 high yields. In addition, there were few research data andCopper Copper sulfate 2 to 5 a lack of soil-test calibrations to guide judicious applica-Iron Ferrous sulfate 2 to 3 tion of micronutrient fertilizers. Compounding the problem Chelated iron 0.75 to 1 has been the vegetable industry’s use of micronutrient-con-Manganese Manganous sulfate 2 to 4 taining pesticides for disease control. Copper (Cu), man-Molybdenum Sodium molybdate 0.25 to 0.50 ganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) from pesticides have tended to accumulate in the soil.Zinc Zinc sulfate 2 to 4 Chelated zinc 0.75 to 1 This situation has forced some vegetable producersCalcium Calcium chloride 5 to 10 to overlime in an effort to avoid micronutrient toxicities. Calcium nitrate 5 to 10 Data have now been accumulated which permit a moreMagnesium Magnesium sulfate 10 to 15 accurate assessment of micronutrient requirements (Table1 Mention of a trade name does not imply a recommendation over similar materials. 3). Growers are encouraged to have a calibrated micro- nutrient soil test conducted and to refrain from shotgun micronutrient fertilizer applications. It is unlikely that CA, S, AND Mg micronutrient fertilizers will be needed on old vegetable land, especially where micronutrients are being applied The secondary nutrients calcium (Ca), sulfur (S), and regularly via recommended pesticides. A micronutrient soilmagnesium (Mg) have not been a common problem in test every 2 to 3 years will provide recommendations forFlorida. Calcium usually occurs in adequate supply for micronutrient levels for crop production.most vegetables when the soil is limed. If the Mehlich-1soil Ca index is above 300 ppm, it is unlikely that therewill be a response to added Ca. Maintaining correct mois- FOLIAR FERTILIZATIONture levels in the soil by irrigation will aid in Ca supplyto the roots. Calcium is not mobile in the plant; therefore, Foliar fertilization should be thought of as a last resortfoliar sprays of Ca are not likely to correct deficiencies. It for correcting a nutrient deficiency (Table 9). The plantis difficult to place enough foliar-applied Ca at the grow- leaf is structured in such a way that it naturally resistsing point of the plant on a timely basis. easy infiltration by fertilizer salts. Foliar fertilization most appropriately applies to micronutrients and not to macro- Sulfur deficiencies have seldom been documented for nutrients such as N, P and K. Foliar applications of N, P , ,Florida vegetables. Sulfur deficiency would most likely and/or K are not needed where proper soil-directed fertil-occur on deep, sandy soils low in organic matter after izer programs are in use. Leaves cannot absorb sufficientleaching rains. If S deficiency has been diagnosed, it can macronutrients (without burning the leaves) to correct anybe corrected by using S-containing fertilizers such as related deficiency. Some benefit from macronutrient foliarmagnesium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, potassium sulfate, sprays probably results when nutrients are washed by rainnormal superphosphate, or potassium-magnesium sulfate. or irrigation water off the leaf surface into the soil. TheUsing one of these materials in the fertilizer blends at lev- nutrient then may enter the plant via the roots. Amountsels sufficient to supply 30 to 40 lb S/A should prevent S of macronutrients recommended on the label of mostdeficiencies. commercial foliar products are so minuscule compared to nutrition derived from the soil that benefit to the plant Magnesium deficiency may be a problem for vegetable is highly unlikely. Additionally, fertilizer should only beproduction; however, when the Mehlich-1 soil-test index added if additional yield results and research with foliar-for Mg is below 15 ppm, 30-40 lb Mg/A will satisfy nutrient applications has not clearly documented a yieldthe Mg CNR. If lime is also needed, Mg can be added increase for vegetables.by using dolomite as the liming material. If no lime isneeded, then the Mg requirement can be satisfied through In certain situations, temporary deficiencies of Mn,use of magnesium sulfate or potassium-magnesium sulfate. Fe, Cu, or Zn can be corrected by foliar application.Blending of the Mg source with other fertilizer(s) to be Examples include vegetable production in winter monthsapplied to the soil is an excellent way of ensuring uniform when soils are cool and roots cannot extract adequateapplication of Mg to the soil. amounts of micronutrients and in cases where high pH (marl and Rockdale soils) fixes broadcast micronutrients
Page 10 Vegetable Production Handbookinto unavailable forms. Micronutrients are so termed SOLUBLE SALTSbecause small, or micro, amounts are required to satisfythe CNR. Such micro amounts may be supplied ade- Overfertilization or placement of fertilizer too close toquately through foliar applications to correct a temporary the seed or root leads to soluble salt injury or “fertilizerdeficiency. burn.” Fertilizer sources differ in their capacity to cause soluble salt injury. Therefore, where there is a history of Boron is highly immobile in the plant. To correct boron soluble salt problems, or where irrigation water is high indeficiencies, small amounts of boron must be applied fre- soluble salts, choose low-salt index fertilizer sources, andquently to the young tissue or buds. broadcast or split-apply the fertilizer. Any micronutrient should be applied only when aspecific deficiency has been clearly diagnosed. Do not STARTER FERTILIZERmake unneeded applications of micronutrients. There isa fine line between adequate and toxic amounts of these A true starter fertilizer is a soluble fertilizer, generallynutrients. Indiscriminate application of micronutrients may high in P, used for establishment of young seedlings andreduce plant growth and restrict yields because of toxic- transplants. Starter fertilizers generally work best if a smallity. Compounding the problem is the fact that the micro- amount of N and K is present along with the P. Startersnutrients can accumulate in the soil to levels which may represent a very small percentage of the overall fertilizerthreaten crop production on that soil. An important part of amount but are very important in establishing crops inany micronutrient program involves careful calculations of cool, damp soils. They can be applied with the planter at 2all micronutrients being applied, from all sources. inches to the side of the seed and 2 inches deep or can be dissolved in the transplant water and applied in the furrow. LIQUID VS. DRY FERTILIZER FERTILIZER PLACEMENT There is no difference in response of crops to similaramounts of nutrients when applied in either liquid or dry Fertilizer rate and placement must be considered togeth-form. Certain situations (use of drip irrigation or injection er. Banding low amounts of fertilizer too close to plantswheel) require clear or true solutions. However, sidedress can result in the same amount of damage as broadcastingapplications of fertilizer can be made equally well with excessive amounts of fertilizer in the bed.dry or liquid forms of nutrients. Because P movement in most soils is minimal, it should The decision to use liquid or dry fertilizer sources be placed in the root zone. Banding is generally consideredshould depend largely on economics and on the type of to provide more efficient utilization of P by plants thanapplication equipment available. The cost per unit of nutri- broadcasting. This is especially true on the high P-fixingent (e.g., dollars per unit of actual N) and the combination calcareous soils. Where only small amounts of fertilizer Pof nutrients provided should be used in any decision- are to be used, it is best to band. If broadcasting P, a smallmaking process. additional amount of starter P near the seed or transplant may improve early growth, especially in cool soils. The modified broadcast method where fertilizer is broadcast only in the bed area provides more efficient use of fertil- CONTROLLED-RELEASE FERTILIZERS izer than complete broadcasting. Several brands of controlled-release fertilizers (CRFs)are avail- able for supplying N. Some vegetables increase Micronutrients can be broadcast with the P and incorpo-in yield when controlled-release fertilizers, such as rated in the bed area. On the calcareous soils, micronutri-polymer-coated or sulfur-coated urea, or isobutylidene- ents, such as Fe, Mn, and B, should be banded or applieddiurea, are used to supply a portion of the N requirement. foliarly.Although more expensive, these materials may be usefulin reducing fertilizer losses through leaching and possible Since N and, to a lesser extent, K are mobile in sandyN loss through ammonia volatilization in high pH soils, soils, they must be managed properly to maximize cropin decreasing soluble salt dam- age, and in supplying ade- uptake. Plastic mulch helps retain these nutrients in thequate fertilizer for long-term crops such as strawberry or soil. Under non-mulched systems, split applications ofpepper. Controlled-release potassium fertilizers also have these nutrients must be used to reduce losses to leaching.been demonstrated to be beneficial for several vegetables. Here, up to one-half of the N and K may be applied to theIt is essential to match the nutrient release pattern of the soil at planting or shortly after that time. The remainingCRF with the crop’s uptake pattern. fertilizer is applied in one or two applications during the early part of the growing season. Splitting the fertilizer