Coastal Urban Flood Risk Management


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Reveiw 1- Deals with Background,topic,Need of study &literature review.

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  • Urban centers concentrate people, enterprises, infrastructures and publicinstitutions, while at the same time relying for food, freshwater and other resourcesfrom areas outside of their boundaries (Satterthwaite 2011). Furthermore, urbanareas are often located in hazard-prone locations such as low-elevation coastalzones, which are at risk from sea-level rise, or in other areas at risk from fl oodingand extreme weather events (OECD 2009; WDR 2010).
  • Top 20 cities ranked in terms of population exposed to coastal flooding in the 2070s(including both climate change & socio-economic change) and showing present-day exposure
  • Thus” integrating risk management and development approaches is the need of the hour” for sustainable development of any climate sensitive urban area.
  • OR in the terms of risk---it is the proximity to the source of floods and the concentration of (folk,work and place) that render coasts vulnerable to the slightest change in its settings.Also the climate induced indirect & indirect forcing render the coasts prone to floods.
  • Regulations: (at national, state and city level).Aspects-(Governance, community characters, urban services, development policies etc.) 
  • Illness-water borne diseases, physical and mental instability Exposure to elements from substandard constructionDisruption of basic service provision and access to supplies.Housing instabilityProperty loss and relocationLoss of livelihoodsCommunity fragmentationExposure to flood related toxins and wastes.Disruption in availability of potable water,food,and other supplies.Water shortagesFood shortage and higher food pricesTransport, electricity disruption affecting production.Affects tourism economy
  • Resiliency can best be understood as a type of response to intense stress. By definition, resilience means "bouncing back" or "returning to form." Resilience to stress is not the same as resistance to stress because resistance implies the there is no response to stress.Vulnerability of communities can be reduced through increasing the resilienceor capacity to cope in the event of flooding.Natural capital: land, rivers, vegetation and any natural resources.zsee Box 4.8zsee Chapter 11Methods of undertaking aVCA depend on:• Urban / rural area• Size of the population• Resources (human andfinancial)• Technology (eg.telephone interviews)• Time• Information required (eg.perception of risk orcensus information)68assessingflood risk 4Vulnerabilities CapacitiesPhysical / Material •••Proximity and exposureto flooding - living on afloodplain, poor housing.Poverty - few options, nofinancial savings, fewassets.Resources - limitedtechnology, skills oremployment.•••••Money, assets, land, jobsSavingsInsurance.Good healthProtected locationSkills and expertiseSocial / Organisational •••Marginalisation - peopleexcluded due to politics,religion, ethnicity or socialcustoms and norms.Organisation - limitedcommunity or legalstructures.Discrimination - lack ofsupport, reduced accessto resources and services.•••Community support,leadership, institutions.Political structures,adequate management.Community cohesiveness.Motivational /Attitudinal•••Perception of risk - denythe threat, unaware ofthe threat, misconceptionof the threat and benefitsof living or working in thefloodplain.Attitude - no confidencein their abilities, viewthemselves as dependent.Power - no influence inthe community.••••People with confidence,with dignity andindependence are betterable to cope with crisis.Ability to influence theirenvironment.Hold a strong beliefsystem and consequentlysupport structure.Aware of how disastersaffect them.Box 4.8VCA framework(Adapted from IRFC, 1993 and Anderson and Woodrow, 1998)• Financial capital: savings, income, credit, pension.• Human capital: knowledge, skills, health, physical ability.• Social capital: networks, relationships, trust, mutual exchange.• Physical capital:people have a range of assets referredto as ‘capitals’ that form insulative layers to protect against disasters.
  • Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 declaring Coastal Stretches as Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) and Regulating Activities in the CRZ.
  • Top 20 cities ranked in terms of population exposed to coastal flooding in the 2070s(including both climate change & socio-economic change) and showing present-day exposure
  • For the purposes of the expression “developed area” is referred to as that areawithin the existing municipal limits or in other existing legally designated urban areaswhichar e substantially built-up and has been provided with drainage and approach roadsand other infrastructural facilities, such as water supply and sewerage mains;
  • Coastal Urban Flood Risk Management

    1. 1. “COASTAL URBAN FLOOD RISKMANAGEMENT”Presented By, Remya PanickerUnder the guidance of Asst. Prof. Sameer Deshkar
    2. 2. BACKGROUND•Increased floodoccurrences & risingthreat to life and property.•Coastal areas worstaffected due to floods.•Need for integrating riskmanagement anddevelopment approaches
    3. 3. `Flood disaster trend in Asia in comparison toother disasters in last 28 years.P O`R T
    4. 4. Kolkata70%Mumbai-63%Source:
    5. 5. NEED OF STUDYInter relation of factorsfor coastal urbanvulnerabilityCoastal sensitivity w.r.t.climate changeWhy coasts for floodrisk managementstudy?
    6. 6. CoastalcitiesCategory
    7. 7. Coastalurbanvulnerability Land pressureLocationInfrastructure incapacityClimatesensitivityUnpreparednessEconomic growthPopulationgrowthUrbanizationInformalsettlementsHigh PriorityLow Priorityto threat Infrequencyof hazardousevents•Existing developments•unawareness•Lack of clear policies•Lack of policyimplementation•Limited knowledge &study of climatechange impacts.•High cost of hazardmapping•Limited resources•Allocation ofresourcesPoorgovernanceSITE: Level of stake(--) (+)DISTANCEfromphenomenaCLOSEFARRISK MATRIX:
    8. 8. AIM & OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES:To study and understand various causes and consequences of floodson urban developments.Study existing regulations and plans for flood risk mitigation incoastal regionsStudy various aspects contributing to flood risk resiliency in urbanareasStudy different methods and approaches for resiliency evaluationApply CDRI to Kochi and propose an adaptive flood riskmanagement strategyAIM: To plan for resilient developments in coastal urban areathrough flood risk management approachGOAL: Sustainable development of coastal urban areas
    9. 9. SCOPE & LIMITATIONSScope:•A city level study is intended to analyze the individual resiliency ofthe wards.•A comparative analysis with another coastal city is intended.•The study does not include the study of future climate inducedchanges on the coastal area under consideration.Limitation:•Data accuracy and quality.•To support the city level study, survey of city officials is intended.Questionnaires to be filled by civic officials and their understandingof questionnaire is important for accurate analysis.•The results that will be presented in this work will not be absolutevalues but will be broad policy guidance and scope of improvementsin the respective sector of flood disaster related problems.
    10. 10. METHODOLOGYResilientdevelopmentthrough FloodriskmanagementStudy the causes andconsequences of floodson urban developmentsStudy regulations andplans for coastal areas.Study aspects of floodresiliency andapproaches andmethods of resiliencyevaluationApply CDRI to Kochi& Propose an adaptiveflood risk managementstrategyOBJECTIVESAIM123 4•Overview of floodLit.Review-1Lit.Rev-2,DataCollection-1•NDM guidelines•Kerala SDMpolicy,2010,Cochin disastermanagement studies,2005•CRZ & Kerala state•Resiliency assessment using5 capital approachDataCollection-2Questionnaire filling by localauthorities.Field studyComparative ward resiliencyassessmentDataAnalysis&proposalSelection ofappropriatemethod foranalysis.Identifyflaws ofexisting setupUnderstandingtherelationship offloods andurbandevelopmentsPrepare aproposalRESULTSEndResult5•Study role of governance,communities urban servicesand policies in resiliencybuilding
    11. 11. LITERATURE REVIEWTERMS: FLOODS,flood (vulnerability, exposure, susceptibility and risk)Disaster management and floods.Resiliency concept in Disaster management.CRZ policy.
    12. 12. TERMS&CONCEPTS:Source: Components of disaster risk.GTZ, Eschborn 2001.
    13. 13. FLOOD RISK:The measure of expected losses (death, injuries, property, livelihoods, economicactivity disrupted or environment damaged) resulting from interactions betweennatural or human-induced hazards and vulnerable conditions occurring in a givenarea over specific time period. (UNISDR, 2004).FLOOOD VULNERABILITY:The conditions determined by physical, social, economic, and environmentalfactors or processes, which increase the susceptibility of a community to theimpact of hazards. (UNISDR, 2004).FLOOD HAZARD:A potentially damaging flood event that may cause loss of life or injury,property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation.Hazards can be single, sequential or combined in their origin and effects. Hazardsmay be characterised by their location, intensity, frequency and probability ofoccurrence (UNISDR, 2004).FLOOD DISASTERS:A damaging flood hazard that adversely affects human populations and theenvironment beyond the capacity of the community to cope using its ownresources. (UNISDR, 2004).
    14. 14. Incremental impacts on urbansystems:BUILT ENVIRONMENT:•Stress on building foundations•Road washouts•Stress on storm-water and sewagesystems•Stress on water treatment systems•Disruption to shipping and ports•Increased energy demands•Increased road surface damage•Increased demand for waterImpacts on urban residents:Causes &Consequences offloods on urbandevelopments
    15. 15. DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT:The systematic process of using administrative decisions, organisations,operational skills and capacities to implement policies, as well as the strategiesand coping capacities of the society and communities to lessen the impacts ofnatural hazards and related environmental and technological disasters. Thiscomprises all forms of activities, including structural and non-structural measuresto avoid or limit the adverse effects of a hazard (UNISDR, 2004).FLOOD RISK MANAGEMENT:The management of floodplains through a systematic process requiring riskassessment, strategic planning, development of risk reduction measures andimplementing activities. The process involves multiple stakeholder and sectorcooperation, with the aim to reduce flood risks in a sustainable manner.
    16. 16. What is resiliency?Resilience is the ability to grow and thrive in the face of challenges and bounceback from adversity. It is built through a set of core competencies that enable mentaltoughness, optimal performance, strong leadership, and goal achievement.`
    17. 17. POLICY: COASTAL REGULATION ZONECentral Government declared “the coastal stretches of seas, bays, estuaries,creeks, rivers and backwaters which are influenced by tidal action (in thelandward side) up to 500 metres from the High Tide Line (HTL) and theland between the Low Tide Line (LTL) and the HTL as Coastal RegulationZone.”200m 300mCOASTLINELTL HTLProhibitionRestriction &RegulationTowards land
    18. 18. Prohibited activities: Restricted activities:•Setting up of new industries•Manufacture, handling orstorage of hazardoussubstances.•Expansion of fish processingunits•Dumping or filing of city wastefor land filling•Land reclamation, land filling•Construction activities inecologically sensitive areas.•Mining•Clearance shall be given for any activitywithin the Coastal Regulation Zone only if itrequires water front and foreshorefacilities.•Construction activities related to Defencerequirements for which foreshore facilitiesare essential.•Operational constructions for ports andharbours and light houses requiring waterfrontage;•Thermal power plants•All other activities with investmentexceeding rupees five crores.
    19. 19. Classification of the CRZ – For the purpose of conserving and protecting thecoastal areas and marine waters, the CRZ area shall be classified as follows,(i) CRZ-I,–A. The areas that are ecologically sensitive and the geomorphologic features whichplay a role in the maintaining the integrity of the coast,B. The area between Low Tide Line and High Tide Line;(ii) CRZ-II,-The areas that have been developed upto or close to the shoreline.iii) CRZ-III,-Areas that are relatively undisturbed and those do not belong to either CRZ-I or IIwhich include coastal zone in the rural areas.(iv)CRZ-IV,-The water area from the Low Tide Line to twelve nautical miles on the seaward side;
    20. 20. (v) Areas requiring special consideration for the purpose of protecting the criticalcoastal environment and difficulties faced by local communities,-A. (i) CRZ area falling within municipal limits of Greater Mumbai;(ii) the CRZ areas of Kerala including the backwaters and backwater islands;(iii) CRZ areas of Goa.B. Critically Vulnerable Coastal Areas (CVCA) such as Sunder bans region ofWest Bengal and other ecologically sensitive areas identified as underEnvironment (Protection) Act, 1986 and managed with the involvement of coastalcommunities including fisher folk.ISSUES:State wise costal assessment and policy modifications.Clarity in the interpretation of clauses and terms.A clear time frame for implementation.Participation of the users in the decisions related to the use and management ofthe coast and its resources.
    21. 21. Rapid urbanisation requires the integration of flood risk managementinto regular urban planning and governance.Designs for flood management must be able to cope with a changingand uncertain future.An integrated strategy requires the use of both structural and non-structural measures and good metrics for “ getting the balance right”.It is impossible to eliminate entirely the risk from flooding.Many flood management measures have co-benefits over and abovetheir flood management role.Plan to recover quickly after flooding and use the recovery to buildcapacity.INFERENCES:
    22. 22. References:•UNDP,adpc,2005,”Integrated flood risk management in Asia”•Abhas K Jha ,Robin Bloch,Jessica Lamond,2011,”Cities and Flooding -A Guide toIntegrated Urban Flood Risk Management for the 21st Century”•Nicholls, R.J. Hanson, S. Herweijer, C, Patmore,OECD,2005,” Ranking of theworlds cities most exposed to coastal flooding today and in the future “•Rajib Shaw and IEDM team, "Climate disaster resilience: focus on coastal urbancities in Asia “
    23. 23. Thank you for yourattention!!